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South is one of the
cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular (at right angles) to north and south, with east being in the cl ...

cardinal direction
s or
compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degrees, and secondarily d ...

compass points
. South is the opposite of
north North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. Etymology The word ''north'' is re ...

north
and is
perpendicular In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees). The property extends to other related geometric objects. A line is said to be perpend ...

perpendicular
to the
east East is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass. It is the opposite direction from west. Etymology As in other languages, the word is formed from the fact that east is direction where the sun rises: ''east'' comes from Middl ...

east
and
west 250px|A compass rose with west highlighted in black West is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass. It is the opposite direction from east, and is the direction in which the sun sets. Etymology The word "west" is a Germanic ...

west
.


Etymology

The word ''south'' comes from
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th centur ...

Old English
''sūþ'', from earlier
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. Proto-Germanic eventually developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three Germanic branches ...

Proto-Germanic
''*sunþaz'' ("south"), possibly related to the same
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family. Its proposed features have been derived by linguistic reconstruction from documented Indo-European languages. No direct record of Proto-Indo-Europea ...

Proto-Indo-European
root that the word ''sun'' derived from. Some languages describe south in the same way, from the fact that it is the direction of the sun at noon (in the Northern Hemisphere), like Latin meridies 'noon, south' (from medius 'middle' + dies 'day', cf English meridional), while others describe south as the right-hand side of the rising sun, like Biblical Hebrew תֵּימָן teiman 'south' from יָמִין yamin 'right', Aramaic תַּימנַא taymna from יָמִין yamin 'right' and Syriac ܬܰܝܡܢܳܐ taymna from ܝܰܡܝܺܢܳܐ yamina (hence the name of
Yemen ) | image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg | map_caption = | image_map2 = | capital = Sana'a (''De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital in exile) | coordinates = |capital_exile = Riyadh (presidential administration) | largest_city ...

Yemen
, the land to the south/right of the Levant).


Navigation

By
convention
convention
, the bottom side of a
map A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although ...

map
is south, although
reversed map South-up map orientation is the orientation of a map with south up, or at the top of the map, amounting to a 180-degree rotation of the map from the standard convention of north-up. Maps in this orientation are sometimes called upside down maps or ...

reversed map
s exist that defy this convention. To go south using a compass for
navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.Bowditch, 2003:799. The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, mar ...

navigation
, set a
bearing
bearing
or
azimuth An azimuth (; from Arabic اَلسُّمُوت ''as-sumūt'', 'the directions', the plural form of the Arabic noun السَّمْت ''as-samt'', meaning 'the direction') is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from ...

azimuth
of 180°. Alternatively, in the
Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of the Earth that is north of the Equator. For other planets in the Solar System, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's N ...

Northern Hemisphere
outside the
tropics The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to the ...

tropics
, the
Sun The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma, heated to incandescence by nuclear fusion reactions in its core, radiating the energy mainly as visible light and infrared radiation. It is b ...

Sun
will be roughly in the south at
midday Noon (or midday) is 12 o'clock in the daytime. It is written as 12 noon, 12 p.m. (for post meridiem, literally "after noon"), 12 pm, or 12:00 (using a 24-hour clock). Solar noon is the time when the Sun appears to contact the local celestial me ...

midday
.


South Pole

True south is the direction towards the sun end of the axis about which the
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 71% is covered with water, mostly by oceans, seas, gulfs, an ...

Earth
rotates, called the
South Pole The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface. It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite ...

South Pole
. The South Pole is located in
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oce ...

Antarctica
.
Magnetic south The south magnetic pole is the point on Earth's Southern Hemisphere where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards. The Geomagnetic South Pole, a related point, is the south pole of an ideal dipole model of the Earth's magnet ...

Magnetic south
is the direction towards the south
magnetic pole
magnetic pole
, some distance away from the south geographic pole.
Roald Amundsen Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (, ; ; 16 July 1872 – ) was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He was a key figure of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Born in Borge, Østfold, Norway, Amundsen began h ...

Roald Amundsen
, from
Norway Norway ( nb| ; nn| ; se|Norga; smj|Vuodna; sma|Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. T ...

Norway
, was the first person to
reach the South Pole
reach the South Pole
, on 14 December 1911, after
Ernest Shackleton Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (; 15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish Antarctic explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic. He was one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of An ...

Ernest Shackleton
from the
UK The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

UK
was forced to turn back some distance short.


Geography

The
Global South The Global South is a term often used to identify lower income countries on one side of the so-called global North–South divide, the other side being the countries of the Global North. As such the term does not inherently refer to a geograph ...

Global South
refers to the socially and economically less-developed southern half of the globe. 95% of the Global North has enough food and shelter, and a functioning education system. In the South, on the other hand, only 5% of the population has enough food and shelter. It "lacks appropriate technology, it has no political stability, the economies are disarticulated, and their foreign exchange earnings depend on primary product exports". Use of the term "South" may also be country-relative, particularly in cases of noticeable economic or cultural divide. For example, the
Southern United States The southern United States, also known as the American South, the southern states, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States. It is between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwester ...

Southern United States
, separated from the
Northeastern United States The northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the s ...

Northeastern United States
by the
Mason–Dixon line The Mason–Dixon line, also called the Mason and Dixon line or Mason's and Dixon's line, is a demarcation line separating four U.S. states, forming part of the borders of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia (part of Virginia u ...

Mason–Dixon line
, or the
South of England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of the southernmost parts of Great Britain, considered separate due to distinct cultural differences from other areas – Scotland, Wales, the ...

South of England
, which is politically and economically unmatched with all of the
North of England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the second most northern area of Great Britain, considered separate due to cultural differences from the other areas – Scotland, Wales, the Midlands of England and th ...

North of England
.
Southern Cone The Southern Cone ( es|Cono Sur, pt|Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, mostly south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, bounded on t ...

Southern Cone
is the name that is often referred to as the southernmost area of
South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as a southern subcontinent of the Americas. The ref ...

South America
that, in the form of an inverted "cone", almost like a large peninsula, encompasses
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es|link=no|República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by ...

Argentina
,
Chile Chile (, ; ), officially the Republic of Chile (), is a country in western South America. It occupies a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of and has a population ...

Chile
,
Paraguay Paraguay (; ), officially the Republic of Paraguay ( es|República del Paraguay|links=no; gn|Tetã Paraguái|links=no), is a country in South America. It is bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, a ...

Paraguay
,
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt|Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es|República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and nor ...

Uruguay
and the entire South of
Brazil Brazil ( pt|Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 millio ...

Brazil
(Brazilian states of
Rio Grande do Sul Rio Grande do Sul (, , ; ) is a state in the southern region of Brazil. It is the fifth-most-populous state and the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina t ...

Rio Grande do Sul
, , and
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city (as listed by the GaWC) and the most populous city in Brazil, the Americas, the Western Hemisphere and the S ...

São Paulo
). Rarely does the meaning broaden to
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay|Wuliwya ; Quechua: ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of government and executiv ...

Bolivia
, and in the most restricted sense it only covers
Chile Chile (, ; ), officially the Republic of Chile (), is a country in western South America. It occupies a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of and has a population ...

Chile
,
Argentina Argentina (), officially the Argentine Republic ( es|link=no|República Argentina), is a country located mostly in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by ...

Argentina
and
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt|Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es|República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and nor ...

Uruguay
. The country of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities: e ...

South Africa
is so named because of its location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation the country was named the
Union of South Africa The Union of South Africa ( nl|Unie van Zuid-Afrika; af|Unie van Suid-Afrika ) is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colon ...

Union of South Africa
in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies. [[Australia derives its name from the Latin [[Terra Australis ("Southern Land"), a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times.


Other uses

In the card game [[contract bridge|bridge, one of the players is known for scoring purposes as South. South partners with North and plays against East and West. In Greek religion, Notos, was the south wind and bringer of the storms of late summer and autumn.


References


External links

* {{CandODirections [[Category:Orientation (geometry)