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Rights are
legal Law is a system of rules created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously descr ...

legal
, social, or
ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, c ...

ethical
principle A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule that has to be or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observ ...

principle
s of
freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change without constraint. Something is "free" if it can change easily and is not constrained in its present state. In philosophy and religion, it is associated with having free will and being w ...

freedom
or
entitlement An entitlement is a provision made in accordance with a legal framework of a society. Typically, entitlements are based on concepts of principle ("rights") which are themselves based in concepts of social equality or enfranchisement. Psychology Wh ...

entitlement
; that is, rights are the fundamental
normative Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as bad or undesirable or impermissible. A norm in ...

normative
rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory. Rights are of essential importance in such disciplines as
law Law is a system of rules created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously descr ...

law
and
ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, c ...

ethics
, especially theories of
justice Justice, one of the Madonna of Mercy, Palazzo Altemps, Rome">Virgin of Mercy">Madonna of Mercy, Palazzo Altemps, Rome Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what t ...

justice
and
deontology In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek: + ) is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based o ...

deontology
. Rights are often considered fundamental to any
civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbolic systems of communication (such as writing). Civilizations are intimately associat ...

civilization
, for they are regarded as established pillars of
society A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societi ...

society
and
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.Tylor, Edward. (1871). ...

culture
, and the history of
social conflict Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society. Social conflict occurs when two or more actors oppose each other in social interaction, each exerts social power with reciprocity in an effort to achieve incompatible goals whilst prev ...

social conflict
s can be found in the history of each right and its development. According to the ''Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy'', "rights structure the form of governments, the content of
laws Law is a system of rules created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously descr ...

laws
, and the shape of
morality Morality (from ) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper (right) and those that are improper (wrong). Morality can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of co ...

morality
as it is currently perceived".


Definitional issues

There is considerable disagreement about what is meant precisely by the term ''rights''. It has been used by different groups and thinkers for different purposes, with different and sometimes opposing definitions, and the precise definition of this principle, beyond having something to do with normative rules of some sort or another, is controversial. One way to get an idea of the multiple understandings and senses of the term is to consider different ways it is used. Many diverse things are claimed as rights: There are likewise diverse possible ways to categorize rights, such as: There has been considerable debate about what this term means within the academic community, particularly within fields such as
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was proba ...

philosophy
,
law Law is a system of rules created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously descr ...

law
,
deontology In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek: + ) is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based o ...

deontology
,
logic Logic (from Greek: grc|λογική|label=none|lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative|translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle." (Liddell and Scot ...

logic
,
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and associated constitutions and laws. ...

political science
, and
religion Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, beliefs, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, and spiritual elem ...

religion
.


Natural versus legal

* Natural rights are rights which are "natural" in the sense of "not artificial, not man-made", as in rights deriving from
human nature Human nature is a concept that denotes the fundamental dispositions and characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—that humans are said to have naturally. The term is often used to denote the essence of humankind, or what it ...

human nature
or from the . They are universal; that is, they apply to all people, and do not derive from the laws of any specific society. They exist necessarily, inhere in every individual, and can't be taken away. For example, it has been argued that humans have a natural ''right to life''. These are sometimes called ''moral rights'' or ''inalienable rights''. * Legal rights, in contrast, are based on a society's customs, laws,
statuteA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules and the reulation whichhas to be followed by each citizen in the county. A statute ...

statute
s or actions by
legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with th ...

legislature
s. An example of a legal right is the ''right to vote'' of citizens.
Citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it is membership to a sovereign state (a country). Each state is free to determine the condit ...

Citizenship
, itself, is often considered as the basis for having legal rights, and has been defined as the "right to have rights". Legal rights are sometimes called ''
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's entitlement to participate in the civil and political life of so ...

civil rights
'' or ''statutory rights'' and are culturally and politically
relative Relative may refer to: General use *Kinship and family, the principle binding the most basic social units society. If two people are connected by circumstances of birth, they are said to be ''relatives'' Philosophy *Relativism, the concept that p ...

relative
since they depend on a specific societal context to have meaning. Some thinkers see rights in only one sense while others accept that both senses have a measure of validity. There has been considerable philosophical debate about these senses throughout history. For example,
Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham (; 15 February 1748 [[Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="nowiki/>O.S._4_February_1747.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Old Style and New Style ...

Jeremy Bentham
believed that legal rights were the essence of rights, and he denied the existence of natural rights; whereas [[Thomas Aquinas held that rights purported by [[positive law but not grounded in [[natural law were not properly rights at all, but only a facade or pretense of rights.


Claim versus liberty

* A claim right is a right which entails that another person has a duty to the right-holder. Somebody else must do or refrain from doing something to or for the ''claim holder'', such as perform a service or supply a product for him or her; that is, he or she has a ''claim'' to that service or product (another term is ''
thing in actionChose (pronounced: , French for "thing") is a term used in common law tradition to refer to rights in property, specifically a combined bundle of rights. A chose describes the enforcement right which a party possesses in an object. The use of ''chose ...

thing in action
''). In logic, this idea can be expressed as: "Person ''A'' has a claim that person ''B'' do something if and only if ''B'' has a duty to ''A'' to do that something." Every claim-right entails that some other duty-bearer must do some duty for the claim to be satisfied. This duty can be to act or to refrain from acting. For example, many jurisdictions recognize broad claim rights to things like "life, liberty, and property"; these rights impose an obligation upon others ''not'' to assault or restrain a person, or use their property, without the claim-holder's permission. Likewise, in jurisdictions where social welfare services are guaranteed, citizens have legal claim rights to be provided with those services. * A liberty right or ''privilege'', in contrast, is simply a freedom or permission for the right-holder to do something, and there are ''no obligations'' on other parties to do or not do anything. This can be expressed in logic as: "Person ''A'' has a privilege to do something if and only if ''A'' has no duty not to do that something." For example, if a person has a legal liberty right to free speech, that merely means that it is not legally forbidden for them to speak freely: it does ''not'' mean that anyone has to help enable their speech, or to listen to their speech; or even, per se, refrain from stopping them from speaking, though ''other'' rights, such as the claim right to be free from assault, may severely limit what others can do to stop them. Liberty rights and claim rights are the inverse of one another: a person has a liberty right permitting him to do something only if there is no other person who has a claim right forbidding him from doing so. Likewise, if a person has a claim right against someone else, then that other person's liberty is limited. For example, a person has a ''liberty right'' to walk down a sidewalk and can decide freely whether or not to do so, since there is no obligation either to do so or to refrain from doing so. But pedestrians may have an obligation not to walk on certain lands, such as other people's private property, to which those other people have a claim right. So a person's ''liberty right'' of walking extends precisely to the point where another's ''claim right'' limits his or her freedom.


Positive versus negative

In one sense, a right is a permission to do something or an entitlement to a specific service or treatment from others, and these rights have been called ''positive rights''. However, in another sense, rights may allow or require inaction, and these are called ''negative rights''; they permit or require doing nothing. For example, in some countries, e.g. the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...

United States
, citizens have the ''positive right'' to vote and they have the ''negative right'' to not vote; people can choose not to vote in a given election without punishment. In other countries, e.g.
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
, however, citizens have a positive right to vote but they don't have a negative right to not vote, since . Accordingly: * Positive rights are permissions to do things, or entitlements to be done unto. One example of a positive right is the purported "right to welfare." * Negative rights are permissions not to do things, or entitlements to be left alone. Often the distinction is invoked by
libertarians Libertarianism (from french: libertaire, "libertarian"; from la|libertas, "freedom") is a political philosophy and movement that upholds liberty as a core principle. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and political freedom, emphasizing fr ...

libertarians
who think of a ''negative right'' as an entitlement to non-interference such as a right against being assaulted. Though similarly named, positive and negative rights should not be confused with ''active rights'' (which encompass "privileges" and "powers") and ''passive rights'' (which encompass "claims" and "immunities").


Individual versus group

The general concept of rights is that they are possessed by individuals in the sense that they are permissions and entitlements to do things which other persons, or which governments or authorities, can not infringe. This is the understanding of people such as the author
Ayn Rand Ayn Rand (; born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;,  – March 6, 1982) was a Russian-American writer and philosopher. She is known for her two best-selling novels, ''The Fountainhead'' and ''Atlas Shrugged'', and for developing a philosophica ...

Ayn Rand
who argued that only individuals have rights, according to her philosophy known as
Objectivism Objectivism is a philosophical system developed by Russian-American writer Ayn Rand. Rand first expressed Objectivism in her fiction, most notably ''The Fountainhead'' (1943) and ''Atlas Shrugged'' (1957), and later in non-fiction essays and book ...

Objectivism
. However, others have argued that there are situations in which a group of persons is thought to have rights, or ''group rights''. Accordingly: * Individual rights are rights held by individual people regardless of their group membership or lack thereof. * Group rights have been argued to exist when a group is seen as more than a mere composite or assembly of separate individuals but an entity in its own right. In other words, it's possible to see a group as a distinct being in and of itself; it's akin to an enlarged individual, a corporate body, which has a distinct will and power of action and can be thought of as having ''rights''. For example, a platoon of soldiers in
combat Combat (French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapons) or unarmed (not using weapons). Combat is sometimes resorted to as a method of self-defense, or ca ...

combat
can be thought of as a distinct group, since individual members are willing to risk their lives for the survival of the group, and therefore the group can be conceived as having a "right" which is superior to that of any individual member; for example, a soldier who disobeys an officer can be punished, perhaps even killed, for a breach of obedience. But there is another sense of group rights in which people who are members of a group can be thought of as having specific individual rights because of their membership in a group. In this sense, the set of rights which individuals-as-group-members have is expanded because of their membership in a group. For example, workers who are members of a group such as a
labor union A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply called a union, is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards, a ...

labor union
can be thought of as having expanded individual rights because of their membership in the labor union, such as the rights to specific working conditions or wages. As expected, there is sometimes considerable disagreement about what exactly is meant by the term "group" as well as by the term "group rights." There can be tension between individual and group rights. A classic instance in which group and individual rights clash is conflicts between unions and their members. For example, individual members of a union may wish a wage higher than the union-negotiated wage, but are prevented from making further requests; in a so-called
closed shop A pre-entry closed shop (or simply closed shop) is a form of union security agreement under which the employer agrees to hire union members only, and employees must remain members of the union at all times in order to remain employed. This is differ ...

closed shop
which has a
union security agreement A union security agreement is a contractual agreement, usually part of a union collective bargaining agreement, in which an employer and a trade or labor union agree on the extent to which the union may compel employees to join the union, and/or whe ...

union security agreement
, only the union has a ''right'' to decide matters for the individual union members such as wage rates. So, do the supposed "individual rights" of the workers prevail about the proper wage? Or do the "group rights" of the union regarding the proper wage prevail? Clearly this is a source of tension. The
Austrian School of Economics The Austrian School is a heterodox school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result exclusively from the motivations and actions of individuals.Ludwig von Mises. Human Action, ...

Austrian School of Economics
holds that only individuals think, feel, and act whether or not members of any abstract group. The society should thus according to economists of the school be analyzed starting from the individual. This methodology is called
methodological individualism In the social sciences, methodological individualism is the principle that subjective individual motivation explains social phenomena, rather than class or group dynamics which are (according to proponents of individualistic principles) illusory o ...

methodological individualism
and is used by the economists to justify
individual rights Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group ''qua'' a group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most ...

individual rights
.


Other senses

Other distinctions between rights draw more on historical association or
family resemblance Family resemblance (german: Familienähnlichkeit|link=no) is a philosophical idea made popular by Ludwig Wittgenstein, with the best known exposition given in his posthumously published book ''Philosophical Investigations'' (1953). It argues that ...

family resemblance
than on precise philosophical distinctions. These include the distinction between
civil and political rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's entitlement to participate in the civil and political life of so ...

civil and political rights
and
economic, social and cultural rights Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to an adequate standard of living, right to health, victims' rights and the right to science and culture. Economic, soci ...

economic, social and cultural rights
, between which the articles of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
are often divided. Another conception of rights groups them into . These distinctions have much overlap with that between
negative and positive rights Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either inaction (''negative rights'') or action (''positive rights''). These obligations may be of either a legal or moral character. The notion of positive and negative rights may also be appli ...

negative and positive rights
, as well as between
individual rights Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group ''qua'' a group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most ...

individual rights
and
group rights Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group ''qua'' a group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most ...

group rights
, but these groupings are not entirely coextensive.


Politics

Rights are often included in the foundational questions that governments and politics have been designed to deal with. Often the development of these socio-political institutions have formed a dialectical relationship with rights. Rights about particular issues, or the rights of particular groups, are often areas of special concern. Often these concerns arise when rights come into conflict with other legal or moral issues, sometimes even other rights. Issues of concern have historically included [[labor rights, [[LGBT social movements|LGBT rights, [[reproductive rights, [[disability rights, [[patient rights and [[prisoners' rights. With increasing [[mass surveillance|monitoring and the information society, [[digital rights|information rights, such as the [[right to privacy are becoming more important. Some examples of groups whose rights are of particular concern include [[animal rights|animals, and amongst [[human rights|humans, groups such as [[children's rights|children and [[youth rights|youth, [[Parents' rights movement|parents (both [[mothers' rights|mothers and [[fathers' rights movement|fathers), and [[men's rights|men and [[women's rights|women. Accordingly, [[politics plays an important role in developing or recognizing the above rights, and the discussion about which behaviors are included as "rights" is an ongoing political topic of importance. The concept of rights varies with political orientation. Positive rights such as a "right to medical care" are emphasized more often by left-leaning thinkers, while right-leaning thinkers place more emphasis on negative rights such as the "right to a fair trial". Further, the term ''equality'' which is often bound up with the meaning of "rights" often depends on one's political orientation. [[Conservatism|Conservatives and [[Libertarianism|libertarians and advocates of [[free markets often identify equality with [[equality of opportunity, and want equal and fair rules in the process of making things, while agreeing that sometimes these fair rules lead to unequal outcomes. In contrast, [[socialism|socialists often identify equality with [[equality of outcome and see fairness when people have equal amounts of goods and services, and therefore think that people have a right to equal portions of necessities such as [[health care or [[Welfare|economic assistance or [[House|housing.


Philosophy

In
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was proba ...

philosophy
, [[meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical [[property (philosophy)|properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments. Meta-ethics is one of the three branches of ethics generally recognized by [[Philosopher|philosophers, the others being [[normative ethics and [[applied ethics. While normative ethics addresses such questions as "What should one do?", thus endorsing some ethical evaluations and rejecting others, meta-ethics addresses questions such as "What ''is'' goodness?" and "How can we tell what is good from what is bad?", seeking to understand the nature of ethical properties and evaluations. Rights ethics is an answer to the meta-ethical question of ''what normative ethics is concerned with'' (Meta-ethics also includes a group of questions about how ethics comes to be known, true, etc. which is not directly addressed by rights ethics). Rights ethics holds that normative ethics is concerned with rights. Alternative meta-ethical theories are that ethics is concerned with one of the following: * Duties (
deontology In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek: + ) is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based o ...

deontology
) * [[Value (ethics)|Value ([[axiology) * Virtue ([[virtue ethics) * Consequences ([[consequentialism, e.g. [[utilitarianism) Rights ethics has had considerable influence on political and social thinking. The
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
gives some concrete examples of widely accepted rights.


Criticism

Some philosophers have criticised rights as [[ontologically dubious entities. For instance, although in favour of the extension of [[individual rights|individual legal rights, the [[utilitarian philosopher
Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham (; 15 February 1748 [[Old_Style_and_New_Style_dates.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="nowiki/>O.S._4_February_1747.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Old Style and New Style ...

Jeremy Bentham
opposed the idea of [[natural law and [[natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts". Further, one can question the ability of rights to actually bring about justice for all.


History

[[File:Declaration of Human Rights.jpg|alt=Picture of a painting; the painting is of a written declaration; there are two human images to the left and right; it says "Declaration des droits de l'homme" (declaration of the rights of man)|The [[Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789 in [[France. The specific enumeration of rights has differed greatly in different periods of history. In many cases, the system of rights promulgated by one group has come into sharp and bitter conflict with that of other groups. In the political sphere, a place in which rights have historically been an important issue, constitutional provisions of various states sometimes address the question of who has what legal rights. Historically, many notions of rights were [[authoritarianism|authoritarian and [[hierarchy|hierarchical, with different people granted different rights, and some having more rights than others. For instance, the right of a father to be respected by his son did not indicate a right of the son to receive something in return for that respect; and the [[divine right of kings, which permitted absolute power over subjects, did not leave much possibility for many rights for the subjects themselves. In contrast, modern conceptions of rights have often emphasized [[liberty and [[egalitarianism|equality as among the most important aspects of rights, as was evident in the [[American Revolution|American and [[French Revolution|French revolutions. Important documents in the [[political history of rights include: * The [[Achaemenid Empire|Persian Empire of [[History of Iran|ancient Iran established unprecedented principles of human rights in the 6th century BC under [[Cyrus the Great. After his conquest of [[Babylon in 539 BC, the king issued the [[Cyrus cylinder, discovered in 1879 and seen by some today as the first human rights document. * The [[Constitution of Medina (622 AD; Arabia) instituted a number of rights for the Muslim, Jewish, camp followers and "believers" of Medina. * ''[[Magna Carta'' (1215; [[England) required the [[King of England to renounce certain rights and respect certain legal procedures, and to accept that the will of the king could be bound by [[English law|law, after King John promised his barons he would follow the "law of the land". While ''Magna Carta'' was originally a set of rules that the king had to follow, and mainly protected the property of aristocratic landowners, today it is seen as the basis of certain rights for ordinary people, such as the right of due process. * The [[Declaration of Arbroath (1320; [[Scotland) established the right of the people to choose a head of state (see [[popular sovereignty). * The [[Henrician Articles (1573; Poland-Lithuania) or King Henry's Articles were a permanent contract that stated the fundamental principles of governance and constitutional law in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including the rights of the nobility to elect the king, to meet in parliament whose approval was required to levy taxes and declare war or peace, to religious liberty and the right to rebel in case the king transgressed against the laws of the republic or the rights of the nobility. * The [[Bill of Rights 1689|Bill of Rights (1689; England) declared that [[Englishmen, as embodied by [[Parliament, possess certain civil and political rights; the [[Claim of Right Act 1689|Claim of Right (1689; Scotland) was similar but distinct. * The [[Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) by [[George Mason declared the inherent natural rights and [[separation of powers. * The [[United States Declaration of Independence (1776) succinctly defined the rights of man as including, but not limited to, "[[Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" which later influenced "[[liberté, égalité, fraternité" (liberty, equality, fraternity) in France. The phrase can also be found in Chapter III, Article 13 of the 1947 [[Constitution of Japan, and in President [[Ho Chi Minh's 1945 declaration of independence of the [[Democratic Republic of Vietnam. An alternative phrase "life, liberty and property", is found in the [[Declaration of Colonial Rights, a resolution of the [[First Continental Congress. Also, Article 3 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
reads, "Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person". * The [[Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789; France), one of the fundamental documents of the [[French Revolution, defined a set of individual rights and collective rights of the people. * The [[Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1785; United States), written by [[Thomas Jefferson in 1779, was a document that asserted the right of man to form a personal relationship with God free from interference by the state. * The [[United States Bill of Rights (1789–1791; United States), the first ten amendments of the [[United States Constitution specified rights of individuals in which government could not interfere, including the rights of free assembly, freedom of religion, trial by jury, and the right to keep and bear arms. * The [[Constitution of 3rd May|Constitution of Poland-Lithuania (1791; Poland-Lithuania) was the first constitution in Europe, and second in the world. It built upon previous Polish law documents such as the Henrician Articles, as well as the US [[constitution, and it too, specified many rights. * The
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(1948) is an overarching set of standards by which governments, organisations and individuals would measure their behaviour towards each other. The preamble declares that the "...recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of [[Freedom (political)|freedom,
justice Justice, one of the Madonna of Mercy, Palazzo Altemps, Rome">Virgin of Mercy">Madonna of Mercy, Palazzo Altemps, Rome Justice, in its broadest sense, is the principle that people receive that which they deserve, with the interpretation of what t ...

justice
and [[peace in the world..." * The [[European Convention on Human Rights (1950; Europe) was adopted under the auspices of the [[Council of Europe to protect [[human rights and fundamental freedoms. * The [[International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), a follow-up to the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
, concerns
civil and political rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's entitlement to participate in the civil and political life of so ...

civil and political rights
. * The [[International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966), another follow-up to the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
, concerns
economic, social and cultural rights Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to an adequate standard of living, right to health, victims' rights and the right to science and culture. Economic, soci ...

economic, social and cultural rights
. * The [[Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982; Canada) was created to protect the rights of [[Canadians|Canadian citizens from actions and policies of all levels of government. * The [[Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (2000) is one of the most recent proposed [[legal instruments concerning human rights.


See also

* [[Outline of rights * [[Christianity and animal rights * [[Contractual rights * [[Constitutionalism * [[Constitutional liberalism * [[Constitutional economics * [[Rule according to higher law * [[Deed * [[Droit * [[Equal rights (disambiguation), various meanings * [[Exclusive rights * [[Freedom (political)|Freedom * [[Freedom of religion * [[Freedom of speech * [[Freedom of the press * [[Fundamental Laws of England * [[History of citizenship * [[Ideology * [[Inheritance * [[Jurisprudence * [[Law * [[Liberty * [[Prerogative * [[Social contract * [[Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld * [[Right to food * [[Right to housing * [[Right to water * [[Right to an adequate standard of living * [[Right to health * [[Right to social security Organisations: * [[Amnesty International * [[Human Rights Watch * [[United States Commission on Civil Rights


References


External links


Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
article by Leif Wenar.
WikiEd - Teacher's Rights

International Freedom of Expression Exchange

nstitutions-aristotle.com/ Comparative Analysis of Human Rights
{{Authority control [[Category:Rights| [[Category:Concepts in ethics [[Category:Theories of law [[Category:Libertarian theory [[Category:Social concepts [[Category:Legal doctrines and principles