EtymologyWhen the pioneer community living near the US Army outpost of Fort Brooke was incorporated in 1849, it was called "Tampa Town" and the name was shortened to simply "Tampa" in 1855. The earliest instance of the name "Tampa," in the form "Tanpa," appears in the memoirs of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who spent 17 years as a captive of the Calusa and traveled through much of peninsular Florida. He described Tanpa as an important Calusa town to the north of the Calusa domain, possibly under another chief. Archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the town of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor (estuary), Charlotte Harbor. The entrances to Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are obscured by barrier islands, and their locations, and the names applied to them, were a source of confusion to explorers, surveyors and map-makers from the 16th century though the 18th century. ''Bahía Tampa'' and ''Bahía de Espíritu Santo'' were each used, at one time or another, for the modern Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Tampa Bay was labeled ''Bahía de Espíritu Santo'' (Bay of the Holy Spirit) in the earliest Spanish maps of Florida, but became known as B. Tampa (''Bahía Tampa'' or Tampa Bay) as early as 1576. "B. Tampa", corresponding to Tampa Bay, appeared for the first time on a printed map in Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas's Description del Destricto del Audiencia de la Espanola, from his book Descripcion de las Indias Ocidentales, printed in Madrid in 1601. A British map of 1705 also shows B. Tampa, with "Carlos Bay" for Charlotte Harbor to the south, while a 1748 British map had "B. del Spirito Santo" for Tampa Bay and, again, "Carlos Bay" to the south. A Spanish map of 1757 renamed Tampa Bay as "San Fernando". As late as 1774, Bernard Romans called Tampa Bay "Bay of Espiritu Santo", with "Tampa Bay" restricted to the Northwest arm (what is now Old Tampa Bay) and the northeast arm named "Hillsborough Bay". The name may have come from the Calusa language or possibly, the Timucua language. Some scholars have compared "Tampa" to "itimpi", which means "close to or nearby" in the Muscogee language, Creek language, but its meaning is not known. People from Tampa are generally known as "Tampans" or "Tampanians". Local authorities consulted by Michael Kruse of the ''Tampa Bay Times'' suggest that "Tampan" was historically more common, while "Tampanian" became popular when the former term came to be seen as a potential insult. A mix of Cuban, Italian, and Spanish immigrants began arriving in the late 1800s to found and work in the new communities of Ybor City and West Tampa. By about 1900, these newcomers came to be known as "Tampeños" (or "Tampeñas" for females), a term that is still sometimes used to refer to their descendants living in the area, and potentially, to all residents of Tampa regardless of their ethnic background.
Indigenous peoples and European explorationThe shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. A variant of the Weeden Island culture developed in the area by about 2000 years ago, with archeological evidence suggesting that these residents relied on the sea for most of their resources, as a vast majority of inhabited sites have been found on or near the shoreline and there is little evidence of farming. At the time of European contact in the early 16th century, the Safety Harbor culture dominated the area, with indigenous peoples organized into three or four chiefdoms around the shores of the bay. Early Spanish explorers to visit the area interacted extensively (and violently) with the Tocobaga, whose principal town was at the northern end of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor, Florida, Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. While there is a substantial historical record of the Tocobaga (and the Calusa, who lived far to the south), there is less surviving documentation describing the Pohoy chiefdom, which controlled the area near the mouth of the Hillsborough River near today's downtown Tampa. However, brief mentions by explorers along with surviving artifacts suggest that the Pohoy and other groups that once lived on Tampa Bay had very similar cultures and lifestyles as the better-documented Tocobaga. Expeditions led by Narváez expedition, Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa, but neither conquistador stayed long. There is no natural gold or silver in Florida, and the native inhabitants repulsed Spanish attempts to establish a permanent settlement or convert them to Catholic Church, Catholicism. The fighting resulted in a few deaths, but the many more deaths were caused by infectious diseases brought from Europe, which devastated the population of Native Americans across Florida and the entire Western Hemisphere. The indigenous cultures of the Tampa Bay area had collapsed by around 1600, leaving the west coast of Spanish Florida largely depopulated and ignored for more than 200 years.Mulder, Kenneth. ''Tampa Bay: Days of Long Ago''. P&M Pub. Co., 1990. In the mid-18th century, events in the American colonies and the early United States drove the Seminole people into northern Florida, but they did not move into central Florida until after the United States gained control of Florida in 1821. Before the American period, the Tampa Bay area had a handful of residents: Cubans, Cuban and Native American fishermen who established small seasonal camps called "ranchos" on the shores of Tampa Bay. The largest was at the mouth of Spanishtown Creek in today's Hyde Park neighborhood along Bayshore Boulevard.
U.S. controlAfter purchasing Florida from Spain in 1821, the United States built forts and trading posts in the new territory. Fort Brooke was established in January 1824 at the mouth of the Hillsborough River on Tampa Bay, in Downtown Tampa. Tampa was initially an isolated frontier outpost. The sparse civilian population practically abandoned the area during the Second Seminole War from 1835 to 1842, after which the Seminoles were forced out and many settlers returned. Territory of Florida, Florida became the 27th state on March 3, 1845. On January 18, 1849, Tampa was officially incorporated as the "Village of Tampa." It was home to 185 civilians, or 974 total residents including military personnel, in 1850. Tampa was reincorporated as a town on December 15, 1855.
Civil War and ReconstructionDuring the American Civil War, Civil War, Florida seceded along with most of the southern states to form the Confederate States of America, and Fort Brooke was manned by Confederate troops. Martial law was declared in Tampa in January 1862, and Tampa's city government ceased to operate for the duration of the war. In 1861, the Union (American Civil War), Union Navy set up a blockade around many southern ports to cut off the Confederacy. Several US Navy ships were stationed near the mouth of Tampa Bay, but small blockade runners, blockade running ships were often able to slip by the blockade to deliver cattle to Spanish Cuba, earning gold for the Confederate cause. On June 30, 1862, the gunboat USS Sagamore (1861), USS Sagamore sailed into Tampa Bay and opened fire on Fort Brooke, which returned fire. The ''Sagamore'' withdrew after a few hours, and the Battle of Tampa caused little damage. During the Battle of Fort Brooke on October 16 and the Battle of Ballast Point on October 18, 1863, Union forces inflicted serious damage to the city's economy when, under the cover of another bombardment of the fort, troops landed and destroyed two blockade running ships that had been hidden upstream along the Hillsborough River. In May 1864, Union troops landed again and took Fort Brooke largely unopposed. They destroyed much of the fort's facilities and confiscated the remaining military supplies other than the canons, which they tossed into the Hillsborough River, then left the "desolate" town after two days. The Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Civil War ended in April 1865 with a Confederate defeat. In May 1865, federal troops arrived in Tampa to occupy the fort and the town as part of Reconstruction Era, Reconstruction. They remained until August 1869. During the immediate post-war period, Tampa was a poor, isolated fishing village with about 1000 residents and little industry. Yellow fever, borne by mosquitoes from nearby swamps, broke out several times during the 1860s and 1870s, causing more residents to leave. In 1869, residents voted to abolish the city of Tampa government. The population of "Tampa Town" was about 800 by 1870 and dropped to about 700 by 1880. Fort Brooke was decommissioned in 1883, further impacting the local economy in the short run but opening up the waterfront for development. Except for two cannons displayed on the University of Tampa campus, all traces of the fort are gone.
1880s economic prosperityIn the mid-1880s, Tampa's fortunes took several sudden turns for the better. First, phosphate was discovered in the Bone Valley region southeast of Tampa in 1883. The mineral, vital for the production of fertilizers and other products, was soon being shipped from the Port of Tampa in great volume. Tampa is still a major phosphate exporter. The discovery of phosphate, the arrival of Plant's railroad, and the founding of Ybor City and West Tampa—all in the mid-1880s—were crucial to Tampa's development. The once-struggling village of Tampa became a bustling boomtown almost overnight and had grown into one of the largest cities in Florida by 1900.
Plant's railroadHenry B. Plant's narrow-gauge South Florida Railroad reached Tampa and its port in late 1883, finally connecting the small town to the nation's railroad system after years of efforts by local leaders. Previously, Tampa's overland transportation links had consisted of sandy roads stretching across the Florida countryside. Plant's railroad made it much easier to get goods in and out of the Tampa Bay area. Phosphate and commercial fishing exports could be sent north by rail, and many new products were brought into the Tampa market, along with the first tourists.
Ybor's cigarsThe new railroad link enabled another important industry to come to Tampa. In 1885, the Tampa Board of Trade enticed Vicente Martinez Ybor to move his cigar manufacturing operations to Tampa from Key West, Florida, Key West. Proximity to Cuba made importation of "clear Havana tobacco" easy by sea, and Plant's railroad made shipment of finished cigars to the rest of the US market easy by land.Lastra, Frank. ''Ybor City: The Making of a Landmark Town''. 2006. University of Tampa Press. Since Tampa was still a small town at the time (population less than 5,000), Ybor built hundreds of small houses around his factory to accommodate the immediate influx of mainly Cubans, Cuban and Spanish cigar workers. Ybor City's factories rolled their first cigars in 1886, and many different cigar manufacturers moved their operations to town in ensuing years. Many Italians, Italian and a few eastern European Jewish immigrants arrived starting in the late 1880s, opening businesses and shops that catered to cigar workers. By 1900, over 10,000 immigrants had moved to the neighborhood. Several thousand more Cuban immigrants built West Tampa, another cigar-centric suburb founded a few years later by Hugh MacFarlane. Between them, two "Latin" communities combined to exponentially expand Tampa's population, economic base, and tax revenues, as Tampa became the "Cigar Capital of the World".
Early 20th centuryDuring the first few decades of the 20th century, the cigar-making industry was the backbone of Tampa's economy. The factories in Ybor City and West Tampa made an enormous number of cigars—in the peak year of 1929, over 500 million cigars were hand rolled in the city. In 1904, a civic association of local businessmen dubbed themselves Ye Mystic Krewe, Ye Mystic Krewe of Gasparilla (named after local mythical pirate José Gaspar), and staged an "invasion" of the city followed by a parade. With a few exceptions, the Gasparilla Pirate Festival has been held every year since.
Bolita and organized crimeBeginning in the late 19th century, illegal bolita lotteries were very popular among the Tampa working classes, especially in Ybor City. In the early 1920s, this small-time operation was taken over by Charlie Wall, the rebellious son of a prominent Tampa family, and went big-time. Bolita was able to openly thrive only because of Kickback (bribery), kick-backs and bribes to key local politicians and law enforcement officials, and many were on the take.Kerstein, Robert. ''Politics and Growth in 20th Century Tampa''. University Press of Florida. . Profits from the bolita lotteries and Prohibition in the United States, Prohibition-era bootlegging led to the development of several organized crime factions in the city. Charlie Wall was the first major boss, but various power struggles culminated in consolidation of control by Sicily, Sicilian made man, mafioso Santo Trafficante Sr. and his faction in the 1950s. After his death in 1954 from cancer, control passed to his son, Santo Trafficante Jr., who established alliances with families in New York City and extended his power throughout Florida and into Fulgencio Batista, Batista-era Cuba. The era of rampant and open corruption ended in the 1950s, when Estes Kefauver's traveling Kefauver hearings, organized crime hearings came to town and were followed by the sensational misconduct trials of several local officials. Although many of the worst offenders in government and the mob were not charged, the trials helped to end the sense of lawlessness which had prevailed in Tampa for decades.
Mid to late 20th centuryTampa grew considerably as a result of World War II. Prior to the United States' involvement in the conflict, construction began on MacDill Air Force Base, MacDill Field, which served as a main base for United States Army Air Corps, Army Air Corps and later United States Army Air Forces, Army Air Forces operations just before and during World War II, with multiple auxiliary airfields around the Tampa Bay area and surrounding counties. At the end of the war, MacDill remained as an active military installation, while the auxiliary fields reverted to civilian control. Two of these auxiliary fields would later become the present-day Tampa International Airport and St. Pete–Clearwater International Airport. With the establishment of an independent U.S. Air Force in 1947, MacDill Field became MacDill Air Force Base. During the 1950s and 1960s, Tampa saw record-setting population growth that has not been seen since. This growth spurred expansion of the city's highways and bridges, bringing thousands into the city and creating opportunities for Tampa business owners, who welcomed the influx of tourists and new residents. It was during this time period in the city's history that two of the most popular tourist attractions in the area were developed – Busch Gardens and Lowry Park Zoo, Lowry Park. Many of the well-known institutions that play an important role in the economic development of the city were established during this time period. The University of South Florida was established in North Tampa in 1956 and opened for students in September 1960. The school spurred the construction of several residential and commercial developments in the previously agriculture-dominated area around the new campus. Overall, Tampa continued to expand away from the city center during the 1960s as new hospitals, schools, churches and subdivisions all began appearing to accommodate the growth. Many business offices began moving away from the traditional downtown office building into more convenient neighborhood office plazas. In 1970, the U.S. Census Bureau reported city's population as 80.0% white and 19.7% black. Four attempts have been made to Consolidated city-county, consolidate the municipal government of the city of Tampa with the county government of Hillsborough County (1967, 1970, 1971, and 1972), all of which failed at the ballot box; the greatest loss was the most recent attempt in 1972, with the final tally being 33,160 (31%) in favor and 73,568 (69%) against the proposed charter. The biggest recent growth in the city was the development of New Tampa, which started in 1988 when the city annexed a mostly rural area of between Interstate 275 (Florida), I-275 and Interstate 75 in Florida, I-75. East Tampa, historically a mostly black community, was the scene of several race riots during and for some time after the period of racial segregation, mainly due to problems between residents and the Tampa Police Department.
TopographyAccording to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of , including of land and (35.3%) of water. The highest point in the city is only above sea level. Tampa is bordered by two bodies of water, Old Tampa Bay and Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay, which flow together to form Tampa Bay, which in turn flows into the . The Hillsborough River (Florida), Hillsborough River flows into Hillsborough Bay, passing directly in front of Downtown Tampa and supplying Tampa's main source of fresh water. The Palm River is a smaller river flowing from just east of the city into McKay Bay, which is a smaller inlet, sited at the northeast end of Hillsborough Bay. Tampa's geography is marked by the Interbay Peninsula which divides Hillsborough Bay (the eastern) from Old Tampa Bay (the western).
ClimateThe Tampa Bay area has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Cfa'') zone, although due to its location on the Florida peninsula on Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it shows some characteristics of a tropical climate. Tampa's climate generally features hot and humid summers with frequent thunderstorms and dry and mild winters. Average highs range from year round, and lows . The city of Tampa is split between two USDA climate zones. According to the 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map, Tampa is listed as USDA zone 9b north of Kennedy Boulevard away from the bay and 10a near the shorelines and in the interbay peninsula south of Kennedy Boulevard. Zone 10a is about the northern limit of where coconut palms and royal palms can be grown, although some specimens do grow in northern Tampa. Recently, certain palm tree species in the area, along with the rest of the state, have been and continue to be severely affected by a plant disease called Texas phoenix palm decline, which has caused a considerable amount of damage to various local palm tree landscapes and threatens the native palm tree species in the region.
Tropical stormsThough threatened by tropical systems almost every hurricane season (which runs from June 1 to November 30), Tampa seldom feels major effects from tropical storms or hurricanes. No hurricane has made Landfall (meteorology), landfall in the immediate Tampa Bay area since the 1921 Tampa Bay hurricane made landfall near Tarpon Springs, Florida, Tarpon Springs and caused extensive damage throughout the region. Three major hurricanes have seriously threatened Tampa in the ensuing decades. Hurricane Donna (1960), Hurricane Charley (2004), and Hurricane Irma (2017) were each forecast to make landfall in Tampa Bay from the southwest, a worst-case track that would result in maximum storm surges throughout the region. However, all three storms turned to the east and made landfall in southwest Florida instead. Irma had the greatest effect on Tampa. It made landfall near Marco Island on September 10, 2017 and moved due north, passing through eastern Hillsborough County as a Category 1 storm. Irma caused substantial damage to the area, particularly to the electrical grid. Because of tremendous population growth and coastal development since the last hurricane strike combined with rising sea levels due to climate change, Tampa and the entire Tampa Bay area is considered one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to a direct hit from a major storm.
SummerSummertime weather patterns predominate from around mid-May through mid-October, which roughly coincides with the rainy season. Daily temperatures are very consistent during this period, with daytime highs very often measuring near and lows in the mid- to upper 70s °F (23–25 °C), almost always accompanied by high humidity. Mainly due to the proximity of large bodies of water, the official high temperature has never hit – the all-time record high temperature is , recorded on June 5, 1985 and June 26, 2020. Afternoon thunderstorms, usually generated by the interaction of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf and Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic sea breezes, are such a regular occurrence during the summer that the Tampa Bay area and nearby inland areas of Central Florida are recognized as the "Lightning Capital of North America". Afternoon thundershowers occasionally intensify into a Severe thunderstorm watch, severe thunderstorm, bringing heavy downpours, frequent lightning, strong straight-line winds, and sometimes hail.
AutumnAverage temperatures gradually fall beginning in September, and average daily rainfall amounts also decrease as autumn progresses; November is usually Tampa's driest month. However, rain totals in the fall can be augmented by passing tropical systems, which can dump several inches of rain.
WinterWinter in the area is generally dry and mild. Average high temperatures range from the high-60s to low-70s °F (21–24 °C) during the day to the low to mid- 50s °F (10–13 °C) at night. Occasional cold fronts push through the area during the season, usually bringing a brief period of rain followed by daytime highs in the 50s °F (10–13 °C) and nighttime lows near 40s (5 C) for a day or two. Tampa averages two days of frost per year, although a winter or two may pass without any frost. Since the Tampa area is home to a diverse range of freeze-sensitive agriculture and aquaculture, hard freezes, although quite rare, are a major concern. Hard freezes (defined as a temperature of or below for several hours) occur rarely in the Tampa area; every five to twenty years depending on the exact location. The last widespread freeze occurred on the morning 2017–18 North American cold wave, of January 18, 2018, when the official temperature at Tampa International Airport dropped to . The lowest temperature ever recorded in Tampa was on December 13, 1962. The only snowfall officially recorded in Tampa occurred on January 19, 1977, with local accumulations ranging between a trace and .
SpringTampa sees a slow increase in average temperatures beginning in mid-February, and spring brings mostly warm and sunny weather to the area. While temperatures in late spring approach summertime values, the rainy season does not usually begin until June, leading to the threat of brush fires from approximately late March until May. Occasionally, a late-season cold front pushes through the area, potentially bringing a brief round of severe weather followed by a few days of unseasonably cool temperatures.
NeighborhoodsThe city is divided into many neighborhoods, many of which were towns and unincorporated communities annexed by the growing city. Generally, the city is divided into the following areas: Downtown Tampa, New Tampa, West Tampa, East Tampa, North Tampa (neighborhood), North Tampa, and South Tampa. Well-known neighborhoods include Ybor City, Forest Hills (Tampa), Forest Hills, Ballast Point (Tampa), Ballast Point, Sulphur Springs (Tampa), Sulphur Springs, Seminole Heights, Tampa Heights, Palma Ceia, Hyde Park, Davis Islands (Tampa), Davis Islands, Harbour Island (Tampa), Harbour Island, Tampa Palms, College Hill (Tampa), College Hill, and non-residential areas of Gary (Tampa), Gary and the Westshore (Tampa), Westshore Business District.
ArchitectureTampa displays a wide variety of architectural designs and styles. Most of Tampa's high rises demonstrate post-modern architecture. The design for the renovated Tampa Museum of Art displays post-modern architecture, while the city hall and the Tampa Theatre belong to Art Deco architecture. The Tampa mayor Pam Iorio made the redevelopment of Downtown Tampa, Tampa's downtown, especially residential development, a priority. Several residential and mixed-development high-rises have been constructed. Another of Mayor Iorio's initiatives was the Tampa Riverwalk, a mixed-use path along the Hillsborough River in downtown. Channelside was recently approved to undergo major renovations by Tampa Bay Lightning owner Jeff Vinik along with Bill Gates and other investors. Several museums have already opened, including new homes for the Tampa Bay History Center, the Glazer Children's Museum, and the Tampa Museum of Art. The breakdown of development for the rest of the plan is as follows: 39% residential units, 29% office space, 15% hotels, 8% retail, 7% other, and 2% cultural uses. Mayor Bob Buckhorn continued these developments which are bearing fruit during the term of Mayor Jane Castor. Tampa is the site of several skyscrapers. Overall, there are 21 completed buildings that rise over high. The city also has 147 high-rises, second only to in the state of Florida. The List of tallest buildings in Tampa, tallest building in the city is 100 North Tampa, formerly the AmSouth Building, which rises 42 storey, floors and in Downtown Tampa. The structure was completed in 1992, and is the tallest building in Florida outside of Miami and Jacksonville.
DemographicsAs of 2000, the largest European ancestries in the city were German (9.2%), Irish (8.4%), English (7.7%), Italian (5.6%), and French (2.4%). As of 2010, there were 157,130 households, out of which 13.5% were vacant. In 2000, 27.6% households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.4% were married couples living together, 16.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.9% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.07. In 2000, the city's population was spread out, with 24.6% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.7 years old. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. In 2006, the median income for a household in the city was $39,602, and the median income for a family was $45,823. Males had a median income of $40,461 versus $29,868 for females. The per capita income for the city was $26,522. 20.1% of the population and 16.4% of families were below the poverty line. 31.0% of those under the age of 18 and 13.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty level. As of 2000, those who spoke only English at home accounted for 77.4% of all residents, while 22.6% spoke other languages in their homes. The most significant was Spanish speakers who made up 17.8% of the population, while French came up as the third most spoken language, which made up 0.6%, and Italian was at fourth, with 0.6% of the population.
ReligionCommunities of faith have organized in Tampa from 1846, when a Methodism, Methodist congregation established the city's first church,"Tampa – Florida's Industrial Port City".
EconomyFinance, retail, healthcare, insurance, shipping by air and sea, National security, national defense, professional sports, tourism, and real estate all play vital roles in the area's economy. Hillsborough County alone has an estimated 740,000 employees, a figure which is projected to increase to 922,000 by 2015. Several large corporations, such as banks and telecommunications companies, maintain regional offices in Tampa. Several Fortune 1000 companies are headquartered in the metropolitan area, including OSI Restaurant Partners, WellCare, TECO Energy, and Raymond James Financial. Other companies headquartered in Tampa include Greenway Health, Masonite International, Sykes Enterprises, Cott Corporation, Checkers and Rally's and The Mosaic Company Downtown Tampa is undergoing significant development and redevelopment in line with a general national trend toward urban residential development. In April 2007, the Tampa Downtown Partnership noted development proceeding on 20 residential, hotel, and mixed-use projects. Many of the new downtown developments were nearing completion in the midst of a housing market slump, which caused numerous projects to be delayed or revamped, and some of the 20 projects TDP lists have not broken ground and are being refinanced. Nonetheless several developments were completed, making downtown into a 24-hour neighborhood instead of a 9 to 5 business district. As of 2010, Tampa residents faced a decline in rent of 2%. Nationally rent had decreased 4%. The ''Tampa Business Journal'' found Tampa to be the number two city for real estate investment in 2014. Port Tampa Bay is now the seventh largest in the nation and Florida's largest tonnage port, handling nearly half of all seaborne commerce that passes through the state. Tampa ranks second in the state behind Miami in terms of cruise ship travel. Besides smaller regional cruise ships such as Yacht Starship and SunCruz Casino, Tampa also serves as a port of call for three cruise lines: Holland America's Pacific Aria, MS ''Ryndam'', Royal Caribbean's MS Grandeur of the Seas, ''Grandeur of the Seas'' and MS Radiance of the Seas, ''Radiance of the Seas'', and Carnival's Carnival Inspiration, ''Inspiration'' and Carnival Legend, ''Legend''. The main server farm for Wikipedia and other Wikimedia Foundation projects is in Tampa. MacDill Air Force Base remains a major employer as the parent installation for over 15,000 active uniformed military, United States Department of Defense, Department of Defense (DoD) civil service and DoD contractor personnel in the Tampa Bay area. A significant majority of the civil service and contractor personnel are, in fact, themselves retired career military personnel. In addition to the 6th Air Mobility Wing, which is "host wing" for the base, MacDill is also home to Headquarters, United States Central Command (USCENTCOM), Headquarters, United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), the 927th Air Refueling Wing, Headquarters, United States Marine Forces Central Command (USMARCENT), Headquarters, United States Special Operations Command Central (USSOCCENT), and numerous other military activities of the active and reserve components of the armed forces. Since the year 2000, Tampa has seen a notable upsurge in high-market demand from consumers, signaling more wealth concentrated in the area.
Arts and culture
Arts and entertainmentTampa is home to a variety of stage and performing arts venues and theaters, including the Straz Center for the Performing Arts, David A. Straz Jr. Center for the Performing Arts, Tampa Theatre, Gorilla Theatre (venue), Gorilla Theatre, and the MidFlorida Credit Union Amphitheatre next to the Florida State Fairgrounds. Performing arts companies and organizations which call Tampa home include the Florida Orchestra, Opera Tampa, Jobsite Theater, the Master Chorale of Tampa Bay, Stageworks Theatre, Spanish Lyric Theater, Tampa Bay Opera, and the Tampa Bay Symphony. Current popular nightlife districts include Channel District, Channelside, Ybor City, Soho (Tampa), SoHo, International Plaza and Bay Street, and Seminole Hard Rock Hotel and Casino Tampa, Seminole Hard Rock. Downtown Tampa also contains some nightlife, and there are more clubs/bars to be found in other areas of the city. Tampa is rated sixth on Maxim (magazine), ''Maxim'' magazine's list of top party cities. The area has become a "de facto" headquarters of professional wrestling, with many pros living in the area. WWE's former developmental territory, Florida Championship Wrestling, was also based in Tampa. Tampa is home to several death metal bands, an extreme form of heavy metal music that evolved from thrash metal. Many of the genre's pioneers and foremost figures are based in and around the city. Chief among these are Deicide (band), Deicide, Six Feet Under (band), Six Feet Under, Obituary (band), Obituary, Death (metal band), Death and Morbid Angel. The Tampa scene grew with the birth of Morrisound Recording, which established itself as an international recording destination for metal bands. Christian rock band Underoath is based out of Tampa. In 2009, the new Frank Wildhorn musical ''Wonderland: Alice's New Musical Adventure'' hosted its world premiere at the Straz Center.
MuseumsThe Tampa area is home to a number of museums that cover a wide array of subjects and studies. These include the Museum of Science & Industry (Tampa), Museum of Science & Industry (MOSI), which has several floors of science-related exhibits plus the only IMAX, domed IMAX theater in Florida and a planetarium; the Tampa Museum of Art; the University of South Florida#Marshall Student Center, USF Contemporary Art Museum; the Tampa Bay History Center; the Tampa Firefighters Museum; the Henry B. Plant Museum; and Ybor City Museum State Park. Permanently docked in downtown's Channel District is the SS American Victory, SS ''American Victory'', a former World War II Victory ship which is now used as a museum ship. Florida Museum of Photographic Arts Features local and international photography exhibitions.
Children's MuseumThe Children's Museum of Tampa opened in 1986. It was created in response to the need for informal cultural and learning environment for the need of young children. It has since grown into a Larger location in Downtown Tampa next to the Tampa Museum of Art and Curtis Hixon Park. This location opened in September 2010 and was renamed Glazer Children's Museum in honor of the Glazer Family Foundation that donated $5 million to the construction of the new building.
CuisineTampa has a diverse culinary scene from small cafes and bakeries to bistros and farm-to-table restaurants. The food of Tampa has a history of Cuban, Spanish, Floribbean and Italian cuisines. There are also many Colombian cuisine, Colombian, Puerto Rican cuisine, Puerto Rican, Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese and barbecue restaurants. Seafood is very popular in Tampa, and Greek cuisine is prominent in the area, including around Tarpon Springs, Florida, Tarpon Springs. Food trucks in Tampa, Florida, Food trucks are popular, and the area holds the record for the world's largest food truck rally. In addition to Ybor, the areas of Seminole Heights and South Tampa are known for their restaurants. Tampa is the birthplace of the Florida version of the deviled crab and the Cuban sandwich, which has been officially designated as the "signature sandwich of the city of Tampa" by the city council. A Tampa Cuban sandwich is distinct from other regional versions, as Genoa salami is layered in with the other ingredients, likely due to the influence of Italian immigrants living next to Cubans and Spaniards in Ybor City. Several restaurant chains were founded or headquartered in Tampa, including Outback Steakhouse, The Melting Pot (restaurant), The Melting Pot, Front Burner Brands, Carrabba's Italian Grill, Carrabba's, Fleming's Prime Steakhouse & Wine Bar, Bonefish Grill, Columbia Restaurant, Checkers and Rally's, Taco Bus, and PDQ.
Tourism and recreationThe city of Tampa operates over 165 parks and beaches covering within city limits; 42 more in surrounding suburbs covering are maintained by Hillsborough County. These areas include Hillsborough River State Park, just northeast of the city. Tampa is home to a number of attractions and theme parks, including Busch Gardens Tampa Bay, Adventure Island (water park), Adventure Island, ZooTampa at Lowry Park, and the Florida Aquarium. ZooTampa at Lowry Park features over 2,000 animals, interactive exhibits, rides, educational shows and more. The zoo serves as an economic, cultural, environmental and educational anchor in Tampa. Big Cat Rescue is one of the largest accredited sanctuaries in the world dedicated entirely to abused and abandoned big cats. It is home to about 80 lions, tigers, bobcats, cougars and other species, most of whom have been abandoned, abused, orphaned, saved from being turned into fur coats, or retired from performing acts. They have a variety of different tours available. Busch Gardens Tampa Bay is a Africa-themed park near the University of South Florida. It features many thrilling roller coasters, for which it is known, including Sheikra, Montu, Cheetah Hunt and Kumba. Visitors can also view and interact with a number of African wildlife. Adventure Island (water park), Adventure Island is a water park adjacent to Busch Gardens. The Florida Aquarium is a aquarium in the Channel District. It hosts over 20,000 species of aquatic plants and animals. It is known for its unique glass architecture. Adjacent to the aquarium is the SS ''American Victory'', a World War II Victory ship preserved as a museum ship. The Tampa Bay History Center is a museum in the Channel District. It boasts over of exhibits through 12,000 years. There are theaters, a map gallery, a research center and a museum store. Well-known shopping areas include International Plaza and Bay Street, WestShore Plaza, the Soho (Tampa), SoHo district, and Hyde Park Village. Palma Ceia is home to the Palma Ceia Design District. Previously, Tampa had been home to the Floriland Mall (now an office park), Tampa Bay Center (demolished and replaced with the new Tampa Bay Buccaneers training facility, known as "One Buc Place"), and East Lake Square Mall (now an office park). The Tampa Port Authority operates three cruise ship terminals in Tampa's Channel District, Tampa, Channel District. The Port of Tampa is the year-round home port for Carnival Cruise Lines' Carnival Paradise, MS C''arnival Paradise'' and seasonally, the Carnival Pride, MS ''Carnival Pride''. Tampa is also a seasonal port for Holland America Line, Norwegian Cruise Line, Celebrity Cruises, as well as Royal Caribbean International's Rhapsody of the Seas, MS ''Rhapsody of the Seas'' and MS Radiance of the Seas, MS ''Radiance of the Seas''. Cruise itineraries from Tampa include stops in the Western Caribbean islands, Honduras, Belize, and Mexico. Longer sailings include the Panama Canal, the ABC islands (Leeward Antilles), ABC Islands and the Eastern Caribbean.
EventsPerhaps the most well known and anticipated events are those from Tampa's annual celebration of "Gasparilla", particularly the Gasparilla Pirate Festival, a mock pirate invasion held since 1904 in late January or early February. Often referred to as Tampa's "Mardi Gras", the invasion flotilla led by the pirate ship, ''Jose Gasparilla'', and subsequent parade draw over 400,000 attendees, contributing tens of millions of dollars to the city's economy. Beyond the initial invasion, numerous Gasparilla festivities take place each year between January and March, including the Gasparilla Children's Parade, the more adult-oriented Sant'Yago Knight Parade, the Gasparilla Distance Classic, Gasparilla Festival of the Arts, and the Gasparilla Film Festival, Gasparilla International Film Festival, among other pirate themed events. The Gasparilla parade is the third largest parade in the United States. Other notable events include the Outback Bowl, which is held New Year's Day at Raymond James Stadium. Each February, The Florida State Fair brings crowds from across the state, while "Fiesta Day" celebrates Tampa's Cuban, Spanish, German, Italian, English, Irish, Jewish, and African-Cuban immigrant heritage. The India International Film Festival (IIFF) of Tampa Bay also takes place in February. In April the MacDill Air Fest entertains as one of the largest military air shows in the U.S. Guavaween, a nighttime street celebration infuses Halloween with the Latin flavor of Ybor City. Downtown Tampa hosts the largest anime convention in Florida, Metrocon, a three-day event held in either June or July at the Tampa Convention Center. Ybor also hosts "GaYbor Days", an annual street party in the LGBT-friendly GaYbor district. The Tampa International Gay and Lesbian Film Festival, held annually since 1989, is the city's largest film festival event, and one of the largest independent gay film festivals in the country. Tampa hosted the 2012 Republican National Convention and the 15th IIFA Awards, 15th International Indian Film Academy Awards in April 2014. Since 2015, Tampa has hosted the annual Tampa Riverfest, typically held during the first weekend of May. Held at the Tampa Riverwalk, the festival welcomes many musical artists and local restaurants.
SportsTampa is represented by teams in three major professional sports leagues: the National Football League, the National Hockey League, and Major League Baseball. The NFL's Tampa Bay Buccaneers and the NHL's Tampa Bay Lightning call Tampa home, while the Tampa Bay Rays of the Major League Baseball, MLB play across the bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, St. Petersburg. As indicated by their names, these teams, plus several other sports teams, represent the entire Tampa Bay Area, Tampa metropolitan area. The Tampa Bay area has long been a site for Major League Baseball spring training facilities and minor league baseball teams. The New York Yankees conduct spring training in Tampa, and the Tampa Tarpons play there in the summer. On the collegiate level, the South Florida Bulls, University of South Florida Bulls compete in 17 sports in NCAA Division I and the Tampa Spartans, University of Tampa Spartans compete in 20 sports in NCAA Division II.
BuccaneersThe Tampa Bay Buccaneers began in 1976 NFL season, 1976 as an expansion team of the NFL. They struggled at first, losing their first 26 games in a row to set a league record for futility. After a brief taste of success in the late 1970s, the Bucs again returned to their losing ways, and at one point lost at least 10 games for 12 seasons in a row. The hiring of Tony Dungy in 1996 NFL season, 1996 started an improving trend that eventually led to the team's victory in Super Bowl XXXVII in 2002 NFL Season, 2003 under coach Jon Gruden and Super Bowl LV with former Patriots quarterback, Tom Brady. Tampa has hosted five Super Bowls: Super Bowl XVIII (1983 NFL season, 1984), Super Bowl XXV (1990 NFL season, 1991), Super Bowl XXXV (2000 NFL season, 2001), Super Bowl XLIII (2008 NFL season, 2009), and Super Bowl LV (2020 NFL season, 2021). The first two events were held at Tampa Stadium, and the other three at Raymond James Stadium. Tampa hosted Super Bowl LV on February 7, 2021, when the Buccaneers participated as the first and currently only team to play the Super Bowl in their home stadium, winning it all decisively in Tampa.
StormOriginally the Pittsburgh Gladiators and a charter member of the Arena Football League (AFL), the Tampa Bay Storm relocated from Pittsburgh in 1991 Arena Football League season, 1991 and won ArenaBowl V that year. They later won 4 more ArenaBowls (ArenaBowl VII, VII, ArenaBowl IX, IX, ArenaBowl X, X, and ArenaBowl XVII, XVII, and also appeared in ArenaBowl I, ArenaBowl III, III, ArenaBowl XII, XII, ArenaBowl XXIII, XXIII and ArenaBowl XXX, XXX), and their five championships is the most in league history. The AFL suffered through several years of decreasing revenue in the 2010s, leading to fewer active franchises. There were only five teams during the 2017 Arena Football League season, 2017 season, after which the Storm's ownership group suspended operations.
BanditsTampa was also home to the Tampa Bay Bandits of the United States Football League. The Bandits made the playoffs twice in their three seasons under head coach Steve Spurrier and drew league-leading crowds to Tampa Stadium, but the team folded along with the rest of the USFL after the 1985 USFL season, 1985 season. They played at Tampa Stadium, which hosted the 1984 USFL Championship Game.
VipersThe Tampa Bay Vipers play in the second edition of the XFL (2020), XFL. Their inaugural season was cut short after five weeks due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Raymond James Stadium hosted the 2017 College Football Playoff National Championship.
HistoryThe Tampa Bay area has long been home to nationally competitive amateur baseball and has hosted spring training and minor league baseball, minor league teams for over a century. Tampa became the first city in Florida to host a major league team for spring training in 1913, when the Chicago Cubs trained at Plant Field. The Tampa Smokers were the city's first minor league team, beginning play as charter members of the new Florida State League in 1919.
RaysAfter decades of trying to lure an existing Major League Baseball franchise, the Tampa Bay area finally gained a team in 1998, when the expansion Tampa Bay Rays, Tampa Bay Devil Rays began play at Tropicana Field in St. Petersburg, Florida, St. Petersburg. After a decade of futility on the field, the Devil Rays shortened their nickname to simply Rays in 2008 and promptly won the 2008 American League Championship Series, 2008 American League American League Championship Series, Pennant, finishing runner up in 2008 World Series, World Series. They also won American League East titles in 2008 and 2010 under manager Joe Maddon before slipping back in the standings. In 2007, the Rays began the process of searching for a stadium site closer to the center of the area's population, possibly in Tampa. However, over a decade later, rivalry between Tampa and St. Petersburg and the challenges of financing a new ballpark has kept the Rays playing in Tropicana Field. In 2020, the Rays won the AL East for the first time in a decade with the best record in the American League. Due to the Coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19 shortened season, 16 teams made the playoffs, so the Rays had to play a best of 3 series against the division rival Toronto Blue Jays in the first round where they swept the visitors in two games at Tropicana Field. then play a divisional series against the New York Yankees, which they won in 5 games at a neutral site in San Diego. The Rays then faced the Astros, who had defeated them in the divisional round the previous year. Tampa Bay went out to a quick 3–0 series lead, but Houston came back to tie the series 3–3. The Rays avoided the reverse sweep in Game 7 and won their second American League Pennant, then lost the 2020 World Series, World Series in 6 games to the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Low-A SoutheastSeveral Major League baseball teams conduct spring training in the area, and most also operate minor league teams in the Low-A Low-A Southeast, Southeast. The major league New York Yankees and the affiliated minor league Tampa Tarpons use George M. Steinbrenner Field across Dale Mabry Highway from Raymond James Stadium.
LightningThe NHL's Tampa Bay Lightning was established in 1992, and play their home games at Amalie Arena in downtown Tampa. In 2004 Stanley Cup Finals, 2004, the team won their first Stanley Cup by defeating the Calgary Flames in 7 games. The Lightning lost the Eastern Conference Final in 2011 Stanley Cup playoffs, 2011 in 7 games against the eventual champion Boston Bruins. The Bolts were Eastern Conference (NHL), Eastern Conference champions in 2014–15 NHL season, 2015, losing to the Chicago Blackhawks in the 2015 Stanley Cup Finals, Finals. They returned to the Eastern Conference Final in 2016 Stanley Cup playoffs, 2016 but lost in 7 games to the eventual champion Pittsburgh Penguins. They returned again to the Eastern Conference Final in 2018 Stanley Cup playoffs, 2018 but lost in 7 games to the eventual champion Washington Capitals. The Lightning won a second Stanley Cup championship in 2020 Stanley Cup Finals, 2020, defeating the Dallas Stars in 6 games. Tampa hosted the skills contests and 63rd National Hockey League All-Star Game, 2018 NHL All-Star Game weekend on January 27–28, 2018.
RowdiesThe Tampa Bay Rowdies compete in the USL Championship, United Soccer League Championship after spending their first 6 seasons in the North American Soccer League (2011–2017), North American Soccer League. The team began play at Tampa's George M. Steinbrenner Field in 2010, then moved to St. Petersburg's Al Lang Field in 2011. The Rowdies won their first league championship in Soccer Bowl 2012. The Rowdies made the USL Championship Final for the first time in 2020, though it was cancelled due to COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19. Previously, Tampa had hosted two top-level soccer teams. The Tampa Bay Rowdies (1975–93), Tampa Bay Rowdies of the North American Soccer League (1968–1984), original North American Soccer League was the area's first major sports franchise, beginning play in 1975 at Tampa Stadium. The Rowdies were an immediate success, drawing good crowds and winning Soccer Bowl '75 in their first season to bring Tampa its first professional sports championship. Though the NASL ceased operations in 1984, the Rowdies continued to compete in various soccer leagues until finally folding in 1993.
MutinyThe success of the Rowdies prompted Major League Soccer (MLS) to award Tampa a charter member of the new league in 1996. The Tampa Bay Mutiny were the first MLS Supporters' Shield winner and had much early success beginning in 1996 Major League Soccer season, 1996. However, the club folded in 2001 MLS season, 2001 when local ownership could not be secured mainly due to a financially poor lease agreement for Raymond James Stadium. The city has no current representation in MLS, however, the Rowdies are seeking to join the league.
BasketballThe Tampa Bay Titans play in The Basketball League (TBL). Their home games are played at Pasco–Hernando State College. The St. Pete Tide and the Tampa Gunners play in the Florida Basketball Association (FBA). The Tide's home games are played at St. Petersburg Catholic High School, and the Gunners are a travel team. Amalie Arena will be the home of the National Basketball Association, NBA's Toronto Raptors for the 2020–21 NBA season, 2020–2021 season because of Canadian government regulations due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. It will be the first time an NBA team will call Tampa home, though some exhibition preseason games have been played in Tampa between the Orlando Magic and Miami Heat.
University of South FloridaThe University of South Florida is the only NCAA Division I sports program in Tampa. USF began playing intercollegiate sports in 1965. The South Florida Bulls, Bulls established a South Florida Bulls men's basketball, men's basketball team in 1971 and a South Florida Bulls football, football team in 1997 and sponsor 17 teams in total. The Bulls joined the Big East Conference (1979–2013), Big East in 2005, and the football team rose to as high as #2 in the Bowl Championship Series, BCS rankings in 2007. They are now part of the American Athletic Conference. USF has won six NCAA National Championships: softball in 1983 and 1984, women's swimming in 1985, and sailing in 2009, 2016, and 2017.
University of TampaThe University of Tampa Tampa Spartans, Spartans compete in 20 sports at the NCAA Division II level in the Sunshine State Conference (SSC). They have won a total of 17 Division II National Championships, including eight in baseball.
Hillsborough Community CollegeThe Hillsborough Community College Hawks are an National Junior College Athletic Association, NJCAA Division I junior college team and a member of the Florida College System Activities Association they compete in the Suncoast Conference and the Southern Conference in NJCAA Region VIII, Region VIII of The National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA).
GovernmentTampa is governed under the strong mayor form of government. The Mayor of Tampa is the chief executive officer of city government and is elected in four-year terms, with a limit of two consecutive terms. The current mayor is Jane Castor, who took office on May 1, 2019. The Tampa City Council, City Council is a legislative body served by seven members. Four members are elected from specific numbered areas designated City Districts, and the other three are "at-large" members (serving citywide).
Fire departmentThe city of Tampa is served by Tampa Fire Rescue. With 22 fire stations, the department provides fire and medical protection for Tampa and New Tampa, and provides support to other departments such as Tampa International Airport, Hillsborough County Fire Rescue and MacDill Air Force Base 6th Medical Group.
Law enforcementThe city of Tampa has a large police department that provides law enforcement services. The Tampa Police Department has over 1000 sworn officers and many civilian service support personnel.
Primary and secondary schoolsPublic primary and secondary education is operated by Hillsborough County Public Schools, officially known as the School District of Hillsborough County (SDHC). It is the eighth-largest school district in the United States, with around 189,469 enrolled students. SDHC runs 208 schools, 133 being elementary, 42 middle, 27 high schools, two K-8s, and four career centers. There are 73 additional schools in the district that are charter, ESE, alternative, etc. Twelve out of 27 high schools in the SDHC are included in ''Newsweeks list of America's Best High Schools.
Public librariesTampa's library system is operated by the Tampa-Hillsborough County Public Library System. THPLS operates 25 libraries throughout Tampa and Hillsborough County, including the John F. Germany Public Library in Downtown Tampa. The Tampa library system first started in the early 20th century, with the West Tampa Library, which was made possible with funds donated by Andrew Carnegie. Tampa's libraries are also a part of a larger library network, The Hillsborough County Public Library Cooperative, which includes the libraries of the neighboring municipalities of Temple Terrace and Plant City.
Higher educationThere are a number of institutions of higher education in Tampa. The city is home to the main campus of the University of South Florida (USF), a member of the State University System of Florida founded in 1956. In 2010, it was the eleventh highest individual campus enrollment in the U.S. with over 46,000 students. The University of Tampa (UT) is a private, four-year liberal arts college, liberal arts institution. It was founded in 1931, and in 1933, it moved into the former Tampa Bay Hotel across the Hillsborough River (Florida), Hillsborough River from downtown Tampa. "UT" has undergone several expansions in recent years, and had an enrollment of over 9000 students in 2018. Hillsborough Community College is a two-year community college in the Florida College System with campuses in Tampa and Hillsborough County. Southern Technical College is a private two-year college that operates a campus in Tampa. Hillsborough Technical Education Centers (HiTEC) is the postsecondary extension of the local areas Public Schools district. The schools provide for a variety of technical training certification courses as well as job placement skills. The Stetson University College of Law is in Gulfport and has a second campus, the Tampa Law Center, in downtown Tampa. The Law Center houses the Tampa branch of Florida's Second District Court of Appeal. Other colleges and universities in the wider Tampa Bay Area include Jersey College, Eckerd College, and St. Petersburg College in St. Petersburg.
MediaThe major daily newspaper serving the city is the ''Tampa Bay Times'', which purchased its longtime competition, ''The Tampa Tribune'', in 2016. Print news coverage is also provided by a variety of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies, and magazines, including the ''Florida Sentinel Bulletin'', ''Creative Loafing'', ''Reax Music Magazine'', ''The Oracle (University of South Florida), The Oracle'', ''Tampa Bay Business Journal'', ''MacDill Thunderbolt'', and ''La Gaceta (Tampa), La Gaceta'', which notable for being the nation's only trilingual newspaper – English, Spanish, and Italian, owing to its roots in the cigar-making immigrant neighborhood of History of Ybor City#El Lector, Ybor City. Major television stations include WFTS 28 (American Broadcasting Company, ABC), WTSP 10 (CBS), WFLA-TV 8 (NBC), WTVT 13 (Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox), WTOG 44 (The CW), WTTA 38 (MyNetworkTV), WEDU and WEDQ 3 (PBS), WMOR-TV 32 (Independent station (North America), Independent), WXPX 66 (Ion Television, ION), WCLF 22 (Christian Television Network, CTN), WFTT 62 (UniMás) and WVEA-TV, WVEA 50 (Univision). The area is served by dozens of FM and AM radio stations including WDAE, which was the first radio station in Florida when it went on the air in 1922.
RoadsThree motor vehicle bridges cross Tampa Bay to Pinellas County, Florida, Pinellas County from Tampa city limits: the Howard Frankland Bridge (Interstate 275 (Florida), I-275), the Courtney Campbell Causeway (Florida State Road 60, SR 60), and the Gandy Bridge (U.S. 92). The old Gandy Bridge was completely replaced by new spans during the 1990s, but a span of the old bridge was saved and converted into a pedestrian and biking bridge renamed The Friendship Trail. It was the longest overwater recreation trail in the world. However, the bridge was closed in 2008 due to structural problems. Tampa has several freeways which serve the city. There are two tolled freeways bringing traffic in and out of Tampa. The Lee Roy Selmon Expressway (SR 618), runs from suburban Brandon, Florida, Brandon at its eastern terminus, through Downtown Tampa, to the neighborhoods in South Tampa (near MacDill Air Force Base) at its western terminus. The Florida State Road 589, Veterans Expressway (SR 589), meanwhile connects Tampa International Airport and the bay bridges to the northwestern suburbs of Carrollwood, Florida, Carrollwood, Greater Northdale, Florida, Northdale, Westchase, Florida, Westchase, Citrus Park, Florida, Citrus Park, Cheval, Florida, Cheval, and Lutz, Florida, Lutz, before continuing north as the Florida State Road 589, Suncoast Parkway into Pasco County, Florida, Pasco and Hernando County, Florida, Hernando counties. Three of the city's freeways carry the interstate highway system, interstate highway designation. Interstate 4 and Interstate 275 (Florida), Interstate 275 cut across the city and intersect near downtown. Interstate 75 in Florida, Interstate 75 runs along the east side of town for much of its route through Hillsborough County, Florida, Hillsborough County until veering to the west to bisect New Tampa. Along with the city's freeways, major surface roads serve as main arteries of the city. These roads are Hillsborough Avenue (U.S. Route 92, U.S. 92 and U.S. Route 41 in Florida, U.S. 41), Dale Mabry Highway (U.S. Route 92, U.S. 92), Florida State Road 45, Nebraska Avenue (U.S. 41/SR 45), U.S. Route 41 Business (Tampa, Florida), Florida Avenue (U.S. 41 Business), Bruce B. Downs Boulevard, Florida State Road 582, Fowler Avenue, Busch Boulevard, Florida State Road 60, Kennedy Boulevard (SR 60), Florida State Road 60, Adamo Drive, and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard.
AirportsTampa is served by three airports (one in Tampa, two in the metro area) that provide significant scheduled passenger air service: * Tampa International Airport (IATA airport code, IATA: TPA) is Tampa's main airport and the primary location for commercial passenger airline service into the Tampa Bay area. It is also a consistent favorite in surveys of the industry and the traveling public. The readers of ''Condé Nast Traveler'' have frequently placed Tampa International in their list of Best Airports, ranking it #1 in 2003, and #2 in 2008 A survey by Zagat in 2007 ranked Tampa International first among U.S. airports in overall quality. During 2008, it was the 26th-busiest airport in North America. * St. Petersburg-Clearwater International Airport (IATA airport code, IATA: PIE) lies just across the bay from Tampa International Airport in neighboring Pinellas County. The airport has become a popular destination for discount carriers, with over 90% of its flights are on low-cost carrier Allegiant Air. A joint civil-military aviation facility, it is also home to Coast Guard Air Station Clearwater, the largest air station in the U.S. Coast Guard. * Sarasota–Bradenton International Airport (IATA: SRQ) is in nearby Sarasota. Sarasota airport has more flights to Delta's Atlanta hub than any other city, but also serves several other large U.S. cities.
RailTampa's intercity passenger rail service is based at Tampa Union Station, a historic facility, adjacent to downtown between the Channel District and Ybor City. The station is served by Amtrak's ''Silver Star (Amtrak train), Silver Star'', which calls on Tampa twice daily: southbound to Miami station (Amtrak), Miami and northbound for Pennsylvania Station (New York City), New York City.Amtrak Atlantic Coast Service
SeaportsThe Port of Tampa is the largest port in Florida in throughput tonnage, making it one of the busiest commercial ports in North America. Petroleum and phosphate are the lead commodities, accounting for two-thirds of the 37 million tons of total bulk and general cargo handled by the port in 2009. The port is also home to Foreign Trade Zone #79, which assists companies in Tampa Bay and along the I-4 Corridor in importing, exporting, manufacturing, and distribution activities as part of the United States foreign trade zone program. Weekly containerized cargo service is available in the Port of Tampa. Cargo service is offered by Ports America, Zim American Integrated Shipping Company, and MSC which has recently partnered with Zim. 3,000 to 4,250 TEU containerships regularly call the Port of Tampa. The bay bottom is very sandy, with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers constantly dredging the ship channels to keep them navigable to large cargo ships.
Mass transitPublic mass transit in Tampa is operated by the Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART), and includes Transit bus, public bus as well as a streetcar line. The HART bus system's main hub is the Marion Transit Center in Downtown Tampa, serving nearly 30 local and express routes. HART also operates a rapid-transit bus system called MetroRapid that runs between Downtown and the University of South Florida. The TECO Line Streetcar provides electric streetcar service along eleven stations on a route, connecting Ybor City, the Channel District, Tampa, Channel District, the Tampa Convention Center, and downtown Tampa. The TECO Line fleet features varnished wood interiors reminiscent of late 19th and mid-20th century streetcars. Limited transportation by privately operated "Neighborhood Electric Vehicles" (NEV) is available, primarily in Downtown Tampa and Ybor City. Water taxis are available on a charter basis for tours along the downtown waterfront and the Hillsborough River. The Tampa Bay Area Regional Transportation Authority (TBARTA) develops bus, light rail, and other transportation options for the seven-county Tampa Bay area.
HealthcareTampa and its surrounding suburbs are host to over 20 hospitals, four trauma centers, and multiple Cancer treatment centers. Three of the area's hospitals were ranked among "America's best hospitals" by ''U.S. News & World Report''. Tampa is also home to many health research institutions. The major hospitals in Tampa include Tampa General Hospital, St. Joseph's Children's & Women's Hospital, James A. Haley Veterans Health Administration, Veterans Hospital, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, and The Pepin Heart Institute. Shriners Hospitals for Children is based in Tampa. USF's Byrd Alzheimer's Institute is both a prominent research facility and Alzheimer's patient care center in Tampa. Along with human health care, there are hundreds of animal medical centers including a Humane Society of America.
UtilitiesWater in the area is managed by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. The water is mainly supplied by the Hillsborough River (Florida), Hillsborough River, which in turn arises from the Green Swamp (Florida), Green Swamp, but several other rivers and desalination plants in the area contribute to the supply. Power is mainly generated by TECO Energy.
Sister citiesTampa has formalized sister city agreements with the following cities:
See also* Baldomero López * List of metropolitan areas in the Americas * List of public art in Tampa, Florida * List of United States cities by population * National Register of Historic Places listings in Tampa, Florida * Seal of Tampa
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