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The Place Charles de Gaulle (), historically known as the Place de l'Étoile (), is a large road junction in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, ...
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...
, the meeting point of twelve straight avenues (hence its historic name, which translates as "Square of the Star") including the Champs-Élysées. It was renamed in 1970 following the death of president
Charles de Gaulle Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (; ; 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French army officer and statesman who led Free France against Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") fo ...
. It is still often referred to by its original name; the nearby Métro and RER station retains the designation Charles de Gaulle–Étoile. Paris's ''Axe historique'' ("historical axis") cuts through the Arc de Triomphe, which stands at the centre of the Place Charles de Gaulle.


History

The original name of the area was the ''Butte Chaillot'' ("Chaillot mound", named after the locality). At the time it was the point of convergence of several hunting trails. The Abel-François Poisson, Marquis de Marigny constructed monumental roadworks, completed in 1777, on the mound when he was establishing the plantations along the Champs-Élysées. This work included paving of the road in the form of a star, as it still exists today. The junction became known as the Place de l'Étoile. Pedestrian access to the Arc de Triomphe itself is via pedestrian underpass, to avoid the confluence of vehicular traffic from the juncture of twelve radiating avenues. In 1787, during the construction of the Wall of the Ferme générale, Farmers-General Wall (''Mur des Fermiers généraux''), la ''Barrière de l'Étoile'' (also known as the ''Barrière de Neuilly'') was built to the design of Claude Nicolas Ledoux for the collection of the octroi tax at the entrance to Paris. The wall and the two buildings built on either side of the Place de l'Étoile were demolished in the nineteenth century. The modern Place Charles de Gaulle and the avenues radiating from it were created during the Second French Empire of Napoleon III as part of Haussmann's renovation of Paris.de Moncan, Patrice, ''Le Paris de Haussmann'', Les Editions du Mecene, 2012 ()


Description


Map


Avenues

The twelve avenues, clockwise from the north, are the following: # Avenue de Wagram (thus called since the Second Empire) and Boulevard de l'Étoile or Boulevard Bezons before # Avenue Hoche: Avenue de la Hortense de Beauharnais, Reine-Hortense during the Second Empire and Boulevard Monceau before # Avenue de Friedland since the Second Empire and Boulevard Beaujon before # Champs-Élysées, Avenue des Champs-Élysées # Avenue Marceau: Avenue Joséphine de Beauharnais, Joséphine during the Second Empire # Avenue d'Iéna # Avenue Kléber: Avenue du Napoleon II, Roi-de-Rome during the Second Empire and Boulevard de Passy before # Avenue Victor-Hugo (Paris), Avenue Victor Hugo: Avenue d'Battle of Eylau, Eylau during the Second Empire and Avenue de Saint-Cloud before # Avenue Foch: Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, Bois during the  French Third Republic, Third Republic and Avenue de l'Eugénie de Montijo, Impératrice during the Second Empire # Avenue de la Grande-Armée during the Second Empire and Avenue de Neuilly-sur-Seine, Neuilly before # Avenue Carnot: Avenue d'Battle of Aspern-Essling, Essling during the Second Empire # Avenue Mac-Mahon: Avenue du Jérôme Bonaparte, Prince-Jérôme during the Second Empire The square is surrounded by two streets forming a circle around it: the Rue de Presbourg and Rue de Tilsitt, which have been so named since 1864, after diplomatic successes of Napoleon which led to the signing of the Peace of Pressburg (1805), Treaty of Presbourg in 1805 and the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807.


Axes

The Place Charles de Gaulle is symmetrical and thus has six axes: # Axis Avenue Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta, Mac-Mahon and Avenue d'Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Iéna # Axis Avenue de Battle of Wagram, Wagram and Avenue Jean Baptiste Kléber, Kléber # Axis Avenue Louis Lazare Hoche, Hoche and Avenue Victor Hugo, Victor-Hugo # Axis Avenue de Battle of Friedland, Friedland and Avenue Ferdinand Foch, Foch # Axis Avenue des Champs-Élysées and Avenue de la La Grande Armée, Grande-Armée which is the ''Axe historique'' of Paris # Axis Avenue François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, Marceau and Avenue Lazare Carnot, Carnot


Arrondissements

The Place Charles de Gaulle (as well as the Arc de Triomphe) is split between the 8th arrondissement of Paris, 8th, 16th arrondissement of Paris, 16th and 17th arrondissement of Paris, 17th arrondissements of Paris. The 8th arrondissement encompasses the area between Avenue de Wagram and Avenue Marceau. The 16th arrondissement encompasses the area between Avenue Marceau and Avenue de la Grande-Armée. The 17th arrondissement encompasses the area between Avenue de la Grande Armée and Avenue de Wagram.


Literature

''La Place de l'étoile (novel), La Place de l'étoile'' is the title of a novel by French writer Patrick Modiano.


Transportation

Image:Place Charles-de-Gaulle from the Arc de Triomphe, July 2001.jpg, Traffic 10-abreast traverses the Place Charles de Gaulle, seen from the top of the Arc de Triomphe :''Located near the List of Paris Métro stations, Métro station: Charles de Gaulle–Étoile.'' The square is served by Paris Métro, Métro and Réseau Express Régional, RER services. Paris Métro Line 1, Line 1, as well as RER A, run under the Avenue de la Grande-Armée and Champs-Élysées and stop at the station; it also serves as western terminus for Paris Métro Line 2, Line 2 and Paris Métro Line 6, Line 6.


References


External links


Satellite image from Google Maps
{{DEFAULTSORT:Place De L'etoile Squares in Paris, Etoile Roundabouts and traffic circles National squares Buildings and structures in the 8th arrondissement of Paris Buildings and structures in the 16th arrondissement of Paris Buildings and structures in the 17th arrondissement of Paris