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Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) was the official name used by the
U.S. government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories and ...
for the
Global War on Terrorism The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism and U.S. War on Terror, is an international military campaign launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks. The targets of the campaign are primarily Sunni ...
. On 7 October 2001, in response to the
September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Wahhabi terrorist group Al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks resulted i ...
,
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he had previously been the 46th governor of Texas from ...
announced that airstrikes targeting
Al Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azza ...
and the
Taliban The Taliban ( ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students) or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), are a Sunni Islamist movement and military organisation in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurge ...
had begun in Afghanistan. Operation Enduring Freedom primarily refers to the
War in Afghanistan War in Afghanistan, Afghan war, or Afghan civil war may refer to: *Conquest of Afghanistan by Alexander the Great (330 BC – 327 BC) *Muslim conquests of Afghanistan (637–709) *Conquest of Afghanistan by the Mongol Empire (13th century), see Mon ...
, but it is also affiliated with
counterterrorism Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism), also known as anti-terrorism, incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to com ...
operations in other countries, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara. After 13 years, on 28 December 2014,
President Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, Obama was the first African-American presi ...

President Barack Obama
announced the end of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name
Operation Freedom's Sentinel Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS) is the official name used by the U.S. Government for the mission succeeding Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in continuation of the War in Afghanistan (2001 - Present) as part of the larger Global War on Terrorism ...
.


Subordinate operations

Operation Enduring Freedom most commonly refers to the U.S.-led combat mission in Afghanistan. OEF is also affiliated with
counter-terrorism Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism), also known as anti-terrorism, incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to com ...
operations in other countries targeting
Al Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azza ...
and remnants of the
Taliban The Taliban ( ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students) or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), are a Sunni Islamist movement and military organisation in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurge ...
, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara, primarily through government funding vehicles. * Operation Enduring Freedom – (OEF), 7 October 2001 – 31 December 2014. Succeeded by Operation Freedom's Sentinel. *
Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines (OEF-P) or Operation Freedom Eagle was part of Operation Enduring Freedom and the global War on Terror. The Operation targeted the various Jihadist terror groups operating in the country. By 2009, about ...
(OEF-P, formerly Operation Freedom Eagle), 15 January 2002 – 24 February 2015 *
Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) is a component of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) is the primary (but not sole) military component assigned to accomplish the ob ...
(OEF-HOA) * Operation Enduring Freedom – Pankisi Gorge * Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara (OEF-TS; see also
Insurgency in the Maghreb An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion against authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).Oxford English Dictionary second edition 1989 "insurgent B. n. One who rises in revolt ...
) * Operation Enduring Freedom – Caribbean and Central America (OEF-CCA) * Operation Enduring Freedom – Kyrgyzstan, 18 December 2001 – 3 June 2014


Etymology

The U.S. government used the term "Operation Enduring Freedom" to officially describe the
War in Afghanistan War in Afghanistan, Afghan war, or Afghan civil war may refer to: *Conquest of Afghanistan by Alexander the Great (330 BC – 327 BC) *Muslim conquests of Afghanistan (637–709) *Conquest of Afghanistan by the Mongol Empire (13th century), see Mon ...
, from the period between 7 October 2001 and 31 December 2014. Continued operations in Afghanistan by the United States' military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name
Operation Freedom's Sentinel Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS) is the official name used by the U.S. Government for the mission succeeding Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in continuation of the War in Afghanistan (2001 - Present) as part of the larger Global War on Terrorism ...
. The operation was originally called "Operation Infinite Justice", but as similar phrases have been used by adherents of several religions as an exclusive description of God, it is believed to have been changed to avoid offense to Muslims who are the majority religion in Afghanistan. In September 2001, U.S. President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he had previously been the 46th governor of Texas from ...
's remark that "this
crusade The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...
, this war on terrorism, is going to take a while", which prompted widespread criticism from the Islamic world, may also have contributed to the renaming of the operation. The term "OEF" typically refers to the phase of the War in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014. Other operations, such as the
Georgia Train and Equip Program The Georgia Train and Equip Program (GTEP) was an American-sponsored 18-month, $64-million program aimed at increasing the capabilities of the Georgian armed forces by training and equipping four 600-man battalions with light weapons, vehicles and ...
, are only loosely or nominally connected, such as through government funding vehicles. All the operations, however, have a focus on
counterterrorism Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism), also known as anti-terrorism, incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to com ...
activities. Operation Enduring Freedom, which was a joint U.S., U.K., and Afghan operation, was separate from the
International Security Assistance Force ' ps, کمک او همکاري ' , allies= , opponents= Taliban Al-Qaeda , commander1 = , commander1_label = Commander , commander2 = , commander2_label = , commander3 = , commander3_label = Chief of Staff , notable_commande ...
(ISAF), which was an operation of
North Atlantic Treaty Organization The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
nations including the U.S. and the U.K. The two operations ran in parallel, although it had been suggested that they merge.


Overview

In response to the attacks of 11 September, the early combat operations that took place on 7 October 2001 to include a mix of strikes from land-based
B-1 Lancer The Rockwell B-1 Lancer is a supersonic variable-sweep wing, heavy bomber used by the United States Air Force. It is commonly called the "Bone" (from "B-One"). It is one of three strategic bombers in the U.S. Air Force fleet , the other two bei ...
,
B-2 Spirit The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses. Designed during the C ...
and
B-52 Stratofortress The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber. The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing, which has continued to provide support and upgrades. It has been operated by the United States Air Fo ...
bombers, carrier-based
F-14 Tomcat The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is an American supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, twin-tail, variable-sweep wing fighter aircraft. The Tomcat was developed for the United States Navy's Naval Fighter Experimental (VFX) program after the collapse of the ...

F-14 Tomcat
and
F/A-18 Hornet The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation). Designed by McDonnell Douglas (now part of Boeing ...
fighters, and Tomahawk cruise missiles launched from both U.S. and British ships and submarines signaled the start of Operation Enduring Freedom. The initial military objectives of OEF, as articulated by President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he had previously been the 46th governor of Texas from ...
in his 20 September address to a Joint Session of Congress and his 7 October address to the country, included the destruction of
terrorist training camp Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neu ...
s and
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. ...
within Afghanistan, the capture of
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azza ...
leaders, and the cessation of terrorist activities in Afghanistan. In January 2002, over 1,200 soldiers from the United States Special Operations Command Pacific (SOCPAC) deployed to the Philippines to support the
Armed Forces of the Philippines The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) ( fil, Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas; es, Fuerzas Armadas de Filipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines. It consists of the three main service branches; the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy (i ...
(AFP) in their push to uproot terrorist forces on the island of
Basilan Basilan, officially the Province of Basilan (Chavacano: ''Provincia de Basilan''; Tausug: ''Wilaya' sin Basilan''; Yakan: ''Wilayah Basilanin''; tl, Lalawigan ng Basilan) is an island province of the Philippines located primarily in the Bangsamor ...
. Of those groups included are
Abu Sayyaf Group Abu Sayyaf (; ar, جماعة أبو سياف; ', ASG; fil, Grupong Abu Sayyaf), officially known by the ISIL as the Islamic State – East Asia Province, is a Jihadist militant and pirate group that follows the Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam. ...
(ASG),
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azza ...
and
Jemaah Islamiyah Jemaah Islamiyah ( ar, الجماعة الإسلامية, ''al-Jamāʿah al-Islāmiyyah'', meaning "Islamic Congregation", frequently abbreviated JI) is a Southeast Asian militant extremist Islamist terrorist group dedicated to the establishment ...
. The operation consisted of training the AFP in counter-terrorist operations as well as supporting the local people with humanitarian aid in Operation Smiles. In October 2002, the
Combined Task Force 150 upright=1.35, Ships assigned to Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) assemble in a formation in the Gulf of Oman, 6 May 2004 Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) is a multinational coalition naval task force working under the 33-nation coalition ...
and United States military Special Forces established themselves in Djibouti at
Camp Lemonnier Camp Lemonnier is a United States Naval Expeditionary Base, situated next to Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport in Djibouti City, and home to the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) of the U.S. Africa Command (USAFRICOM) ...
. The stated goals of the operation were to provide humanitarian aid and patrol the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ, q’ärnī afīrīqa, ar, القرن الأفريقي, al-qarn al ...

Horn of Africa
to reduce the abilities of terrorist organizations in the region. Similar to OEF-P, the goal of humanitarian aid was emphasized, ostensibly to prevent militant organizations from being able to take hold amongst the population as well as reemerge after being removed. The military aspect involves coalition forces searching and boarding ships entering the region for illegal cargo as well as providing training and equipment to the armed forces in the region. The humanitarian aspect involves building schools, clinics and water wells to enforce the confidence of the local people. Since 2001, the cumulative expenditure by the U.S. government on Operation Enduring Freedom has exceeded $150 billion. The operation continues, with military direction mostly coming from
United States Central Command The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is one of the eleven unified combatant commands of the U.S. Department of Defense. It was established in 1983, taking over the previous responsibilities of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task ...
.


Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)


The Taliban

Seizing upon a
power vacuum In political science and political history, the term power vacuum, also known as a power void, is an analogy between a physical vacuum to the political condition "when someone in a place of power, has lost control of something and no one has repla ...
after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan after their
invasion An invasion is a military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory owned by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing contr ...
, the
Taliban The Taliban ( ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students) or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), are a Sunni Islamist movement and military organisation in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurge ...
governed Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001. Their extreme interpretation of Islamic law prompted them to ban music, television, sports, and dancing, and enforce harsh judicial penalties (See Human rights in Afghanistan). Amputation was an accepted form of punishment for stealing, and public executions could often be seen at the Kabul football stadium. Women's rights groups around the world were frequently critical as the Taliban banned women from appearing in public or holding many jobs outside the home. They drew further criticism when they destroyed the
Buddhas of Bamyan The Buddhas of Bamiyan were two 6th-century monumental statues of Gautama Buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley of central Afghanistan, northwest of Kabul at an elevation of . Carbon dating of the structural components of th ...
, historical statues nearly 1,500 years old, because the Buddhas were considered idols. In 1996, Saudi
dissident A dissident is a person who actively challenges an established political or religious system, doctrine, belief, policy, or institution. In a religious context, the word has been used since 18th century, and in the political sense since 1940, coincid ...
Osama bin Laden Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden ( ar, أسا‌مة بن محمد بن عو‌ض بن لا‌د‌ن, '; March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), also rendered Usama bin Ladin, was a founder of the pan-Islamic militant organization . The group ...
moved to Afghanistan upon the invitation of the
Northern Alliance The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan ( fa, جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان ''Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i A ...
leader Abdur Rabb ur Rasool Sayyaf. When the Taliban came to power, bin Laden was able to forge an alliance between the Taliban and his
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azza ...
organization. It is understood that al-Qaeda-trained fighters known as the
055 Brigade The 055 Brigade (or 55th Arab Brigade) was an elite guerrilla organization sponsored and trained by Al Qaeda that was integrated into the Taliban army between 1995 and 2001. Composition and role The unit consisted mostly of foreign guerrilla fight ...
were integrated with the Taliban army between 1997 and 2001. It has been suggested that the Taliban and bin Laden had very close connections.


U.S.-led coalition action

On 20 September 2001, the U.S. stated that Osama bin Laden was behind the
11 September attacks The September 11 attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Wahhabi terrorist group Al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks resulted i ...
in 2001. The US made a five-point ultimatum to the Taliban: :* Deliver to the U.S. all of the leaders of al-Qaeda :* Release all imprisoned foreign nationals :* Close immediately every terrorist training camp :* Hand over every terrorist and their supporters to appropriate authorities :* Give the United States full access to terrorist training camps for inspection On 21 September 2001, the
Taliban The Taliban ( ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students) or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), are a Sunni Islamist movement and military organisation in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurge ...
rejected this ultimatum, stating there was no evidence in their possession linking bin Laden to the 11 September attacks. On 22 September 2001 the United Arab Emirates and later Saudi Arabia withdrew their recognition of the Taliban as the legal government of Afghanistan, leaving neighboring Pakistan as the only remaining country with diplomatic ties. On 4 October 2001, it was reported that the Taliban covertly offered to turn bin Laden over to Pakistan for trial in an international tribunal that operated according to Islamic shar'ia law. On 7 October 2001, the Taliban proposed to try bin Laden in Afghanistan in an Islamic court. This proposition was immediately rejected by the US. On 14 October 2001, the Taliban proposed to hand bin Laden over to a third country for trial, but only if they were given evidence of bin Laden's involvement in the events of 11 September 2001. The
UN Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly, and approv ...
, on 16 January 2002, unanimously established an arms embargo and the freezing of identifiable assets belonging to bin Laden, al-Qaeda, and the remaining Taliban.


Combat operations start

On Sunday 7 October 2001, American and British warplanes began targeting Taliban forces and al-Qaeda. Cruise missiles were fired from warships. The
Northern Alliance The Afghan Northern Alliance, officially known as the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan ( fa, جبهه متحد اسلامی ملی برای نجات افغانستان ''Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islāmi-yi Millī barāyi Nijāt-i A ...
, aided by Joint Special Operations teams consisting of Green Berets from the
5th Special Forces Group The 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) (5th SFG (A)) is one of the most decorated active duty United States Army Special Forces groups in the U.S. armed forces. The 5th SFG (A) saw extensive action in the Vietnam War and played a pivotal role in ...
, aircrew members from the
160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), abbreviated as 160th SOAR (A), is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides helicopter aviation support for general purpose forces and special operations forces. I ...
(SOAR), and
Air Force Combat Controllers United States Air Force Combat Control Teams, singular Combat Controller (CCT) (AFSC 1Z2X1), are American special operations forces (specifically known as "special tactics operators") who specialize in all aspects of air-ground communication, in ...
, fought against the Taliban. Aided by U.S. bombing and massive defections, they captured
Mazar-i-Sharif Mazār-i-Sharīf (Dari and ps, مزار شریف; ), also called Mazār-e Sharīf, or just Mazar, is the fourth-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN–Habitat population estimate 427,600. It is the capital of Balkh province and is linked by ...
on 9 November. They then rapidly gained control of most of northern Afghanistan, and took control of Kabul on 13 November after the Taliban unexpectedly fled the city. The Taliban were restricted to a smaller and smaller region, with
Kunduz Kunduz (; ps, کندز; prs, قندوز original name: ) is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province. The city has a population of about 268,893, making it about the 6th-largest city of Afghanistan, and the la ...

Kunduz
, the last Taliban-held city in the north, captured on 26 November. Most of the Taliban fled to Pakistan. The war continued in the south of the country, where the Taliban retreated to
Kandahar Kandahar (; ps, کندهار; prs, قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is a city in Afghanistan, located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of . It is Afghanistan's second largest city after Kabul, ...
. After Kandahar fell in December, remnants of the Taliban and al-Qaeda continued to mount resistance. Meanwhile, in November 2001 the U.S. military and its allied forces established their first ground base in Afghanistan to the south west of
Kandahar Kandahar (; ps, کندهار; prs, قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is a city in Afghanistan, located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of . It is Afghanistan's second largest city after Kabul, ...
, known as FOB Rhino. The
Battle of Tora Bora The Battle of Tora Bora was a military engagement that took place in the cave complex of Tora Bora, eastern Afghanistan, from December 6–17, 2001, during the opening stages of the United States invasion of Afghanistan. It was launched by the Un ...
, involving U.S., British and Northern Alliance forces took place in December 2001 to further destroy the Taliban and suspected al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. In early March 2002 the United States military, along with allied Afghan military forces, conducted a large operation to destroy al-Qaeda in an operation code-named
Operation Anaconda Operation Anaconda was a military operation that took place in early March 2002 as part of the War in Afghanistan. CIA paramilitary officers, working with their allies, attempted to destroy al-Qaeda and Taliban forces. The operation took place ...
. The operation was carried out by elements of the United States
10th Mountain Division The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division in the United States Army based at Fort Drum, New York. Designated as a mountain warfare unit, the division is the only one of its size in the US military to receive intens ...
,
101st Airborne Division The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is a light infantry division of the United States Army specializing in air assault operations. The Screaming Eagles were referred to as "the tip of the spear" by former U.S. Secretary of Defense ...
, the
U.S. special forces United States Special Operations Forces (SOF) are the special forces of the United States Department of Defense's United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) within the United States Armed Forces, used for special operations. Composition ...
groups TF 11, TF Bowie, TF Dagger, TF K-Bar, British
Royal Marines The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is an amphibious light infantry and also one of the five fighting arms of the Royal Navy. The marines can trace their origins back to the formation of the English Army's "Duke of York and Albany's maritime regime ...
, the Norwegian ''
Forsvarets Spesialkommando ) , type = Special operations forces , role = Special reconnaissanceDirect actionMilitary assistanceCombat search and rescueCounter-terrorism Hostage Rescue , size = Classified , command_structure = , current_commander = Oberst Frode Kristoffersen ...
'' (FSK), ''
Hærens Jegerkommando Hærens Jegerkommando was a special forces unit of the Norwegian military. It was the armed forces competence centre for commando, airborne and counter terrorist duty in the Norwegian Army. Its headquarters were located 30 kilometres north of ...
'' and ''
Marinejegerkommandoen ''Marinejegerkommandoen'' (MJK) (english: ''Naval Special Operations Commando'') is the maritime/naval special warfare unit of the Norwegian Special Operations Command and was established in 1953. The MJK is under the command of the Norwegian Sp ...
'', Canada's 3rd Battalion
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI, generally referred to as the Patricia's) is one of the three Regular Force infantry regiments of the Canadian Army of the Canadian Armed Forces. It is named for Princess Patricia of Connaught, daug ...
, Canada's
Joint Task Force 2 , march = , mascot = , battles = , notable_commanders = LGen Michael Rouleau, OMM, MSC, CDCol Barry MacLeodLCol Ray Romses , anniversaries = , decorations = United States Presidential Unit Citation , identification_symbol = Tan beret , identifi ...
, the German KSK, and elements of the
Australian Special Air Service Regiment The Special Air Service Regiment, officially abbreviated SASR though commonly known as the SAS, is a special forces unit of the Australian Army. Formed in 1957, it was modelled on the British SAS sharing the motto, "Who Dares Wins". The regim ...
and of the
New Zealand Special Air Service The New Zealand Special Air Service, abbreviated as 1 NZSAS Regt, was formed on 7 July 1955 and is the special forces unit of the New Zealand Army, closely modelled on the British Special Air Service (SAS). It traces its origins to the Second Worl ...
and the
Afghan National Army The Afghan National Army is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces. It is under the Ministry of Defense in Kabul and is largely trained by US-led NATO forces. The ANA is divided into seven corps, with the 201st in Kabul followed by the ...
. After managing to evade U.S. forces throughout the summer of 2002, the remnants of the Taliban gradually began to regain their confidence. A U.S. and Canadian led operation (supported by British and Dutch forces), Operation Mountain Thrust was launched in May 2006 to counter renewed Taliban insurgency. Since January 2006, the
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
International Security Assistance Force ' ps, کمک او همکاري ' , allies= , opponents= Taliban Al-Qaeda , commander1 = , commander1_label = Commander , commander2 = , commander2_label = , commander3 = , commander3_label = Chief of Staff , notable_commande ...
undertook combat duties from Operation Enduring Freedom in southern Afghanistan, the NATO force chiefly made up of British, Canadian and Dutch forces (and some smaller contributions from Denmark, Romania and Estonia and air support from Norway as well as air and artillery support from the U.S.) (''see the article Coalition combat operations in Afghanistan in 2006''). The United States military also conducts military operations separate from NATO as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in other parts of Afghanistan, in areas such as Kandahar, Bagram, and Kabul (including Camp Eggers and Camp Phoenix.)


International support

The United States was supported by several nations during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan in 2001–2003 and in subsequent coalition operations directly or indirectly in support of OEF. See the article
Afghanistan War order of battle :''This list covers coalition forces in Afghanistan in 2012. See the article Participants in Operation Enduring Freedom for coalition support for Operation Enduring Freedom from October 2001 to 2003. For coalition forces involved in NATO combat oper ...
for the current disposition of coalition forces in Afghanistan.


Result

The U.S.-led coalition initially removed the
Taliban The Taliban ( ps, طالبان, ṭālibān, lit=students) or Taleban, who refer to themselves as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), are a Sunni Islamist movement and military organisation in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurge ...
from power and seriously crippled
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azza ...
and associated militants in Afghanistan. However, success in quelling the Taliban insurgency since the 2001 invasion has been mixed. Many believe the Taliban cannot be defeated as long as it has sanctuary in neighboring Pakistan and that Operation Enduring Freedom has transformed into a continuing full-fledged war with no end in sight. On 9 October 2004, Afghanistan elected Hamid Karzai president in its first direct elections. The following year, Afghans conducted the 2005 Afghan parliamentary election on 18 September. Since the invasion, hundreds of schools and mosques have been constructed, millions of dollars in aid have been distributed, and the occurrence of violence has been reduced. While military forces interdict Insurgency, insurgents and assure security, Provincial reconstruction teams are tasked with infrastructure building, such as constructing roads and bridges, assisting during floods, and providing food and water to Afghan refugees, refugees. Many warlords have participated in an allegiance program, recognizing the legitimacy of the government of Afghanistan, and surrendering their soldiers and weapons; however, subsequent actions have led to questions about their true loyalties. The
Afghan National Army The Afghan National Army is the land warfare branch of the Afghan Armed Forces. It is under the Ministry of Defense in Kabul and is largely trained by US-led NATO forces. The ANA is divided into seven corps, with the 201st in Kabul followed by the ...
, Afghan National Police, and Afghan Border Police are being trained to assume the task of securing their nation. On 31 December 2014, Operation Enduring Freedom concluded, and was succeeded by
Operation Freedom's Sentinel Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS) is the official name used by the U.S. Government for the mission succeeding Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in continuation of the War in Afghanistan (2001 - Present) as part of the larger Global War on Terrorism ...
on 1 January 2015.


Criticism

Hardliner newspapers in Iran and religious scholars in Lebanon suggested "Infinite Imperialism," "Infinite Arrogance," or "Infinite Injustice" might have been more appropriate name for the operation. AFP, reporting on a news story in the Sunday, 3 April 2004, issue of ''The New Yorker'', wrote that retired Army Colonel Hy Rothstein, "who served in the United States Army Special Forces, Army Special Forces for more than 20 years, ...commissioned by The Pentagon to examine the war in Afghanistan concluded the conflict created conditions that have given 'warlordism, banditry and opium production a new lease on life'..." The conduct of U.S. forces was criticised in a report entitled ''Enduring Freedom – Abuses by U.S. Forces in Afghanistan'' by U.S.-based human rights group Human Rights Watch in 2004. Some Pakistani scholars, such as Masood Ashraf Raja, editor of Pakistaniaat: A Journal of Pakistan Studies, Pakistaniaat, have also provided a more specific form of criticism that relates to the consequences of the Global War on Terrorism on the region.


Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines (OEF-P)


Abu Sayyaf Group

The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) Al Harakat Al Islamiyya, is deemed a "foreign terrorist organization" by the United States government. Specifically, it is an Islamist separatist group based in and around the southern islands of the Republic of the Philippines, primarily Jolo,
Basilan Basilan, officially the Province of Basilan (Chavacano: ''Provincia de Basilan''; Tausug: ''Wilaya' sin Basilan''; Yakan: ''Wilayah Basilanin''; tl, Lalawigan ng Basilan) is an island province of the Philippines located primarily in the Bangsamor ...
, and Mindanao. Since inception in the early 1990s, the group has carried out bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, and extortion in their fight for an independent Islamic state in western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Its claimed overarching goal is to create a Pan-Islamic superstate across the ''Malay'' portions of Southeast Asia, spanning, from east to west, the large island of Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago (Basilan and Jolo islands), the large island of Borneo (Malaysia and Indonesia), the South China Sea, and the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Myanmar).


Jemaah Islamiyah

Jemaah Islamiyah is a militant Islamic terrorist organization dedicated to the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic theocracy in Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, the south of Thailand and the Philippines. Jemaah Islamiyah originally used peaceful means to achieve its goals, but later resorted to terrorism because of its connections with al-Qaeda. Financial links between Jemaah Islamiyah and other terrorist groups, such as Abu Sayyaf and
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azza ...
, have been found to exist. Jemaah Islamiyah means "Islamic Group" or "Islamic Community" and is often abbreviated JI. Jemaah Islamiyah is thought to have killed hundreds of civilians. Also, it is suspected of carrying out the 2002 Bali terrorist bombing, Bali car bombing on 12 October 2002, in which suicide bombers attacked a nightclub killing 202 people and wounding many more. Most of the casualties were Australian tourists. After this attack, the United States Department of State, U.S. State Department designated Jemaah Islamiyah as a U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Foreign Terrorist Organization. Jemaah Islamiyah is also suspected of carrying out the Zamboanga bombings, the Metro Manila bombings, the 2004 Australian embassy bombing and the 2005 Bali bombings, 2005 Bali terrorist bombing.


U.S. Actions

In January 2002, 1,200 Members of United States Special Operations Command, United States Special Operations Command, Pacific (SOCPAC) were deployed to the Philippines to assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) in uprooting al-Qaeda, Jemaah Islamiyah and Abu Sayyaf. The members of SOCPAC were assigned to assist in military operations against the terrorist forces as well as humanitarian operations for the island of Basilan, where most of the conflict was expected to take place. The United States Special Forces (SF) Unit trained and equipped special forces and scout rangers of the AFP, creating the Light Reaction Regiment, Light Reaction Company (LRC). The LRC and elements of SOCPAC deployed to Basilan on completion of their training. The stated goals of the deployment were denying the ASG sanctuary, surveiling, controlling, and denying ASG routes, surveiling supporting villages and key personnel, conducting local training to overcome AFP weaknesses and sustain AFP strengths, supporting operations by the AFP "strike force" (LRC) in the area of responsibility (AOR), conducting and supporting civil affairs operations in the AOR.


Result

The desired result was for the AFP to gain sufficient capability to locate and destroy the ASG, to recover hostages and to enhance the legitimacy of the Philippine government. Much of the operation was a success: the ASG was driven from Basilan and one U.S. hostage was recovered. The Abu Sayyaf Group's ranks, which once counted more than 800 members, was reduced to less than 100. The humanitarian portion of the operation, Operation Smiles, created 14 schools, 7 clinics, 3 hospitals and provided medical care to over 18,000 residents of Basilan. Humanitarian groups were able to continue their work without fear of further kidnappings and terrorists attacks by the Abu Sayyaf Group.


Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA)

Unlike other operations contained in Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF-HOA does not have a specific terrorist organization as a target. OEF-HOA instead focuses its efforts to disrupt and detect terrorist activities in the region and to work with host nations to deny the reemergence of terrorist cells and activities. Operations began in mid-2002 at
Camp Lemonnier Camp Lemonnier is a United States Naval Expeditionary Base, situated next to Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport in Djibouti City, and home to the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) of the U.S. Africa Command (USAFRICOM) ...
by a Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force (CJSOTF) augmented by support forces from Fort Stewart, Fort Hood, and Fort Story. In October 2002, the Combined Joint Task Force, Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) was established at Djibouti at
Camp Lemonnier Camp Lemonnier is a United States Naval Expeditionary Base, situated next to Djibouti–Ambouli International Airport in Djibouti City, and home to the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) of the U.S. Africa Command (USAFRICOM) ...
, taking over responsibilities from the CJSOTF. CJTF-HOA comprised approximately 2,000 personnel including U.S. military and Special Operations Forces (SOF), and coalition force members,
Combined Task Force 150 upright=1.35, Ships assigned to Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) assemble in a formation in the Gulf of Oman, 6 May 2004 Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150) is a multinational coalition naval task force working under the 33-nation coalition ...
(CTF-150). The coalition force consists of ships from Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, India, Italy, Pakistan, New Zealand, Spain, Turkey and the United Kingdom. The primary goal of the coalition forces is to monitor, inspect, board and stop suspected shipments from entering the Horn of Africa region. Since 2003, the U.S. Military also conducts operations targeting Al-Qaeda-linked fighters in Somalia, these operations had reportedly killed between 113 and 136 militants by early 2016. On 7 March 2016, a further 150 were killed in U.S. airstrikes on an al Shabaab training camp north of Mogadishu. CJTF-HOA has devoted the majority of its efforts to train selected armed forces units of the countries of Djibouti, Kenya and Ethiopia in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency tactics. Humanitarian efforts conducted by CJTF-HOA include the rebuilding of schools and medical clinics, as well as providing medical services to those countries whose forces are being trained. The program expands as part of the Trans-Saharan Counter Terrorism Initiative as CJTF personnel also assist in training the forces of Chad, Niger, Mauritania and Mali.


U.S. action

"Operation Enduring Freedom" * 7 October 2001 – 28 December 2014 * Casualties U.S. Coalition: 3,486 Dead * Taliban/Al-Qaeda:25,500–40,500 Dead Anti-piracy operations were undertaken by the coalition throughout 2006 with a Action of 18 March 2006, battle fought in March when US vessels were attacked by pirates. In January 2007, during the War in Somalia (2006–09), war in Somalia, an AC-130 airstrike was conducted against
al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda (; ar, القاعدة ', , translation: "The Base", "The Foundation", alternatively spelled al-Qaida and al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national terrorist organization founded in 1988. by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azza ...
members embedded with forces of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) operating in southern Somalia near Battle of Ras Kamboni, Ras Kamboni. US naval forces, including the aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, USS ''Dwight D. Eisenhower'', were positioned off the coast of Somalia to provide support and to prevent any al-Qaeda forces escaping by sea. Actions against pirates also occurred in June and October 2007 with varying amounts of success. "Operation Resolute Support/Freedom's Sentinel" * 1 January 2015 – Present * Casualties U.S. Coalition: 1 January 2015 – Present , 70 Dead* – Subject to change * Taliban/Al-Qaeda: Effective 1 January 2015, Secretary of Defense Hagel announced that the new U.S. mission in Afghanistan will focus on training, advising, and assisting Afghan security forces and designated as Operation Freedom's Sentinel. 19 About 13,500 U.S. troops are expected in Afghanistan through 2015 and will be assisted by troops from NATO allies.


Military decorations

Since 2002, the United States military has created military awards and decorations related to Operation Enduring Freedom * Afghanistan Campaign Medal
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
also created a military decoration related to Operation Enduring Freedom: * Non-Article 5 International Security Assistance Force, ISAF NATO Medal


See also

* Coalition casualties in Afghanistan


References


Further reading

* .


External links


The Enduring Freedom Foundation
* Moorthy, Neelesh (6 July 2016)
"Obama increases U.S. troops to remain in Afghanistan past 2016"
Politifact. * {{cite book, url = http://www.history.army.mil/html/books/enduring_voices/ , title = Enduring Voices: Oral Histories of the US Army Experience in Afghanistan, 2003–2005, editor-first = Christopher N , editor-last = Koontz , id = CMH Pub 70-112-1 , year = 2008 , publisher = United States Army Center of Military History , location = Washington, DC full text available online Code names, Enduring Freedom, Operation Counter-terrorism in the United States Military operations involving the United States, Enduring Freedom United States Marine Corps in the 21st century 2001 in Afghanistan Islamic State of Afghanistan War in Afghanistan (2001–present)