EtymologyNew Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name "Mexico" itself derives from Nahuatl, and in that language it originally referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas (Aztec Empire) in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers also used the term "Mexico" to name the region of New Mexico (' in Spanish) in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México". The Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica (Aztec) cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire, Aztec (Mexica) Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, however, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, and they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" applied to various configurations of a former U.S. New Mexico Territory and, even prior to its former Mexican territorial status, a former provincial kingdom of New Spain called Santa Fe de Nuevo México, Nuevo México, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions.
GeographyFile:Rio Grande Gorge Bridge.jpg, Rio Grande Gorge Bridge, Rio Grande Gorge With a total area of , New Mexico is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, fifth-largest state. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and (due to a 19th-century surveying error) west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexico, Mexican states of Chihuahua (state), Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that. The western border with Arizona runs along the 32nd meridian west from Washington, 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the New Mexico Bootheel, Bootheel. The 37th parallel north, 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. Its surface water area is about . The New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, auburn-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexico's arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, especially towards the north. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north–south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexico's rivers are the Rio Grande, Pecos River, Pecos, Canadian River, Canadian, San Juan River (Colorado River), San Juan, and Gila River, Gila. The Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. The U.S. government protects millions of acres of New Mexico as United States National Forest, national forests, including: * Carson National Forest * Cibola National Forest (headquartered in Albuquerque) * Lincoln National Forest * Santa Fe National Forest (headquartered in Santa Fe) * Gila National Forest * Gila Wilderness Areas managed by the National Park Service include: * Aztec Ruins National Monument at Aztec, New Mexico, Aztec * Bandelier National Monument in Los Alamos, New Mexico, Los Alamos * Capulin Volcano National Monument near Capulin, New Mexico, Capulin * Carlsbad Caverns National Park near Carlsbad, New Mexico, Carlsbad * Chaco Culture National Historical Park at Nageezi, New Mexico, Nageezi * El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail * El Malpais National Monument in Grants, New Mexico, Grants * El Morro National Monument in Ramah, New Mexico, Ramah * Fort Union National Monument at Watrous, New Mexico, Watrous * Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument near Silver City, New Mexico, Silver City * Old Spanish National Historic Trail * Organ Mountains—Desert Peaks National Monument near Las Cruces * Manhattan Project National Historical Park * Pecos National Historical Park in Pecos, New Mexico, Pecos * Petroglyph National Monument near Albuquerque * Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument at Mountainair, New Mexico, Mountainair * Santa Fe National Historic Trail * White Sands National Park near Alamogordo, New Mexico, Alamogordo * Rio Grande del Norte National Monument near Taos, New Mexico, Taos * Valles Caldera National Preserve in the Jemez Mountains Areas managed by the New Mexico State Parks Division: * Bluewater Lake State Park * Bottomless Lakes State Park * Brantley Lake State Park * Cerrillos Hills State Park * Caballo Lake State Park * Cimarron Canyon State Park * City of Rocks State Park * Clayton Lake State Park * Conchas Lake State Park * Coyote Creek State Park * Eagle Nest Lake State Park * Elephant Butte Lake State Park * El Vado Lake State Park * Heron Lake (New Mexico), Heron Lake State Park * Hyde Memorial State Park * Leasburg Dam State Park * Living Desert Zoo and Gardens State Park * Manzano Mountains State Park * Mesilla Valley Bosque State Park * Morphy Lake State Park * Navajo Lake ''(Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, Rio Arriba, NM and San Juan County, New Mexico, San Juan, NM)'' * Oasis State Park * Oliver Lee Memorial State Park * Pancho Villa State Park * Percha Dam State Park * Rio Grande Nature Center State Park * Rockhound State Park * Santa Rosa Lake State Park * Storrie Lake State Park * Sugarite Canyon State Park * Sumner Lake State Park * Fenton Lake State Park * Ute Lake State Park * Vietnam Veterans Memorial State Park * Villanueva State Park Visitors also frequent the surviving native pueblos of New Mexico. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state. Other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the state.
ClimateNew Mexico's climate is generally semiarid to arid, though areas of continental and alpine climates exist, and its territory is mostly covered by mountains, high plains, and desert. The Great Plains (High Plains) are in eastern New Mexico, similar to the Colorado high plains in eastern Colorado. The two states share similar terrain, with both having plains, mountains, basins, mesas, and desert lands. New Mexico's statewide average precipitation is a year, with average monthly amounts peaking in the summer, as at Albuquerque, and Las Cruces, New Mexico, Las Cruces in the south. The average annual temperatures can range from in the southeast to below in the northern mountains. During the summer, daytime temperatures can often exceed at elevations below , the average high temperature in July ranges from at the lower elevations down to 78°F (26°C) at the higher elevations. In the colder months of November to March, many cities in New Mexico can have nighttime temperature lows in the teens above zero, or lower. The highest temperature recorded in New Mexico was at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Loving, New Mexico, Loving on June 27, 1994, and the lowest recorded temperature is at Gavilan, New Mexico, Gavilan (near Lindrith, New Mexico, Lindrith) on February 1, 1951. :Astronomical observatories in New Mexico, Astronomical observatories in New Mexico take advantage of unusually clear skies, including the Apache Point Observatory, the Very Large Array, the Magdalena Ridge Observatory, and others.
Flora and faunaNew Mexico has five unique floristic zones, providing diverse sets of habitats for many plants and animals. The Llano Estacado (or Shortgrass Prairie) in the eastern part of the state is characterized by sod-forming short grasses such as Bouteloua gracilis, blue grama, and it used to sustain American bison, bison. The Chihuahuan Desert extends through the south of the state and is characterized by shrubby Larrea tridentata, creosote. The Colorado Plateau in the northwest corner of New Mexico is high desert with cold winters, and is characterized by Artemisia tridentata, sagebrush, Atriplex confertifolia, shadescale, Sarcobatus, greasewood, and other plants adapted to the Soil salinity, saline and seleniferous soil. The mountainous Mogollon Plateau in the west-central of the state and southern Rocky Mountains in the north-central, have a wide range in elevation (), with vegetation types corresponding to elevation gradients, such as Pinyon-juniper woodland, piñon-juniper woodlands near the base, through evergreen Pinophyta, conifers, spruce-fir and aspen forests, Krummholz, and alpine tundra. The Madrean Region, Apachian zone tucked into the southwestern bootheel of the state has high-calcium soil, Madrean pine-oak woodlands, oak woodlands, and Cupressus arizonica, Arizona cypress, and other plants that are not found in other parts of the state. Some of the native wildlife includes American black bear, black bears, bighorn sheep, bobcats, cougars, coyotes, deer, elk, jackrabbits, kangaroo rats, Peccary, javelina, porcupines, pronghorn, pronghorn antelope, greater roadrunner, roadrunners, Crotalus atrox, western diamondbacks, wild turkeys, and the endangered Mexican wolf, Mexican gray wolf and Rio Grande silvery minnow.
Environmental IssuesIn January 2016, New Mexico sued the United States Environmental Protection Agency over negligence after the 2015 Gold King Mine waste water spill. The spill had caused heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and toxins such as arsenic to flow into the Animas River, polluting water basins of several states
PrehistoryThe first known inhabitants of New Mexico were members of the Clovis culture of Paleo-Indians. Later inhabitants include American Indians of the Mogollon culture, Mogollon and Ancestral Puebloans, Ancestral Pueblo peoples cultures.
Seven Cities of Cibola and Nuevo MéxicoFrancisco Vásquez de Coronado assembled an enormous expedition at Compostela, Mexico, Compostela in 1540–1542 to explore and find the mythical Seven Golden Cities of Cibola as described by Fray Marcos de Niza. The name ''New Mexico'' was first used by a seeker of gold mines named Francisco de Ibarra, who explored far to the north of New Spain in 1563 and reported his findings as being in "a New Mexico". Juan de Oñate officially established the name when he was appointed the first governor of the new Province of New Mexico in 1598. The same year, he founded the ''Española, New Mexico, San Juan de los Caballeros'' capital at ''San Gabriel de Yungue-Ouinge'' (near modern Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico), the first permanent European settlement in New Mexico, on the Rio Grande near Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo. Oñate extended ''El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro'', Royal Road of the Interior, by from Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua, to his remote colony. The settlement of ''Santa Fe, New Mexico, La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís'' was established as a more permanent capital at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in 1610. As a result of the Pueblo Revolt, the only successful revolt against European expansion by Native Americans, these early cities were occupied by the Puebloan peoples until the Spanish returned with an offer of better cultural and religious liberties for the Pueblos. After the death of the Pueblo leader Popé, Diego de Vargas restored the area to Spanish rule. The returning settlers founded ''Albuquerque, New Mexico, La Villa de Alburquerque'' in 1706 at Old Town Albuquerque as a trading center for existing surrounding communities such as Barelas, Pueblo of Isleta, Isleta, Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, New Mexico, Los Ranchos, and Sandia Pueblo, Sandia, naming it for the viceroy of New Spain, Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque. As a part of New Spain, the claims for the province of New Mexico passed to independent Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. The Republic of Texas claimed the portion east of the Rio Grande when it seceded from Mexico in 1836 when it incorrectly assumed the older Hispanic settlements of the upper Rio Grande were the same as the newly established Mexican settlements of Texas. Texas's only attempt to establish a presence or control in the claimed territory was the failed Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Their entire army was captured and jailed by the Hispanic New Mexico militia. At the turn of the 19th century, the extreme northeastern part of New Mexico, north of the Canadian River and east of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains was still claimed by France, which sold it in 1803 as part of the Louisiana Purchase. When the Louisiana Territory was admitted as a state in 1812, the U.S. reclassified it as part of the Missouri Territory. The region (along with territory that makes up present-day southeastern Colorado, the Texas Panhandle, Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles, and southwestern Kansas) was ceded to Spain under the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819. By 1800, the population of New Mexico had reached 25,000.
Territorial phaseFollowing the victory of the United States in the Mexican–American War (1846–48), under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern holdings including the territories of California, Texas, and New Mexico, to the United States of America. The United States vowed to accept the residents' claims to their lands and to accept them as full citizens with rights of suffrage. After Texas was admitted as a state to the Union, it continued to claim a northeastern portion of New Mexico. It was forced by the US government to drop these claims, in the Compromise of 1850, Texas ceded these claims to the United States of the area in New Mexico lying east of the Rio Grande, in exchange for $10million from the federal government. Congress established the separate New Mexico Territory in September 1850. It included most of the present-day states of Arizona and New Mexico, and part of Colorado. When the boundary was fixed, a surveyor's error awarded the Permian Basin to the State of Texas. New Mexico dropped its claims to the Permian in a bid to gain statehood in 1911. In 1853, the United States acquired the mostly desert southwestern bootheel of the state and southern Arizona south of the Gila River in the Gadsden Purchase. It wanted to control lands needed for the right-of-way to encourage construction of a transcontinental railroad. New Mexico played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. Both the Confederate States of America, Confederate and Union (American Civil War), Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over New Mexico Territory. In 1861, the Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America), Arizona Territory and waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign in an attempt to control the American Southwest and open up access to Union California. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. However, the Confederate territorial government continued to operate out of Texas, and Confederate troops marched under the Arizona flag until the end of the war. Additionally, more than 8,000 men from New Mexico Territory served in the Union Army. During the American frontier, many of the folklore characters of the Western (genre), Western genre had their origins in New Mexico. Including the legend of historical figures, such as businesswoman Maria Gertrudis Barceló, outlaw Billy the Kid, and lawman Elfego Baca. In the late 19th century, the majority of officially European-descended residents in New Mexico were ethnic mestizos of Native Mexican and Native American (Pueblo, Navajo, Apache, Genízaro, and Comanche) ancestry, many of whom had deep roots in the area from early Spanish colonial times, this distinctly New Mexican ethnic group became referred to as the Hispanos of New Mexico. Politically, they still controlled most of the town and county offices through area elections, and wealthy sheepherder families commanded considerable influence, preferring business, legislature, legislative, and judiciary, judicial relations with fellow indigenous New Mexican groups. The Anglo-Americans (which included recent African-American arrivals) tended to have more ties to the territorial governor and judges, who were appointed by officials outside of the region. The Anglo minority was "outnumbered, but well-organized and growing".Charles Montgomery, "Becoming 'Spanish-American': Race and Rhetoric in New Mexico Politics, 1880–1928"
StatehoodThe United States Congress admitted New Mexico as the List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, 47th state on January 6, 1912. New Mexico was eligible for statehood 60 years earlier but was kept out of the union for more than a half-century because it had a majority "alien" (i.e. Mexican-American) population. European-American settlers in the state had an uneasy relationship with the large Native American tribes, most of whose members lived on Indian reservation, reservations at the beginning of the 20th century. Although Congress passed a law in 1924 that granted all Native Americans U.S. citizenship, as well as the right to vote in federal and state elections, New Mexico was among several states with Jim Crow laws, e.g. those who do not pay taxes cannot vote.Willard Hughes Rollings, "Citizenship and Suffrage: The Native American Struggle for Civil Rights in the American West, 1830–1965"
PopulationThe United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New Mexico was 2,096,829 on July 1, 2019, a 1.83% increase since the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census. The 2000 United States Census, 2000 census recorded the population of New Mexico to be 1,819,046; ten years later it was 2,059,179—an 11.7% increase. Of the people residing in New Mexico 51.4% were born there; 37.9% were born in another state; 1.1% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or abroad to American parent(s); and 9.7% were foreign born. As of May 1, 2010, 7.5% of New Mexico's population was reported as under5 years of age, 25% under 18, and 13% were 65 or older. As of 2000, 8% of the residents of the state were foreign-born. Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanic ancestry, at 47% (as of July 1, 2012). This classification covers people of very different cultures and histories, including Spanish American, descendants of Spanish colonists with deep roots in the region, and recent immigrants from a variety of nations in Latin America, each with their own cultures. According to the United States Census Bureau Model-based Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, the number of persons in poverty has increased to 400,779 (19.8% of the population) persons in 2010 from 2000. At that time, the estimated number of persons in poverty was recorded at 309,193 (17.3% of the population). The latest available data for 2014 estimate the number of persons in poverty at 420,388 (20.6% of the population).
Birth data''Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.'' * Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one ''Hispanic'' group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
AncestryNew Mexico is a Majority minority in the United States, majority-minority state. The U.S. Census Bureau estimated that 48% of the total 2015 population was Hispanic or Latino of any race, the highest of any state. The majority of Hispanics in New Mexico claim to be descendants of Spanish colonists who settled here during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. They speak New Mexican Spanish or English at home. The state also has a large Native American population, second in percentage behind that of Alaska. The 2018 racial composition of the population was estimated to be: * 82.0% White American * 10.9% Native Americans in the United States, Native American and Alaska Native * 2.6% African American, Black or African American * 1.8% Asian American, Asian * 0.2% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander * 2.6% Two or more races According to the United States Census Bureau, 1.5% of the population identifies as multiracial/mixed-race, a population larger than both the Asian and NHPI population groups. In 2008, New Mexico had the highest percentage (47%) of Hispanics (of any race) of any state, with 83% native-born and 17% foreign-born. According to the 2000 United States Census, the most commonly claimed ancestry groups in New Mexico were: * Mexican American, Mexican (16.3%) * Native American (10.3%) * German American, German (9.8%) * Spanish American, Spanish (9.3%) * English American, English (7.2%)
LanguagesAccording to the 2010 U.S. Census, 28.45% of the population age5 and older speak Spanish at home, while 3.50% speak . Some speakers of New Mexican Spanish are descendants of Spanish settler, settlers who arrived in New Mexico in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. While it is a common folk belief that New Mexican Spanish is an archaic form of 17th-century Castilian Spanish, and archaisms do exist, research reveals that traditional New Mexican Spanish "is neither more Iberian nor more archaic than other New World Spanishes". Besides Navajo, which is also spoken in Arizona, a few other Indigenous languages of the Americas, Native American languages are spoken by smaller groups in New Mexico, most of which are only spoken in the state. Native New Mexican languages include Mescalero-Chiricahua language, Mescalero Apache, Jicarilla language, Jicarilla Apache, Tewa language, Tewa, Southern Tiwa language, Southern Tiwa, Northern Tiwa, Jemez language, Towa, Keres (Eastern and Western), and Zuni. Mescalero and Jicarilla Apache are closely related Southern Athabaskan languages, and both are also related to Navajo. Tewa, the Tiwa languages, and Towa belong to the Tanoan languages, Kiowa-Tanoan language family, and thus all descend from a Language family, common ancestor. Keres and Zuni are Language isolate, language isolates, and have no relatives outside of New Mexico.
Official languageThe original state constitution of 1912 provided for a bilingual government with laws being published in both English and Spanish; this requirement was renewed twice, in 1931 and 1943. Nonetheless, the constitution does not declare any language as "official".''Constitution of the State of New Mexico''.
ReligionAccording to Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), the largest denominations in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 684,941; the Southern Baptist Convention with 113,452; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 67,637, and the United Methodist Church with 36,424 adherents. According to a 2008 survey by the Pew Research Center, the most common self-reported religious affiliation of New Mexico residents are mentioned in reference. Within the hierarchy of the Catholic Church, New Mexico belongs to the ecclesiastical province, Ecclesiastical Province of Santa Fe. New Mexico has three dioceses, one of which is an archdiocese: Archdiocese of Santa Fe, Diocese of Gallup, Diocese of Las Cruces.
EconomyOil and gas production, tourism, and federal government spending are important drivers of the state economy. State government has an elaborate system of tax credits and technical assistance to promote job growth and business investment, especially in new technologies.
Economic indicatorsIn 2010, New Mexico's gross domestic product was $80 billion, and an estimated $85 billion for 2013. In 2007, the per capita income, per capita personal income was $31,474 (ranked 43rd in the nation). In 2005, the percentage of persons below the poverty level was 18.4%. The New Mexico Tourism Department estimates that in Fiscal Year 2006, the travel industry in New Mexico generated expenditures of $6.5 billion. , the state's unemployment rate was 7.2%. During the late-2000s recession, New Mexico's unemployment rate peaked at 8.0% for the period June–October 2010.
Oil and gas productionNew Mexico is the third-largest crude oil and ninth-largest natural gas producer in the United States. The Permian Basin (North America), Permian and San Juan Basin, San Juan Basins, which are located partly in New Mexico, account for some of these natural resources. In 2000 the value of oil and gas produced was $8.2 billion, and in 2006, New Mexico accounted for 3.4% of the crude oil, 8.5% of the dry natural gas, and 10.2% of the natural gas liquids produced in the United States. However, the boom in hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling, horizontal drilling beginning in the mid-2010s led to a large increase in the production of crude oil from the Permian Basin and other U.S. sources; these developments allowed the United States to again become the world's largest producer of crude oil in 2018. New Mexico's oil and gas operations contribute to the state's above-average release of the greenhouse gas methane, including from a national Four Corners Methane Hot Spot, methane hot spot in the Four Corners area.
Federal governmentFederal government spending is a major driver of the New Mexico economy. In 2005, the federal government spent $2.03 on New Mexico for every dollar of tax revenue collected from the state. This rate was higher than any other state in the Union. New Mexico is currently the second most dependent tax dollar state. Many of the federal jobs relate to the military; the state hosts three air force bases (Kirtland Air Force Base, Holloman Air Force Base, and Cannon Air Force Base); a testing range (White Sands Missile Range); and an army proving ground (Fort Bliss's McGregor Range). A May 2005 estimate by New Mexico State University is that 11.65% of the state's total employment arises directly or indirectly from military spending. Other federal installations include the technology labs of Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories.
Economic incentivesNew Mexico provides a number of economic incentives to businesses operating in the state, including various types of tax credits and tax exemptions. Most of the incentives are based on job creation. New Mexico law allows governments to provide land, buildings, and infrastructure to businesses to promote job creation. Several municipalities have imposed an Economic Development Gross receipts tax, Gross Receipts Tax (a form of Municipal Infrastructure GRT) that is used to pay for these infrastructure improvements and for marketing their areas. The state provides financial incentives for film production. The New Mexico Film Office estimated at the end of 2007 that the incentive program had brought more than 85 film projects to the state since 2003 and had added $1.2 billion to the economy.
TaxationSince 2008, personal income tax rates for New Mexico have ranged from 1.7% to 4.9%, within four income brackets. As of 2007, Active duty, active-duty military salaries are exempt from state income tax. New Mexico is one of the largest tax havens in the US, offering numerous economic incentives and tax breaks on Personal income in the United States, personal and Corporate tax in the United States, corporate income. It does not have inheritance tax, Estate tax in the United States, estate tax, or sales taxes. New Mexico imposes a Gross Receipts Tax (GRT) on many transactions, which may even include some governmental receipts. This resembles a sales tax but, unlike the sales taxes in many states, it applies to services as well as tangible goods. Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser, however legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. GRT is imposed by New Mexico Taxation and Revenue Department, the state and there may be an additional locality component to produce a total tax rate. As of July 1, 2013 the combined tax rate ranged from 5.125% to 8.6875%. Property tax is imposed on real property by the state, by counties, and by school districts. In general, personal-use personal property is not subject to property taxation. On the other hand, property tax is levied on most business-use personal property. The taxable value of property is 1/3 of the assessed value. A tax rate of about 30 mill (currency), mills is applied to the taxable value, resulting in an effective tax rate of about 1%. In the 2005 tax year, the average millage was about 26.47 for residential property, and 29.80 for non-residential property. Assessed values of residences cannot be increased by more than 3% per year unless the residence is remodeled or sold. Property tax deductions are available for military veterans and heads of household.
TransportationNew Mexico has long been an important corridor for trade and human migration, migration. The builders of the ruins at Chaco Canyon also created a radiating network of roads from the mysterious settlement. Chaco Canyon's trade function shifted to Casas Grandes in the present-day Mexican state of Chihuahua, however, north–south trade continued. The pre-Christopher Columbus, Columbian trade with Mesoamerican cultures included northbound exotic birds, seashells and copper. Turquoise, pottery, and salt were some of the goods transported south along the Rio Grande. Present-day New Mexico's pre-Columbian trade is especially remarkable for being undertaken on foot. The north–south trade route later became a path for colonists with horses arriving from New Spain as well as trade and communication. The route was called ''El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro''. The Santa Fe Trail was the 19th-century territory's vital commercial and military highway link to the Eastern United States. All with termini in Northern New Mexico, the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the Old Spanish Trail (trade route), Old Spanish Trail are all recognized as National Historic Trails. New Mexico's latitude and low passes made it an attractive east–west transportation corridor. As a territory, the Gadsden Purchase increased New Mexico's land area for the purpose of the constructing a southern transcontinental railroad, that of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Another transcontinental railroad was completed by the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. The railroads essentially replaced the earlier trails but brought on a population boom. Early transcontinental auto trails later crossed the state bringing more migrants. Railroads were later supplemented or replaced by a system of highways and airports. Today, New Mexico's Interstate Highways approximate the earlier land routes of the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the transcontinental railroads.
Interstate HighwaysNew Mexico has only three List of Interstate Highways in New Mexico, Interstate Highways. In Albuquerque, I-25 and I-40 meet at a stack interchange called Big I, The BigI. Interstate 10 in New Mexico, Interstate 10 travels in the southwest portion of New Mexico starting from the Arizona state line near Lordsburg, New Mexico, Lordsburg to the area in between Las Cruces, New Mexico, Las Cruces and Anthony, New Mexico, Anthony, near El Paso, Texas. Interstate 25 in New Mexico, Interstate 25 is a major north–south interstate highway starting from Las Cruces to the Colorado state line near Raton, New Mexico, Raton. Interstate 40 in New Mexico, Interstate 40 is a major east–west interstate highway starting from the Arizona state line west of Gallup, New Mexico, Gallup to the Texas state line east from Tucumcari, New Mexico, Tucumcari.
U.S. HighwaysNew Mexico currently has 15 List of U.S. Routes in New Mexico, United States Highways. This includes U.S. Route 54, US 54, U.S. Route 56, US 56, U.S. Route 60, US 60, U.S. Route 62, US 62, U.S. Route 64, US 64, U.S. Route 70, US 70, U.S. Route 82, US 82, U.S. Route 84, US 84, U.S. Route 87, US 87, U.S. Route 160, US 160, U.S. Route 180, US 180, U.S. Route 285, US 285, U.S. Route 380, US 380, U.S. Route 491, US 491, and U.S. Route 550, US 550. U.S. Route 66, US 66, The Mother Road, was replaced by I-40 in 1985. U.S. Route 85, US 85 is currently unsigned by the New Mexico Department of Transportation, NMDOT, but the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, AASHTO still recognizes it. It runs in the same trace with I-10 and I-25. US 666, The Devils Highway, was replaced by US 491 in 2003 because the number "666 (number), 666" is the "Number of the Beast".
RoadNew Mexico has had a problem with drunk driving, but that has lessened. According to the ''Los Angeles Times'', for years the state had the highest alcohol-related crash rates in the US, but ranked 25th in alcohol-related fatal crash rates, . New Mexico had 59,927 route miles of highway , of which 7,037 receive federal aid. In that same year there were of freeways, of which a thousand were the route miles of Interstate Highways Interstate 10 in New Mexico, 10, Interstate 25 in New Mexico, 25 and Interstate 40 in New Mexico, 40. The former number has increased with the upgrading of roads near Pojoaque, New Mexico, Pojoaque, Santa Fe and Las Cruces, New Mexico, Las Cruces to freeways. The highway traffic fatality rate was 1.9 fatalities per million miles traveled in 2000, the 13th highest rate among U.S. states. Notable bridges include the Rio Grande Gorge Bridge near Taos, New Mexico, Taos. , 703 highway bridges, or one percent, were declared "structurally deficient" or "structurally obsolete". Rural and intercity public transportation by road is provided by Americanos USA, LLC, Greyhound Lines and several government operators.
Urban mass transitThe New Mexico Rail Runner Express is a commuter rail system serving the metropolitan area of Albuquerque, New Mexico. It began operation on July 14, 2006. The system runs from Belen, New Mexico, Belen to downtown Santa Fe. Larger cities in New Mexico typically have some form of public transportation by road; ABQ RIDE is the largest such system in the state.
RailThere were 2,354 route miles of railroads in the year 2000; this number increased with the opening of the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, Rail Runner's extension to Santa Fe.U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-9: Freight Railroads in New Mexico and the United States: 200
FreightNew Mexico is served by two class I railroads, the BNSF Railway and the Union Pacific Railroad. Combined, they operate 2,200 route miles of railway in the state.
PassengerA commuter rail operation, the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, connects the state's capital, its largest city, and other communities. The privately operated state owned railroad began operations in July 2006. The BNSF Railway's entire line from Belen, New Mexico, Belen to Raton, New Mexico was sold to the state, partially for the construction of phase II of this operation, which opened in December 2008. Phase II of Rail Runner extended the line northward to Santa Fe from the Sandoval County/US 550 (Rail Runner station), Sandoval County station, the northernmost station under Phase I service. The service now connects Santa Fe County, Santa Fe, Sandoval County, Sandoval, Bernalillo County, Bernalillo, and Valencia County, Valencia counties. The trains connect Albuquerque's population base and central business district to downtown Santa Fe with up to eight roundtrips in a day. The section of the line running south to Belen, New Mexico, Belen is served less frequently. Rail Runner operates scheduled service seven days per week. With the rise of rail transportation many settlements grew or were founded and the territory became a tourist destination. As early as 1878, the ATSF promoted #Tourism, tourism in the region with emphasis on Native American imagery. Named trains often reflected the territory they traveled: ''Super Chief'', the streamlined successor to the ''Chief''; ''Navajo (passenger train), Navajo'', an early transcontinental tourist train; and ''Cavern (passenger train), Cavern'', a through car operation connecting Clovis, New Mexico, Clovis and Carlsbad, New Mexico, Carlsbad (by the early 1950s as train 23–24), were some of the named Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway#Passenger train service, passenger trains of the ATSF that connoted New Mexico. Passenger train service once connected nine of New Mexico's present #Important cities and counties, ten most populous cities (the exception is Rio Rancho, New Mexico, Rio Rancho), while today passenger train service connects two: Albuquerque and Santa Fe. With the decline of most intercity rail service in the United States in the late 1960s, New Mexico was left with minimal services. No less than six daily long-distance roundtrip trains supplemented by many branch line and local trains served New Mexico in the early 1960s. Declines in passenger revenue, but not necessarily ridership, prompted many railroads to turn over their passenger services in truncated form to Amtrak, a state owned enterprise. Amtrak, also known as the National Passenger Railroad Corporation, began operating the two extant long-distance routes in May 1971. Resurrection of passenger rail service from Denver to El Paso, Texas, El Paso, a route once plied in part by the ATSF's ''El Pasoan'', has been proposed over the years. As early as the 1980s, former Governor Toney Anaya proposed building a high-speed rail line connecting the two cities with New Mexico's major cities. Front Range Commuter Rail is a project to connect Wyoming and New Mexico with high-speed rail. Amtrak's ''Southwest Chief'' passes through daily at stations in Gallup, New Mexico, Gallup, Albuquerque, Lamy, New Mexico, Lamy, Las Vegas, New Mexico, Las Vegas, and Raton, New Mexico, Raton, offering connections to Los Angeles, Chicago and intermediate points. The ''Southwest Chief'' is a fast Amtrak long-distance train, being permitted a maximum speed of in various places on the tracks of the BNSF Railway. It also operates on New Mexico Rail Runner Express trackage. The ''Southwest Chief'' is the successor to the ''Super Chief'' and ''El Capitan (passenger train), El Capitan''. The streamliner ''Super Chief'', a favorite of early Hollywood stars, was one of the most famous named trains in the United States and one of the most esteemed for its luxury and exoticness—train cars were named for regional Native American tribes and outfitted with the artwork of many local artists—but also for its speed: as few as 39 hours 45 minutes westbound. The ''Sunset Limited'' makes stops three times a week in both directions at Lordsburg, New Mexico, Lordsburg, and Deming, New Mexico, Deming, serving Los Angeles, New Orleans and intermediate points. The ''Sunset Limited'' is the successor to the Southern Pacific Railroad's train of the same name and operates exclusively on Union Pacific trackage in New Mexico.
AerospaceThe Albuquerque International Sunport is the state's primary port of entry for air transportation. Upham, New Mexico, Upham, near Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, Truth or Consequences, is the location of the world's first operational and purpose-built commercial spaceport, Spaceport America. Rocket launches began in April 2007. It is undeveloped and has one tenant, UP Aerospace, launching small payloads. Virgin Galactic, a space tourism company, plans to make this their primary operating base.
Government and politics
GovernmentThe Constitution of New Mexico established New Mexico's governmental structure. The executive branch of government is fragmented as outlined in the state constitution. The executive is composed of the Governor of New Mexico, governor and other statewide elected officials including the Lieutenant Governor of New Mexico, lieutenant governor (elected on the same ticket as the governor), Attorney General of New Mexico, attorney general, Secretary of State of New Mexico, secretary of state, New Mexico State Auditor, state auditor, New Mexico State Treasurer, state treasurer, and New Mexico Commissioner of Public Lands, commissioner of public lands. The governor appoints a cabinet who lead agencies statutorily designated under their jurisdiction. The New Mexico Legislature consists of the House of Representatives and Senate. The judiciary is composed of the New Mexico Supreme Court and lower courts. There is also local government, consisting of counties, municipalities and special districts.
PoliticsCurrent Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) and Lieutenant Governor Howie Morales (D) were first elected in 2018. Terms for both the governor and lieutenant governor expire in January 2023. Governors serve a term of four years, and may seek re-election for one additional term (term limit, limit of two terms). Other constitutional officers, all of whose terms also expire in January 2023, include Secretary of State Maggie Toulouse Oliver (D), Attorney General Hector Balderas (D), State Auditor Brian Colón (D), State Land Commissioner Stephanie Garcia Richard (D), and State Treasurer Tim Eichenberg (D). Currently, both chambers of the New Mexico State Legislature have Democratic majorities. There are 26 Democrats and 16 Republicans in the Senate, and 47 Democrats and 23 Republicans in the House of Representatives. New Mexico's members of the United States Senate are Democrats Martin Heinrich and Ben Ray Luján. The state's three United States House of Representatives members are Democrat Deb Haaland, Republican Yvette Herrell, and Democrat Teresa Leger Fernandez representing the first, second, and third districts respectively. New Mexico has traditionally been considered a swing state, whose population has favored both Democratic Party (United States), Democratic and Republican Party (United States), Republican presidential candidates, but it has become more of a Democratic stronghold beginning with the 2008 United States presidential election, presidential election of 2008. The governor is Michelle Lujan Grisham (D), who succeeded Susana Martinez (R) on January 1, 2019, after she served two terms as governor from 2011 to 2019. Gary Johnson served as governor from 1995 to 2003. Johnson served as a Republican, but in 2012 United States presidential election, 2012 and 2016 United States presidential election, 2016, he ran for president from the Libertarian Party (United States), Libertarian Party. In previous presidential elections, Al Gore carried the state (by 366 votes) in 2000 United States presidential election, 2000; George W. Bush won New Mexico's five electoral votes in 2004 United States presidential election, 2004, and the state's electoral votes were won by Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton in 2008 United States presidential election, 2008, 2012, and 2016. Since achieving statehood in 1912 United States presidential election, 1912, New Mexico has been carried by the national popular vote victor in every presidential election of the past 104 years, except 1976 United States presidential election, 1976, when Gerald Ford won the state by 2%, but lost the national popular vote by 2%. It has also awarded its electoral votes to the candidate who would ultimately win, with the exception of 1976 United States presidential election in New Mexico, 1976, 2000 United States presidential election in New Mexico, 2000, and 2016 United States presidential election in New Mexico, 2016. Democrats in the state are usually strongest in the Santa Fe area, parts of the Albuquerque metro area (such as the southeast and central areas, including the affluent Nob Hill neighborhood and the vicinity of the University of New Mexico), Northern and West Central New Mexico, and most of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native American reservations, particularly the Navajo Nation. Republicans have traditionally had their strongholds in the eastern and southern parts of the state, the Farmington, New Mexico, Farmington area, Rio Rancho, New Mexico, Rio Rancho, and the newly developed areas in the Northwest mesa. Albuquerque's Northeast Heights have historically leaned Republican, but have become a key swing area for Democrats in recent election cycles. While registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by nearly 200,000, New Mexico voters have favored moderate to conservative candidates of both parties at the state and federal levels. New Mexico abolished its death penalty statute, though not retroactively, effective July 1, 2009. This means individuals on New Mexico's Death Row can still be executed. On March 18, 2009, then-Governor Bill Richardson signed the law abolishing the death penalty in New Mexico following the assembly and senate vote the week before, thus becoming the 15th U.S. state to abolish the penalty. On gun control, New Mexico arguably has some of the least restrictive firearms laws in the country. State law pre-empts all local gun control ordinances. New Mexico residents may purchase any firearm deemed legal under federal law. There are no waiting periods under state law for picking up a firearm after it has been purchased, and there are no restrictions on magazine capacity. Additionally, New Mexico is a "shall-issue" state for concealed carry permits. Before December 2013, New Mexico law neither explicitly allowed nor prohibited Same-sex marriage in the United States, same-sex marriage. Policy concerning the issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples was determined at the county level; that is, some county clerks issued marriage licenses to same-sex couples while others did not. In December 2013, the New Mexico Supreme Court issued a unanimous ruling directing all county clerks to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, thereby making New Mexico the 17th state to recognize same-sex marriage at the statewide level.
EducationDue to its relatively low population, in combination with numerous federally funded research facilities, New Mexico had the highest concentration of PhD holders of any state in 2000. Despite this, the state routinely ranks near the bottom in surveys of the quality of primary and secondary school education. In a landmark decision, a state judge ruled in 2018 that "New Mexico is violating the constitutional rights of at-risk students by failing to provide them with sufficient education," and ordered that the governor and Legislature provide an adequate system by April 2019. New Mexico has a higher concentration of persons who do not finish high school or have some college without a degree than the nation as a whole. For the state, 23.9% of people over 25 have gone to college but not earned a degree. This is compared with 21.0% of the nation as a whole according to United States Census Bureau 2014 American Community Survey estimates. Los Alamos County, New Mexico, Los Alamos County has the highest number percent of post secondary degree holders of any county in New Mexico with 38.7% of the population (4,899 persons) estimated by the 2010–2014 American Community Survey.
Primary and secondary educationThe New Mexico Public Education Department oversees the operation of primary and secondary schools; individual school districts directly operate and staff said schools.
Lottery scholarshipNew Mexico is one of eight states that fund college scholarships through the state lottery. The state of New Mexico requires that the New Mexico Lottery, lottery put 30% of its gross sales into the scholarship fund. The scholarship is available to residents who graduated from a state high school, and attend a state university full-time while maintaining a 2.5 GPA or higher. It covered 100% of tuition when it was first instated in 1996, decreased to 90%, then dropped to 60% in 2017. The value slightly increased in 2018, and new legislation was passed to outline what funds are available per type of institution.
Major Research Universities* University of New Mexico, University of New Mexico at Albuquerque * New Mexico State University, New Mexico State University at Las Cruces * New Mexico Tech, New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology at Socorro
Regional State Universities* Eastern New Mexico University, Eastern New Mexico University at Portales * New Mexico Highlands University, New Mexico Highlands University at Las Vegas * Western New Mexico University, Western New Mexico University at Silver City
CultureWith a Native American population of 134,000 in 1990, New Mexico ranks as an important center of Native American culture. Both the Navajo Nation, Navajo and Apache Tribe, Apache share Athabaskan origin. The Apache and some Ute Tribe, Ute live on federal Native American reservation, reservations within the state. With 16 million acres (6,500,000hectare, ha), mostly in neighboring Arizona, the reservation of the Navajo Nation ranks as the largest in the United States. The prehistorically agricultural Pueblo Indians live in pueblos scattered throughout the state. Almost half of New Mexicans claim Hispanic origin; many are descendants of colonial settlers called Hispanos of New Mexico, Hispanos or Neomexicanos. They settled in the state's northern portion. Most of the Mexican immigrants reside in the southern part of the state. Also, 10–15% of the population, mainly in the north, may contain Who is a Jew?#New Mexico's Crypto-Jews, Hispanic Jewish ancestry. Many New Mexicans speak a unique dialect of Spanish. Because of the historical isolation of New Mexico from other speakers of the Spanish language, some of the vocabulary of New Mexican Spanish is unknown to other Spanish speakers. It uses numerous Native American words for local features and includes anglicized words that express American concepts and modern inventions. Albuquerque has the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, the National Hispanic Cultural Center, and the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, as well as hosts the famed annual Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta every fall.
Art and literatureThe earliest New Mexico artists whose work survives today are the Mimbres Indians, whose black and white pottery could be mistaken for modern art, except for the fact that it was produced before 1130 CE. See Mimbres culture. Many examples of this work can be seen at the Deming Armory, Deming Luna Mimbres Museum and at the Western New Mexico University Museum. A large artistic community thrives in Santa Fe, and has included such people as Bruce Nauman, Richard Tuttle, John Connell and Steina Vasulka. The capital city has several art museums, including the New Mexico Museum of Art, Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, Museum of International Folk Art, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of Contemporary Native Arts, SITE Santa Fe and others. Colonies for artists and writers thrive, and the small city teems with art galleries. In August, the city hosts the annual Santa Fe Indian Market, which is the oldest and largest juried Native American art showcase in the world. Performing arts include the renowned Santa Fe Opera which presents five operas in repertory each July to August, the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival held each summer, and the restored Lensic Theater a principal venue for many kinds of performances. Santa Fe is also home to Frogville Records, an indie record label. The weekend after Labor Day boasts the burning of Zozobra, a fifty-foot (15m) marionette, during Fiestas de Santa Fe. Art is also a frequent theme in Albuquerque, New Mexico's largest city. The National Hispanic Cultural Center has held hundreds of performing arts events, art showcases, and other events related to Spanish culture in New Mexico and worldwide in the centerpiece Roy E Disney Center for the Performing Arts or in other venues at the 53-acre facility. New Mexico residents and visitors alike can enjoy performing art from around the world at Popejoy Hall on the campus of the University of New Mexico. Popejoy Hall hosts singers, dancers, Broadway shows, other types of acts, and Shakespeare. Albuquerque also has the unique and memorable KiMo Theater built in 1927 in the Pueblo Revival Style architecture. The KiMo presents live theater and concerts as well as movies and simulcast operas. In addition to other general interest theaters, Albuquerque also has the African American Performing Arts Center and Exhibit Hall which showcases achievements by people of African descent and the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center which highlights the cultural heritage of the First Nations people of New Mexico. New Mexico holds strong to its Spanish heritage. Old Spanish traditions such zarzuelas and flamenco are popular in New Mexico. Flamenco dancer and native New Mexican María Benítez founded the Maria Benítez Institute for Spanish Arts "to present programs of the highest quality of the rich artistic heritage of Spain, as expressed through music, dance, visual arts, and other art forms". There is also the Festival Flamenco Internacional de Alburquerque held each year in which native Spanish and New Mexican flamenco dancers perform at the University of New Mexico. In the mid-20th century, there was a thriving Hispanos, Hispano school of literature and scholarship being produced in both English and Spanish. Among the more notable authors were: Angélico Chávez, Adelina Otero-Warren, Nina Otero-Warren, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca, Aurelio Espinosa, Cleofas Jaramillo, Juan Bautista Rael, and Aurora Lucero-White Lea. As well, writer D. H. Lawrence lived near Taos, New Mexico, Taos in the 1920s, at the D. H. Lawrence Ranch, where there is a shrine said to contain his ashes. New Mexico's strong Spanish, Native American, and Wild West frontier motifs have provided material for many authors in the state, including internationally recognized Rudolfo Anaya and Tony Hillerman. Silver City, New Mexico, Silver City, in the southwestern mountains of the state, was originally a mining town, and at least one nearby mine still operates. It is perhaps better known now as the home of or exhibition center for large numbers of artists, visual and otherwise. Another former mining town turned art haven is Madrid, New Mexico. It was brought to national fame as the filming location for the movie ''Wild Hogs'' in 2007. The City of Las Cruces, in southern New Mexico, has a museum system affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution Affiliations Program. Las Cruces also has a variety of cultural and artistic opportunities for residents and visitors. Aside from the aforementioned ''Wild Hogs'', other movies filmed in New Mexico include ''Sunshine Cleaning'' and ''Vampires (1998 film), Vampires''. The various seasons of the A&E (TV channel), A&E/Netflix series ''Longmire (TV series), Longmire'' have been filmed in several New Mexico locations, including Las Vegas, New Mexico, Las Vegas, Santa Fe, Eagle Nest, New Mexico, Eagle Nest, and Red River, New Mexico, Red River. The widely acclaimed TV show ''Breaking Bad'' and its spin-off ''Better Call Saul'' were both set and filmed in and around Albuquerque.
SportsNo major league professional sports teams are based in New Mexico, but the Albuquerque Isotopes are a Pacific Coast League Triple-A (baseball), Triple-A baseball affiliate of the MLB Colorado Rockies. New Mexico is home to several baseball teams of the Pecos League: the Roswell Invaders, Ruidoso Osos, Santa Fe Fuego and the White Sands Pupfish (baseball), White Sands Pupfish. The Duke City Gladiators of the Indoor Football League (IFL) plays their home games at Tingley Coliseum in Albuquerque. New Mexico United, also based in Albuquerque, began play in the second tier of the United States soccer league system, American soccer pyramid, the USL Championship, in 2019. Another soccer team from that city, Albuquerque Sol FC, plays in the fourth-tier USL League Two. Collegiate athletics in New Mexico involve various New Mexico Lobos and New Mexico State Aggies teams in many sports. For many years the two universities have had a rivalry often referred to as the "Rio Grande Rivalry" or the "Battle of Interstate 25 in New Mexico, I-25" in recognition of the campuses' both being located along that highway. NMSU also has a rivalry with the University of Texas at El Paso which is called "The Battle of I-10". The winner of the NMSU-UTEP football game receives the Silver Spade trophy. Olympic gold medalist Tom Jager, who is an advocate of controversial high-altitude training for swimming, has conducted training camps in Albuquerque at 5,312 feet (1,619m) and Los Alamos, New Mexico, Los Alamos at 7,320 feet (2,231m). NRA Whittington Center in Raton is the United States' largest and most comprehensive competitive shooting range and training facility.
See also* Climate change in New Mexico * Economy of New Mexico * Geology of New Mexico * Government of New Mexico ** Governor of New Mexico ** List of counties in New Mexico ** List of municipalities in New Mexico * History of New Mexico ** Timeline of New Mexico history * Index of New Mexico-related articles * List of mountain peaks of New Mexico * List of rivers of New Mexico * Outline of New Mexico * Paleontology in New Mexico
Further reading* Beck, Warren and Haase, Ynez. ''Historical Atlas of New Mexico'' 1969. * Chavez, Thomas E. ''An Illustrated History of New Mexico'', 267 pages, University of New Mexico Press 2002, * Bullis, Don. ''New Mexico: A Biographical Dictionary, 1540–1980'', 2 vol, (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque: Rio Grande, 2008) 393 pp. * Erlinda Gonzáles-Berry, Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, eds. ''The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico'', University of New Mexico Press 2000, , 314 pp. * Gutiérrez, Ramón A. ''When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846'' (1991) * Hain, Paul L., F Chris Garcia, F. Chris Garcia, Gilbert K. St. Clair; ''New Mexico Government'' 3rd ed. (1994) * Paul Horgan, Horgan, Paul, ''Great River, The Rio Grande in North American History'', 1038 pages, Wesleyan University Press 1991, 4th Reprint, , Pulitzer Prize 1955 * Larson, Robert W. ''New Mexico's Quest for Statehood, 1846–1912'' (1968) * Nieto-Phillips, John M. ''The Language of Blood: The Making of Spanish-American Identity in New Mexico, 1880s–1930s'', University of New Mexico Press 2004, * Simmons, Marc. ''New Mexico: An Interpretive History'', University of New Mexico Press 1988, , 221 pp, good introduction * Szasz, Ferenc M., and Richard W. Etulain, eds. ''Religion in Modern New Mexico'' (1997) * Trujillo, Michael L. ''Land of Disenchantment: Latina/o Identities and Transformations in Northern New Mexico'' (2010) 265 pp; an experimental ethnography that contrasts life in the Espanola Valley with the state's commercial image as the "land of enchantment". * Weber; David J. ''Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans'' (1973), primary sources to 1912
Primary sources* Ellis, Richard, ed. ''New Mexico Past and Present: A Historical Reader''. 1971. primary sources * Tony Hillerman, ''The Great Taos Bank Robbery and other Indian Country Affairs'', University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1973, trade paperback, 147 pages, (), fiction