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Mauretania (; ) is the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...

Latin
name for a region in the ancient
Maghreb The Maghreb (; ar|المغرب , "the west"), also known as Northwest Africa, the Arab Maghreb ( ), and historically as "The Barbary coast", is the western part of North Africa and the Arab World. The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania ...

Maghreb
. It stretched from central present-day
Algeria ) | image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg | map_caption = | image_map2 = | capital = Algiers | coordinates = | largest_city = capital | religion = | official_languages = | languages_type = Other languag ...

Algeria
westwards to the
Atlantic#REDIRECT Atlantic Ocean#REDIRECT Atlantic Ocean#REDIRECT Atlantic Ocean {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ... {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from ot ...

Atlantic
, covering northern
Morocco ) | image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg | map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and occupied mostly by Moro ...

Morocco
, and southward to the
Atlas Mountains The Atlas Mountains ( ar|جِبَال ٱلْأَطْلَس|jibāl al-ʾaṭlas /ʒibaːl al atˤlas/, Tamazight: ⵉⴷⵔⴰⵔⵏ ⵏ ⵡⴰⵟⵍⴰⵙ ''Idrarn n waṭlas'') are a mountain range in the Maghreb. It separates the Mediterranean ...

Atlas Mountains
. Its native inhabitants, seminomadic pastoralists of
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers, an ethnic group native to Northern Africa * Berber languages, a family of Afro-Asiatic languages Places * Berber, Sudan, a town on the Nile People with the surname * Ady Berber (1913–1966), Au ...

Berber
ancestry, were known to the Romans as the
Mauri Mauri (from which derives the English term "Moors") was the Latin designation for the Berber population of Mauretania. It was located in the part of Africa west of Numidia, an area coextensive with present-day Northern Morocco and northwest Algeri ...

Mauri
and the
MasaesyliThe Masaesyli were a Berber tribe of western Numidia (present day Algeria) and the main antagonists of the Massylii in eastern Numidia. During the Second Punic War the Masaesyli initially supported the Roman Republic and were led by Syphax against ...

Masaesyli
. In 25 BC, the kings of Mauretania became Roman vassals until about 44 AD, when the area was annexed to Rome and divided into two provinces:
Mauretania Tingitana Mauretania Tingitana (Latin for "Tangerine Mauretania") was a Roman province located in the Maghreb, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco. The territory stretched from the northern peninsula opposite Gibraltar, to Sala ...

Mauretania Tingitana
and
Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarean Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb. The full name refers to its capital Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell). The province had been part of the Kingdo ...

Mauretania Caesariensis
. Christianity spread there from the 3rd century onwards. After the Muslim Arabs subdued the region in the 7th century, Islam became the dominant religion.


Moorish kingdom

Mauretania existed as a tribal kingdom of the Berber
Mauri people Mauri (from which derives the English term "Moors") was the Latin designation for the Berber population of Mauretania. It was located in the part of Africa west of Numidia, an area coextensive with present-day Northern Morocco and northwest Algeri ...

Mauri people
. In the early 1st century
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. The father of Pompey was called "Pompeius Strabo". A native of Sicily so clear-sighted that he could see t ...

Strabo
recorded ''Maûroi'' (Μαῦροι) as the native name of a people opposite the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl|Península Eibérica * eu|Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peninsula in the southwest corner of Europe, ...

Iberian Peninsula
. This appellation was adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was ''Mauroúsii'' (Μαυρούσιοι). The Mediterranean coast of Mauretania had commercial harbours for trade with
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now Tunisia. Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities o ...

Carthage
from before the 4th century BC, but the interior was controlled by
Berber Berber or Berbers may refer to: Culture * Berbers, an ethnic group native to Northern Africa * Berber languages, a family of Afro-Asiatic languages Places * Berber, Sudan, a town on the Nile People with the surname * Ady Berber (1913–1966), Au ...

Berber
tribes, who had established themselves in the region by
the Iron Age
the Iron Age
.
King Atlas
King Atlas
was a legendary king of Mauretania credited with inventing the
celestial globe Celestial may refer to: Science * Objects or events seen in the sky and the following astronomical terms: ** Astronomical object, a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe ** Celestia ...

celestial globe
. The first known historical king of the Mauri,
Baga
Baga
, ruled during the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. For seventeen years, the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in ...

Second Punic War
of 218–201 BC. The Mauri were in close contact with
Numidia Numidia (Berber: ''Inumiden''; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from Algeria, but later expanding across modern-day Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco. The polity wa ...

Numidia
.
Bocchus I
Bocchus I
(
l.
l.
110 BC) was father-in-law to the redoubted
Numidia Numidia (Berber: ''Inumiden''; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from Algeria, but later expanding across modern-day Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco. The polity wa ...

Numidia
n king
Jugurtha Jugurtha or Jugurthen (Libyco-Berber ''Yugurten'' or '' Yugarten'', c. 160 – 104 BC) was a king of Numidia. When the Numidian king Micipsa, who had adopted Jugurtha, died in 118 BC, Jugurtha and his two adoptive brothers, Hiempsal and Adherb ...

Jugurtha
. Mauretania became a
client Client(s) or The Client may refer to: * Client (computing), hardware or software that accesses a remote service on another computer * Customer or client, a recipient of goods or services in return for monetary or other valuable considerations * Cli ...

client
kingdom of the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire in 25 BC when the Romans installed
Juba II Juba II or Juba of Mauretania (Latin: ''Iuba''; grc|Ἰóβας, Ἰóβα or ;Roller, Duane W. (2003) ''The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene'' "Routledge (UK)". pp. 1–3. . c. 48 BC – AD 23) was the client King of Numidia and Mauretania, ...

Juba II
of
Numidia Numidia (Berber: ''Inumiden''; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from Algeria, but later expanding across modern-day Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco. The polity wa ...

Numidia
as their client-king. On his death in AD 23, his Roman-educated son
Ptolemy of Mauretania Ptolemy of Mauretania ( grc-gre|Πτολεμαῖος, ''Ptolemaîos''; la|Ptolemaeus; 13 9BC–AD40) was the last Roman client king and ruler of Mauretania for Rome. He was a member of the Berber Massyles tribe of Numidia; via his mother Cleo ...

Ptolemy of Mauretania
succeeded him. The Emperor
Caligula Caligula (; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD), formally known as Gaius (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), was the third Roman emperor, ruling from 37 to 41. The son of the popular Roman general Germanicus and Augustus's granddaughter Ag ...

Caligula
had Ptolemy executed in 40.Anthony A. Barrett, ''Caligula: The Corruption of Power'' (Routledge, 1989), pp. 116–117. The Roman Emperor
Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. Born to Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor at Lugdunum in Roman Gaul, where his father was sta ...

Claudius
annexed Mauretania directly as a
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled by a ...

Roman province
in 44, placing it under an imperial
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be the title of a politician ...

governor
(either a ''procurator Augusti'', or a ''legatus Augusti pro praetore'').


Kings


Roman province(s)

In the 1st century AD, Emperor
Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. Born to Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia Minor at Lugdunum in Roman Gaul, where his father was sta ...

Claudius
divided the Roman province of Mauretania into
Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarean Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb. The full name refers to its capital Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell). The province had been part of the Kingdo ...

Mauretania Caesariensis
and
Mauretania Tingitana Mauretania Tingitana (Latin for "Tangerine Mauretania") was a Roman province located in the Maghreb, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco. The territory stretched from the northern peninsula opposite Gibraltar, to Sala ...

Mauretania Tingitana
along the line of the Mulucha (
Muluya
Muluya
) River, about 60 km west of modern
Oran Oran ( ; ar|وَهران|Wahrān also , , ) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its population, commercial, industrial, and cul ...

Oran
: *
Mauretania Tingitana Mauretania Tingitana (Latin for "Tangerine Mauretania") was a Roman province located in the Maghreb, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco. The territory stretched from the northern peninsula opposite Gibraltar, to Sala ...

Mauretania Tingitana
was named after its capital
Tingis Tingis (Latin; grc-gre|Τίγγις, ''Tingís'') or Tingi (Ancient Berber:), the ancient name of Tangier in Morocco, was an important Carthaginian, Moor, and Roman port on the Atlantic Ocean. It was eventually granted the status of a Roman colony ...

Tingis
(now
Tangier Tangier, ( ar|طنجة|ṭanja; ber|ⵟⴰⵏⵊⴰ|ṭanja) is a city in northwestern Morocco. It is on the Maghreb coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel. T ...

Tangier
); it corresponded to northern
Morocco ) | image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg | map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and occupied mostly by Moro ...

Morocco
(including the current
Spanish enclaves
Spanish enclaves
). *
Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarean Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb. The full name refers to its capital Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell). The province had been part of the Kingdo ...

Mauretania Caesariensis
was named after its capital
Caesarea (Mauretaniae)
Caesarea (Mauretaniae)
and comprised western and central
Algeria ) | image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg | map_caption = | image_map2 = | capital = Algiers | coordinates = | largest_city = capital | religion = | official_languages = | languages_type = Other languag ...

Algeria
. Mauretania gave the empire one emperor, the
equestrian The word equestrian is a reference to horseback riding, derived from Latin ' and ', "horse". Horseback riding (or Riding in British English) Notable examples of this are: *Equestrian sports *Equestrianism, the art of horseback riding *Equestrian or ...

equestrian
Macrinus Macrinus (; Caesar Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus; – June 218) was Roman Emperor from April 217 to 8 June 218, reigning jointly with his young son Diadumenianus. As a member of the equestrian class, he became the first emperor who ...

Macrinus
. He seized power after the
assassination Assassination is the act of deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, heads of government, politicians, royalty, celebrities, journalists, or CEOs. An assassination may be prompted by political and military mo ...

assassination
of
Caracalla Caracalla ( ; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. He was a member of the Severan dynasty, the elder son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Co-ruler ...

Caracalla
in 217 but was himself defeated and executed by
Elagabalus Elagabalus or Heliogabalus ( 204 – 11 March 222), officially known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 218 to 222, while he was still a teenager. His short reign was conspicuous for sex scandals and religious controversy. A close relative to ...

Elagabalus
the next year. Emperor Diocletian's
Tetrarchy The Tetrarchy is the term adopted to describe the system of government of the ancient Roman Empire instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire. The gov ...

Tetrarchy
reform (293) further divided the area into three provinces, as the small, easternmost region of
Sitifensis
Sitifensis
was split off from Mauretania Caesariensis. The ''
Notitia Dignitatum Palestine and the River Jordan, from the ''Notitia Dignitatum'' illuminated by [[Peronet Lamy. The ''Notitia Dignitatum'' ([[Latin for "The List of Offices") is a document of the [[Late Antiquity|late [[Roman Empire that details the administrative ...

Notitia Dignitatum
'' (c. 400) mentions themas still existing, two being under the authority of the Vicarius of the diocese of Africa: *A ''[[Dux et [[praeses provinciae Mauritaniae et Caesariensis'', i.e. a Roman governor of the rank of ''[[Vir spectabilis'', who also held the high military command of ''dux'', as the superior of eight border garrison commanders, each styled ''
Praepositus limitis
Praepositus limitis
...'', followed by (genitive forms) ''Columnatensis'', ''Vidensis'', ''inferioris'' (i.e. lower border), ''Fortensis'', ''Muticitani'', ''Audiensis'', ''Caputcellensis'' and ''Augustensis''. *A (civilian) ''Praeses'' in the province of
Mauretania Sitifensis Mauretania Sitifensis was a Roman province in Africa Proconsularis. The capital was Setifis. History In the later division of the Roman Empire under the Emperor Diocletian, the eastern part of Mauretania Caesariensis, from Saldae to the river Amp ...

Mauretania Sitifensis
. And, under the authority of the'' Vicarius'' of the
diocese In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated i ...

diocese
of [[Hispaniae:


Late Antiquity


Roman-Moorish kingdoms

During the [[crisis of the 3rd century, parts of Mauretania were reconquered by Berber tribes. Direct Roman rule became confined to a few coastal cities (such as [[Septem (Ceuta)|Septem in
Mauretania Tingitana Mauretania Tingitana (Latin for "Tangerine Mauretania") was a Roman province located in the Maghreb, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco. The territory stretched from the northern peninsula opposite Gibraltar, to Sala ...

Mauretania Tingitana
and [[Cherchell in
Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarean Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb. The full name refers to its capital Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell). The province had been part of the Kingdo ...

Mauretania Caesariensis
) by the late 3rd century. Historical sources about inland areas are sparse, but these were apparently controlled by local Berber rulers who, however, maintained a degree of Roman culture, including the local cities, and usually nominally acknowledged the suzerainty of the Roman Emperors. In an inscription from [[Altava in western Algeria, one of these rulers, [[Masuna, described himself as ''rex gentium Maurorum et Romanorum'' (king of the Roman and Moorish peoples). Altava was later the capital of another ruler, [[Garmul or Garmules, who resisted Byzantine rule in Africa but was finally defeated in 578. The Byzantine historian [[Procopius also mentions another independent ruler, [[Mastigas, who controlled most of
Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarean Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb. The full name refers to its capital Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell). The province had been part of the Kingdo ...

Mauretania Caesariensis
in the 530s. In the 7th century there were eight Romano-Moorish kingdoms: [[Kingdom of Altava|Altava, Ouarsenis, Hodna, Aures, Nemenchas, Capsa, Dorsale and Cabaon. The last resistance against the Arab invasion was sustained in the second half of the 7th century mainly by the Roman-Moorish kingdoms -with the last Byzantine troops in the region- under the leadership of the Christian king of Altava [[Kusaila|Caecilius, but later ended in complete defeat in 703 AD (when the queen [[Kahina died in battle).


Vandal kingdom

The [[Vandals conquered the Roman province beginning in the 420s. The city of [[Hippo Regius fell to the Vandals in 431 after a prolonged siege, and [[Carthage also [[Battle of Carthage (439)|fell in 439. [[Theodosius II dispatched an expedition to deal with the Vandals in 441, which failed to progress farther than [[Sicily. The Western Empire under [[Valentinian III secured peace with the Vandals in 442, confirming their control of Proconsular Africa. For the next 90 years, Africa was firmly under the Vandal control. The Vandals were ousted from Africa in the [[Vandalic War of 533–534, from which time Mauretania at least nominally became a Roman province once again. The old provinces of the Roman [[Diocese of Africa were mostly preserved by the Vandals, but large parts, including almost all of
Mauretania Tingitana Mauretania Tingitana (Latin for "Tangerine Mauretania") was a Roman province located in the Maghreb, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco. The territory stretched from the northern peninsula opposite Gibraltar, to Sala ...

Mauretania Tingitana
, much of
Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarean Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb. The full name refers to its capital Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell). The province had been part of the Kingdo ...

Mauretania Caesariensis
and Mauretania Sitifensis and large parts of the interior of
Numidia Numidia (Berber: ''Inumiden''; 202–40 BC) was the ancient kingdom of the Numidians located in northwest Africa, initially originating from Algeria, but later expanding across modern-day Tunisia, Libya, and some parts of Morocco. The polity wa ...

Numidia
and [[Byzacena, had been lost to the inroads of [[Berber people|Berber tribes, now collectively called the ''
Mauri Mauri (from which derives the English term "Moors") was the Latin designation for the Berber population of Mauretania. It was located in the part of Africa west of Numidia, an area coextensive with present-day Northern Morocco and northwest Algeri ...

Mauri
'' (later [[Moors) as a generic term for "the Berber tribes in the province of Mauretania".


Praetorian prefecture of Africa

In 533, the Roman army under [[Belisarius defeated the Vandals. In April 534, [[Justinian published a law concerning the administrative organization of the newly acquired territories. Nevertheless, Justinian restored the old administrative division, but raised the overall governor at Carthage to the supreme administrative rank of [[praetorian prefect, thereby ending the Diocese of Africa's traditional subordination to the [[Praetorian prefecture of Italy|Prefecture of Italy (then still under [[Ostrogoth rule).


Exarchate of Africa

The emperor [[Maurice (emperor)|Maurice sometime between 585 and 590 AD created the office of "Exarch", which combined the supreme civil authority of a [[praetorian prefect and the military authority of a ''[[magister militum'', and enjoyed considerable autonomy from [[Constantinople. Two exarchates were established, one in Italy, with seat at [[Ravenna (hence known as the [[Exarchate of Ravenna), and one in Africa, based at Carthage and including all imperial possessions in the Western Mediterranean. The first African exarch was the ''[[patrikios|patricius'' [[Gennadius (magister militum Africae)|Gennadius.Julien (1931, v.1, p.273) Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Sitifensis were merged to form the new province of ''Mauretania Prima'', while Mauretania Tingitana, effectively reduced to the city of [[Septem (Ceuta)|Septem, was combined with the citadels of the Spanish coast ([[Spania) and the Balearic islands to form ''Mauretania Secunda''. The African exarch was in possession of ''Mauretania Secunda'', which was little more than a tiny outpost in southern Spain, beleaguered by the [[Visigoths. The last Spanish strongholds were conquered by the Visigoths in 624 AD, reducing "Mauretania Seconda" opposite Gibraltar to only the fort of Septem.


Religion

Christianity is known to have existed in Mauretania as early as the 3rd century.Early Christianity in Contexts: An Exploration across Cultures and Continents
/ref> It spread rapidly in these areas despite its relatively late appearance in the region. Although it was adopted in the urban areas of Mauretania Caesariensis, the hinterlands retained the Romano-Berber religion. Ancient episcopal sees of the late Roman province of Mauretania Sitifensis, listed in the ''[[Annuario Pontificio'' as [[titular sees:''Annuario Pontificio 2013'' (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013


See also

* [[Gaetuli tribe (namesake of Getulia) *
Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Caesariensis (Latin for "Caesarean Mauretania") was a Roman province located in what is now Algeria in the Maghreb. The full name refers to its capital Caesarea Mauretaniae (modern Cherchell). The province had been part of the Kingdo ...

Mauretania Caesariensis
*
Mauretania Tingitana Mauretania Tingitana (Latin for "Tangerine Mauretania") was a Roman province located in the Maghreb, coinciding roughly with the northern part of present-day Morocco. The territory stretched from the northern peninsula opposite Gibraltar, to Sala ...

Mauretania Tingitana
* [[Syphax * [[Victor Maurus, a Christian Mauretanian martyr and saint * [[Zeno of Verona


References


Further reading

* * *


External links


Tingitana
{{Authority control [[Category:Mauretania| [[Category:Roman client kingdoms [[Category:Countries in ancient Africa [[Category:Ancient history of North Africa [[Category:States and territories established in the 3rd century BC [[Category:States and territories disestablished in the 1st century [[Category:3rd-century BC establishments [[Category:1st-century disestablishments [[Category:Ancient Greek geography of North Africa [[Category:44 disestablishments