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Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at , and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. The metropolitan area includes New York City (the most populous city in the Unit ...
, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of
New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the Unit ...

New York City
, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of the
U.S. state In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares ...
of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * ''Ne ...
. Manhattan serves as the city's economic and administrative center,
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.Tylor, Edward. (1871). ...
identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson,
East East is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass. It is the opposite direction from west. Etymology As in other languages, the word is formed from the fact that east is direction where the sun rises: ''east'' comes from Middl ...
, and
Harlem Harlem is a neighborhood in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It is bounded roughly by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, St. Nicholas Avenue, and Morningside Park on the west; the Harlem River and 155th Street on the north; Fifth Avenue on the east; a ...
rivers; as well as several small adjacent islands. Manhattan additionally contains , a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, separated from the rest of Manhattan by the
Harlem Ship Canal 367px, The mouth of the Spuyten Duyvil Creek with the Henry Hudson Bridge and the Spuyten_Duyvil_Bridge">Henry_Hudson_Bridge_and_the_Spuyten_Duyvil_Bridge_ File:Inwoodhillpark.jpg.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title ...
and later connected using landfill to
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the U.S. state of New York, and the third-most-densely populated county in the United States. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across ...
. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and
Upper Manhattan Upper Manhattan is the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary has been variously defined, but some of the most common usages are 96th Street, the northern boundary of Central Park (110th Street), 125 ...
. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial,
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliver ...
, and
entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands o ...
capital of the world, and the borough hosts the
United Nations Headquarters zh, 联合国总部大楼french: Siège des Nations uniesrussian: Штаб-квартира Организации Объединённых Наций es, Sede de las Naciones Unidas , image = UN HQ 2724390955 bfc562c6a9 (cropped).jpg , image_size ...
. Anchored by
Wall Street Wall Street is an eight-block-long street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It runs between Broadway in the west to South Street and the East River in the east. The term "Wall Street" has become a metonym for the f ...
in the
Financial District This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as banks, insurance companies and other related finance corporations have ...
of
Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in New York City. Lower Manhattan is defined most commonly as the area delineat ...
, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total
market capitalization Market capitalization, commonly called market cap, is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. Since outstanding stock ...
: the
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed comp ...
and
NASDAQ#REDIRECT Nasdaq#REDIRECT Nasdaq {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R up ...
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R up ...

NASDAQ
. Many multinational
media conglomerate A media conglomerate, media group, or media institution is a company that owns numerous companies involved in mass media enterprises, such as television, radio, publishing, motion pictures, theme parks, or the Internet. According to the magazine ...
s are based in Manhattan, and the borough has been the
setting Setting may refer to: * A location (geography) where something is set * Set construction in theatrical scenery * Setting (narrative), the place and time in a work of narrative, especially fiction * Setting up to fail a manipulative technique to engi ...
for numerous books,
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These image ...

film
s, and television shows. Manhattan
real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more general ...
has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013; median residential property sale prices in Manhattan approximated US as of 2018,
Accessed January 31, 2018.
with
Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem. It is considered one of the most expensive streets in the wor ...
in
Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Midtown is home to some of the city's most prominent buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Projec ...
commanding the highest
retail Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term "retailer" is typically applied where a se ...
rents in the world, at US per year in 2017. Manhattan traces its origins to a
trading post A trading post, trading station, or trading house, also known as a factory, was an establishment or settlement where goods and services could be traded. Typically the location of the trading post would allow people from one geographic area to tra ...
founded by
colonists A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. A settler who migrates to an area previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited may be described as a pioneer. Settlers ...
from the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography as the Dutch Republic, was a federal republic which existed from 1588 (during the Du ...
in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland. The initial trading ''factory'' gave rise to ...
in 1626. Manhattan is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60
guilder Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German ''gulden'', originally shortened from Middle High German ''guldin pfenninc'' "gold penny". This was the term that became current in the southern and western parts of the Holy Roman Empire ...
s, which equals roughly $ in current terms. The territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King
Charles II of England#REDIRECT Charles II of England#REDIRECT Charles II of England#REDIRECT Charles II of England {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ... {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category ...
granted the lands to his brother, the
Duke of York Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted, usually been given to the second son of English (later British) monarchs. The equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Du ...
. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the
capital of the United States This is a list of capital cities of the United States, including places that serve or have served as federal, state, insular area, territorial, colonial and Native American capitals. Washington, D.C. has been the federal capital of the United S ...
from 1785 until 1790. The
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; french: La Liberté éclairant le monde, links=no) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor within New York City, in the United States. The copper sta ...

Statue of Liberty
greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th century and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace. Manhattan became a borough during the
consolidation of New York City The City of Greater New York was the term used by many politicians and scholars for the expanded City of New York created on January 1, 1898, by consolidating the existing City of New York with Brooklyn, western Queens County, and Staten Islan ...
in 1898. New York County is the smallest county by land area in the
contiguous United States The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states (plus the District of Columbia) on the continent of North America. The terms exclude the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawa ...
, and the second-smallest American county overall (larger only than
Kalawao County, Hawaii Kalawao County is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the smallest county in the 50 states both by population and land area. The county encompasses the Kalaupapa or Makanalua Peninsula, on the north coast of the island of Molokai. The smal ...
), but the most densely populated U.S. county. Its density makes it one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2019 population of 1,628,706 living in a land area of , or 72,918 residents per square mile (28,154/km2), higher than the density of any individual U.S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile (65,600/km2). Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
and
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area. If each borough were ranked as a city, Manhattan would rank as the sixth-most populous in the U.S. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, and Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013:
Times Square Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center, and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City, at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. Brightly lit by numerous billboards a ...
,
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
, and
Grand Central Terminal Grand Central Terminal (GCT; also referred to as Grand Central Station or simply as Grand Central) is a commuter rail terminal located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Grand Central is the southern terminus of ...
. The borough hosts many prominent
bridges A bridge is a structure built to span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle, usually something that is otherwi ...
, such as the
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
,
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of t ...
, Williamsburg, Queensboro, Triborough, and
George Washington Bridge The George Washington Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River, connecting the New York City borough of Manhattan with the New Jersey borough of Fort Lee. The bridge is named after George Washington, the first pres ...
s;
tunnels A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction ...
such as the
Holland Holland is a geographical regionG. Geerts & H. Heestermans, 1981, ''Groot Woordenboek der Nederlandse Taal. Deel I'', Van Dale Lexicografie, Utrecht, p 1105 and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands. The name ''Holland'' is also ...

Holland
and
Lincoln Tunnel The Lincoln Tunnel is an approximately tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey, to the west with Midtown Manhattan in New York City to the east. It was designed by Ole Singstad and named after Abraham Lincoln. The tunne ...

Lincoln Tunnel
s;
skyscrapers A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Historically, t ...
such as the
Empire State Building The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and built from 1930 to 1931. Its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of ...
,
Chrysler Building The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in the Turtle Bay neighborhood on the East Side of Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue near Midtown Manhattan. At , it is the tallest brick building i ...
, and
One World Trade Center One World Trade Center (also known as One World Trade, One WTC, or Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tall ...
; and
parks A park is an area of naturally occurring, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside towns and ...
, such as
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
.
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South Ameri ...
incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the
Western Hemisphere#REDIRECT Western Hemisphere#REDIRECT Western Hemisphere {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
, and the
Stonewall Inn The Stonewall Inn, often shortened to Stonewall, is a gay bar and recreational tavern in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City, and the site of the Stonewall riots of 1969, which is widely considered to be the singl ...
in
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan in New York City, bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contai ...
, part of the
Stonewall National Monument Stonewall National Monument is a U.S. National Monument in the West Village neighborhood of Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The designated area includes the Christopher Park and the block of Christopher Street bordering the ...

Stonewall National Monument
, is considered the
birthplace The place of birth (POB) or birthplace is the place where a person was born. This place is often used in legal documents, together with name and date of birth, to uniquely identify a person. Practice regarding whether this place should be a country, ...
of the modern
gay rights movement Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) social movements are social movements that advocate for LGBT people in society. Social movements may focus on equal rights, such as the 2000s movement for same-sex marriage, or they may focus on liber ...
. The City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses
New York City Hall New York City Hall is the seat of New York City government, located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center area of Lower Manhattan, between Broadway, Park Row, and Chambers Street. Constructed from 1803 to 1812, the building is the ol ...

New York City Hall
, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columb ...
,
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private research university in New York City. Chartered in 1831 by the New York State Legislature, NYU was founded by a group of New Yorkers led by then Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin. In 1832, the i ...
,
Cornell Tech Cornell Tech is a technology, business, law, and design campus of Cornell University located on Roosevelt Island in Manhattan, New York City. It includes the Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute, a joint academic venture between Cornell and the Tech ...
,
Weill Cornell Medical College Weill Cornell Medicine , officially the Joan & Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, is the biomedical research unit and medical school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university. The medical college is located at 1300 ...
, and
Rockefeller University The Rockefeller University is a private graduate university in New York City. It focuses primarily on the biological and medical sciences and provides doctoral and postdoctoral education. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – Hig ...

Rockefeller University
, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world.


Etymology

The name ''Manhattan'' derives from the
Munsee The Munsee (or Minsi or Muncee) or mə́n'si·w are a subtribe of the Lenape, originally constituting one of the three great divisions of that nation and dwelling along the upper portion of the Delaware River, the Minisink, and the adjacent countr ...
Lenape language term ''manaháhtaan'' (where ''manah-'' means "gather", ''-aht-'' means " bow", and ''-aan'' is an abstract element used to form verb stems). The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the (wood to make) bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of
hickory tree Hickory is a type of tree, comprising the genus ''Carya'', which includes around 18 species. Five or six species are native to China, Indochina, and India (Assam), as many as twelve are native to the United States, four are found in Mexico, and ...
s at the lower end that was considered ideal for the making of bows. It was first recorded in writing as ''Manna-hata'', in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States. In 1607 and 1608, Hud ...
's yacht ''
Halve Maen ''Halve Maen'' (; en, Half Moon) was a Dutch East India Company ''vlieboot'' (similar to a carrack) that sailed into what is now New York Harbor in September 1609. She was commissioned by the VOC Chamber of Amsterdam in the Dutch Republic to co ...
'' (''Half Moon''). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New ...
). Alternative etymologies in
folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material ...
include "island of many hills", "He could envision what Henry Hudson saw in 1609 as he sailed along Mannahatta, which in the Lenape dialect most likely meant ''island of many hills.''" "the island where we all became intoxicated" and simply "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the
whirlpool A whirlpool is a body of rotating water produced by opposing currents or a current running into an obstacle. Small whirlpools form when a bath or a sink is draining. More powerful ones in seas or oceans may be termed ''maelstroms''. ''Vortex'' ...
at
Hell Gate Hell Gate is a narrow tidal strait in the East River in New York City. It separates Astoria, Queens from Randall's and Wards Islands. Etymology The name "Hell Gate" is a corruption of the Dutch phrase ''Hellegat'' (it first appeared on a Du ...
.


History


Colonial era

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the
Lenape The Lenape ( or ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in the United States and Canada. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and ...
Native Americans. In 1524, explorer
Giovanni da Verrazzano#REDIRECT Giovanni da Verrazzano {{R from other capitalisation ...
 – sailing in service of King Francis I of
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...
 – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered the
tidal strait A tidal strait is technically not a river but a strait connecting two oceans or seas. Tidal straits are narrow seaways through which tidal currents flow. Tidal currents are usually unidirectional but sometimes are bidirectional. They are frequently ...
now known as
The Narrows __NOTOC__ The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City, United States. It connects the Upper New York Bay and Lower New York Bay and forms the principal channel by which the Hudson River ...
and named the land around
Upper New York Harbor Bay in red. It is connected to Lower New York Bay on the south by the Narrows. Ellis Island (north) and Liberty Island (south) are shown in the northwest corner of the bay. Upper New York Bay, or Upper Bay, is the traditional heart of the Port o ...
''
New Angoulême The "Sons of Liberty" campaigned against British authority in New York City, and the Stamp Act Congress of representatives from throughout the Thirteen Colonies met in the city in 1765 to organize resistance to Crown policies. The city's strategi ...
'', in reference to the family name of King Francis I that was derived from
Angoulême Angoulême (; Poitevin-Saintongeais: ''Engoulaeme''; oc, Engoleime) is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as ''Angoumoisins'' or ''An ...
in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New ...
, which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named the ''Bay of Santa Margarita'' – what is now Upper New York Bay – after
Marguerite de NavarreMarguerite may refer to: People * Marguerite (given name), including a list of people with the name Places *Marguerite, Pennsylvania, an unincorporated community *Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula *Marguerite Island, Adélie Land, Antarctica E ...
, the elder sister of the king. It was not until the voyage of
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States. In 1607 and 1608, Hud ...
, an Englishman who worked for the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; VOC; id, Persatuan Perusahaan Hindia Timur), was a megacorporation founded by a government-directed consolidation of several rival ...
, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New ...
, until he arrived at the site of present-day Albany."Henry Hudson and His Exploration"
''
Scientific American ''Scientific American'' (informally abbreviated ''SciAm'' or sometimes ''SA'') is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles to it. In print since 1845, it is the oldest conti ...
'', September 25, 1909. Accessed May 1, 2007. "This was a vain hope however, and the conviction must finally have come to the heart of the intrepid adventurer that once again he was foiled in his repeated quest for the northwest passage ... On the following day the "Half Moon" let go her anchor inside of Sandy Hook. The week was spent in exploring the bay with a shallop, or small boat, and "they found a good entrance between two headlands" (the Narrows) "and thus entered on the September 11 into as fine a river as can be found.""
A permanent European presence in
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on what is now the east coast of the United States. The claimed territories extended from the Delmarva Peninsula to sout ...
began in 1624, with the founding of a
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * D ...
fur trading The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most val ...
settlement on
Governors Island Governors Island is a island in New York Harbor, within the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is located approximately south of Manhattan Island, and is separated from Brooklyn to the east by the Buttermilk Channel. The National Park Ser ...

Governors Island
. In 1625, construction was started on the
citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle, fortress, or fortified center. The term is a diminutive of "city" means "little city", it’s so called because it is a smaller part of the city of which it is the defensiv ...
of
Fort Amsterdam Fort Amsterdam was a fort on the southern tip of Manhattan at the confluence of the Hudson and East rivers. It was the administrative headquarters for the Dutch and then English/British rule of the colony of New Netherland and subsequently the P ...

Fort Amsterdam
on Manhattan Island, later called
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland. The initial trading ''factory'' gave rise to ...
(''Nieuw Amsterdam''), in what is now Lower Manhattan.GovIsland Park-to-Tolerance: through Broad Awareness and Conscious Vigilance
, Tolerance Park. Accessed November 20, 2016. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708.
The 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City. According to a letter by Pieter Janszoon Schagen,
Peter Minuit Peter Minuit (between 1580 and 1585 – August 5, 1638) was a Walloon from Tournai, in present-day Belgium. He was the 3rd Director of the Dutch North American colony of New Netherland from 1626 until 1631, and 3rd Governor of New Netherland. He fo ...
and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan on May 24, 1626, from unnamed Native American people, who are believed to have been
Canarsee Indians File:Lenape Languages.png, 267px, A modern map broadly showing language areas in the Mid-Atlantic region at the time of European contact in the 17th century Metoac is a name used by some to describe the Munsee language, Munsee-speaking Lenape ...
of the
Lenape The Lenape ( or ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in the United States and Canada. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and ...
, in exchange for traded goods worth 60
guilder Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German ''gulden'', originally shortened from Middle High German ''guldin pfenninc'' "gold penny". This was the term that became current in the southern and western parts of the Holy Roman Empire ...
s, often said to be worth US$24. The figure of 60 guilders comes from a letter by a representative of the Dutch Estates General and member of the board of the
Dutch West India Company The Dutch West India Company ( nl, Geoctrooieerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWC; ; en, Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors. Among its founders was Willem Usselincx (1567–1647) and ...
, Pieter Janszoon Schagen, to the Estates General in November 1626. In 1846, New York historian
John Romeyn Brodhead John Romeyn Brodhead (January 2, 1814 – May 6, 1873) was an American historical scholar. During his service in the diplomatic corps, he transcribed many rare documents related to the colonial history of New York. Biography Early life John Rome ...
converted the figure of Fl 60 (or 60 guilders) to US$24 (because 24 = 60/2.5, 1 dollar = confused with rijksdaalder = 2.5 guilders). " variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars," as
Edwin G. BurrowsEdwin G. "Ted" Burrows (May 15, 1943 – May 4, 2018) was a Distinguished Professor of History at Brooklyn College. He is the co-author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning ''Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898'' (1998), and author of ''Forgotten Pa ...
and
Mike Wallace Myron Leon "Mike" Wallace (May 9, 1918 – April 7, 2012) was an American journalist, game show host, actor, and media personality. He interviewed a wide range of prominent newsmakers during his seven-decade career. He was one of the original co ...
remarked in their history of New York.
Edwin G. BurrowsEdwin G. "Ted" Burrows (May 15, 1943 – May 4, 2018) was a Distinguished Professor of History at Brooklyn College. He is the co-author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning ''Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898'' (1998), and author of ''Forgotten Pa ...
and
Mike Wallace Myron Leon "Mike" Wallace (May 9, 1918 – April 7, 2012) was an American journalist, game show host, actor, and media personality. He interviewed a wide range of prominent newsmakers during his seven-decade career. He was one of the original co ...
, '' Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898'', (1999: xivff)
Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, according to the Institute for Social History of Amsterdam. Based on the price of silver, "
The Straight Dope "The Straight Dope" was a question-and-answer newspaper column written under a pseudonym of Cecil Adams and illustrated (also pseudonymously) by Slug Signorino, first published in 1973 in the ''Chicago Reader'' as well as in print syndication natio ...
"
newspaper column A column is a recurring piece or article in a newspaper, magazine or other publication, where a writer expresses their own opinion in few columns allotted to them by the newspaper organisation. Columns are written by columnists. What differentiat ...
calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992.How much would the $24 paid for Manhattan be worth in today's money?
.
The Straight Dope "The Straight Dope" was a question-and-answer newspaper column written under a pseudonym of Cecil Adams and illustrated (also pseudonymously) by Slug Signorino, first published in 1973 in the ''Chicago Reader'' as well as in print syndication natio ...
(July 31, 1992). Retrieved on July 23, 2013.
Historians James and Michelle Nevius revisited the issue in 2014, suggesting that using the prices of beer and brandy as monetary equivalencies, the price Minuit paid would have the purchasing power of somewhere between $2,600 and $15,600 in current dollars. According to the writer
Nathaniel Benchley Nathaniel Goddard Benchley (November 13, 1915 – December 14, 1981) was an American writer from Massachusetts. Early life Born in Newton, Massachusetts to a literary family, he was the son of Robert Benchley (1889–1945), a noted American wri ...
, Minuit conducted the transaction with Seyseys, chief of the Canarsee Native Americans, who were willing to accept valuable merchandise in exchange for the island that was mostly controlled by the Weckquaesgeeks, a band of the
Wappinger The Wappinger () were an Eastern Algonquian Munsee-speaking Native American people from southern New York and western Connecticut. At the time of first contact in the 17th century they were primarily based in what is now Dutchess County, New Yor ...
. In 1647,
Peter Stuyvesant Peter Stuyvesant (; in Dutch also ''Pieter'' and ''Petrus'' Stuyvesant; c. 1592 – August 1672)Mooney, James E. "Stuyvesant, Peter" in p.1256 served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ce ...

Peter Stuyvesant
was appointed as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English
Duke of York and Albany Duke of York and Albany was a title of nobility in the Peerage of Great Britain. The title was created three times during the 18th century and was usually given to the second son of British monarchs. The predecessor titles in the English and Scotti ...
, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including
freedom of religion Freedom of religion or religious liberty is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance. It also includes the freedom ...
) under their new English rulers. The Dutch Republic re-captured the city in August 1673, renaming it "New Orange". New Netherland was ultimately ceded to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster.


American Revolution and the early United States

Manhattan was at the heart of the
New York Campaign The New York and New Jersey campaign was a series of battles in 1776 and the winter months of 1777 for control of the Port of New York and the state of New Jersey during the American Revolutionary War between British forces under General Sir Willi ...
, a series of major battles in the early
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from thirteen American colonies of British America in Congress against Great Britain over thei ...
. The
Continental Army The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the former thirteen British colonies that later became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the ...
was forced to abandon Manhattan after the
Battle of Fort Washington The Battle of Fort Washington was fought in New York on November 16, 1776 during the American Revolutionary War between the United States and Great Britain. It was a British victory that gained the surrender of the remnant of the garrison of For ...
on November 16, 1776. The city, greatly damaged by the
Great Fire of New York The 1835 Great Fire of New York was one of three fires that rendered extensive damage to New York City in the 18th and 19th centuries. The fire occurred in the middle of an economic boom, covering 17 city blocks, killing two people, and destroying ...
during the campaign, became the British military and political center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. The military center for the colonists was established in New Jersey. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American political leader, military general, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Previously, he led Patriot forces to vi ...

George Washington
returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city. From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the
Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution. It was approved after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777) by th ...
, with the
Continental Congress The Continental Congress was a series of legislative bodies which met in the British American colonies and the newly declared United States just before, during, and after the American Revolution. The term "Continental Congress" most specifically ...
meeting at
New York City Hall New York City Hall is the seat of New York City government, located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center area of Lower Manhattan, between Broadway, Park Row, and Chambers Street. Constructed from 1803 to 1812, the building is the ol ...

New York City Hall
(then at
Fraunces Tavern Fraunces Tavern is a museum and restaurant in New York City, situated at 54 Pearl Street at the corner of Broad Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan. The location played a prominent role in history before, during, and after the Ame ...
). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted
Constitution of the United States The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first three articles embody the doctrine ...

Constitution of the United States
, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at
Federal Hall Federal Hall is a historic building at 26 Wall Street in the Financial District of Manhattan, New York City. The name refers to two structures on the site: a Federal style building completed in 1703, and the current Greek Revival-style building c ...
. Federal Hall was also the site where the
United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal and state court cases that invo ...
met for the first time, the
United States Bill of Rights The United States Bill of Rights comprises the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the often bitter 1787–88 debate over the ratification of the Constitution, and written to address the objections raise ...
were drafted and ratified, and where the
Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as The Ordinance of 1787) enacted July 13, 1787, was an organic act of the Congress of the Confe ...
was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.


19th century

New York grew as an economic center, first as a result of
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was an influenti ...

Alexander Hamilton
's policies and practices as the first
Secretary of the Treasury The United States secretary of the treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, which is concerned with all financial and monetary matters relating to the federal government, and, until 2003, also included several major ...
and, later, with the opening of the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal in New York is part of the east–west, cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State Barge Canal). It was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic O ...
in 1825, which connected the Atlantic
port The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_maritime_law.html" style="text-decoration: none; ...
to the vast agricultural markets of the
Midwestern United States The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). It occupies the northern central part of the United States.
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
.Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68. By 1810, New York City, then confined to Manhattan, had surpassed
Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2019 estimated population o ...
as the largest city in the United States. The
Commissioners' Plan of 1811 The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was the original design for the streets of Manhattan above Houston Street and below 155th Street, which put in place the rectangular grid plan of streets and lots that has defined Manhattan to this day. It has be ...
laid out the island of Manhattan in its familiar
grid plan In urban planning, the grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. The infrastructure cost for regular grid patterns is generally higher than for patter ...
.
Tammany Hall Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St. Tammany, the Sons of St. Tammany, or the Columbian Order, was a New York City political organization founded in 1786 and incorporated on May 12, 1789, as the Tammany Society. It became the main loc ...
, a Democratic Party
political machine In the politics of representative democracies, a political machine is a political group in which an authoritative leader or small group command the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive patronage ...
, began to grow in influence with the support of many of the immigrant Irish, culminating in the election of the first Tammany mayor,
Fernando Wood Fernando Wood (June 14, 1812 – February 14, 1881) was an American politician of the Democratic Party and the 73rd and 75th mayor of New York City; he also served as a United States Representative (1841–1843, 1863–1865, and 1867–1881) an ...
, in 1854. Tammany Hall dominated local politics for decades.
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
, which opened to the public in 1858, became the first landscaped public park in an American city. New York City played a complex role in the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between northern states loyal to the Union and southern states that had seceded to form the Confederate States of America. Th ...
. The city's strong commercial ties to the
southern United States The southern United States, also known as the American South, the southern states, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States. It is between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwester ...
existed for many reasons, including the industrial power of the Hudson River, which allowed trade with stops such as the
West Point Foundry The West Point Foundry was a major American ironworking and machine shop site in Cold Spring, New York, operating from 1818 to about 1911. Initiated after the War of 1812, it became most famous for its production of Parrott rifle artillery and othe ...
, one of the great manufacturing operations in the early United States; and the city's Atlantic Ocean ports, rendering New York City the American powerhouse in terms of industrial trade between the northern and southern United States. New York's growing immigrant population, which had originated largely from Germany and Ireland, began in the late 1850s to include waves of Italians and Central and Eastern European Jews flowing in en masse. Anger arose about
conscription Conscription, sometimes called the draft in the United States, is the mandatory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and it continues in some countries to the present day ...
, with resentment at those who could afford to pay $300 to avoid service leading to resentment against Lincoln's war policies and fomenting paranoia about
free Blacks#REDIRECT Free Negro#REDIRECT Free Negro {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move ...
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move ...
taking the poor immigrants' jobs, culminating in the three-day-long
New York Draft Riots The New York City draft riots (July 13–16, 1863), sometimes referred to as the Manhattan draft riots and known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan, widely regarded as the culmination of working-class disc ...
of July 1863. These intense war-time riots are counted among the worst incidents of
civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance or civil unrest, is an activity arising from a mass act of civil disobedience (such as a demonstration, riot, or strike) in which the participants become hostile toward authority, and authorities in ...
in American history, with an estimated 119 participants and passersby massacred. The rate of immigration from Europe grew steeply after the Civil War, and Manhattan became the first stop for millions seeking a new life in the United States, a role acknowledged by the dedication of the
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; french: La Liberté éclairant le monde, links=no) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor within New York City, in the United States. The copper sta ...

Statue of Liberty
on October 28, 1886, a gift from the people of France. The new European immigration brought further social upheaval. In a city of tenements packed with poorly paid laborers from dozens of nations, the city became a hotbed of
revolution In political science, a revolution (Latin: ''revolutio'', "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolts against the government, typically due ...
(including
anarchist Anarchism is a political philosophy and movement that is sceptical of authority and rejects all involuntary, coercive forms of hierarchy. Anarchism calls for the abolition of the state, which it holds to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harm ...
s and
communist Communism (from Latin la, communis, lit=common, universal, label=none)Ball, Terence, and Richard Dagger. 9992019.Communism (revised ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 June 2020. is a philosophical, social, political, and economic ide ...
s among others),
syndicalism Syndicalism is a current in the labor movement to establish local, worker-based organizations and advance the demands and rights of workers through strikes. Most active in the early 20th century, syndicalism was predominant in the revolutionary l ...

syndicalism
,
racketeering A racket, according to the current common and most general definition, is an organized criminal act or activity in which the criminal act or activity is some form of substantial business, or a way to earn illegal money either regularly, or briefly ...
, and
unionization A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply called a union, is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards, a ...
. In 1883, the opening of the
Brooklyn Bridge The Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge in New York City, spanning the East River between Manhattan Island and Brooklyn on Long Island. Opened on May 24, 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge was the first fixed crossing of the East R ...
established a road connection to
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
, across the
East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates the borough of Queens ...
. In 1874, the western portion of the present
Bronx County The Bronx () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the U.S. state of New York, and the third-most-densely populated county in the United States. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across ...
was transferred to New York County from
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populated county in New York and the most populated north of New York City. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to ...
, and in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was annexed. In 1898, when New York City consolidated with three neighboring counties to form "the
City of Greater New York The City of Greater New York was the term used by many politicians and scholars for the expanded City of New York created on January 1, 1898, by consolidating the existing City of New York with Brooklyn, western Queens County, and Staten Islan ...
", Manhattan and the Bronx, though still one county, were established as two separate
boroughs A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History In the Middle Ages ...
. On January 1, 1914, the
New York State Legislature The New York State Legislature consists of the two houses that act as the state legislature of the U.S. state of New York: The New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly. The New York Constitution does not designate an official term fo ...
created Bronx County and New York County was reduced to its present boundaries.


20th century

The construction of the
New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened on October 27, 1904, the ...

New York City Subway
, which opened in 1904, helped bind the new city together, as did additional bridges to Brooklyn. In the 1920s Manhattan experienced large arrivals of African-Americans as part of the Great Migration from the southern United States, and the
Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance was an intellectual and cultural revival of African American music, dance, art, fashion, literature, theater and politics centered in Harlem, Manhattan, New York City, spanning the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was kno ...
, part of a larger boom time in the
Prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture, storage (whether in barrels or in bottles), transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcoholic bev ...
era that included new
skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Historically, t ...
s competing for the skyline. New York City became the most populous city in the world in 1925, overtaking London, which had reigned for a century. Manhattan's majority
white White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue). It is the color of fresh snow, chalk and milk, and is the opposite of black. White objects fully reflect and scatter all the visible wavelengths of light. White on television and ...
ethnic group declined from 98.7% in 1900 to 58.3% by 1990. On March 25, 1911, the
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, on March 25, 1911, was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city, and one of the deadliest in U.S. history. The fire caused ...
in
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan in New York City, bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contai ...
killed 146 garment workers. The disaster eventually led to overhauls of the city's fire department,
building code A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permission, us ...
s, and workplace regulations. The period between the
World War#REDIRECT world war {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from ambiguous term {{R from other capitalisation ...
s saw the election of reformist mayor
Fiorello La Guardia Fiorello Henry LaGuardia (; born Fiorello Enrico LaGuardia, ; December 11, 1882September 20, 1947) was an American attorney and politician who represented New York in the House of Representatives and served as the 99th Mayor of New York City from ...
and the fall of
Tammany Hall Tammany Hall, also known as the Society of St. Tammany, the Sons of St. Tammany, or the Columbian Order, was a New York City political organization founded in 1786 and incorporated on May 12, 1789, as the Tammany Society. It became the main loc ...
after 80 years of political dominance. As the city's demographics stabilized,
labor union A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simply called a union, is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards, a ...
ization brought new protections and affluence to the working class, the city's government and infrastructure underwent a dramatic overhaul under La Guardia. Despite the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most countries, it started in 1929 and las ...
, some of the world's tallest skyscrapers were completed in Manhattan during the 1930s, including numerous
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, tra ...
masterpieces that are still part of the city's skyline, most notably the
Empire State Building The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and built from 1930 to 1931. Its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of ...
, the
Chrysler Building The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in the Turtle Bay neighborhood on the East Side of Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue near Midtown Manhattan. At , it is the tallest brick building i ...
, and the
30 Rockefeller Plaza 30 Rockefeller Plaza is a skyscraper that forms the centerpiece of Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Completed in 1933, the 66-story, building was designed in the Art Deco style by Raymond Hood, Rockefeller Center's lead ...
. Returning
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
veterans created a postwar economic boom, which led to the development of huge housing developments targeted at returning veterans, the largest being Peter Cooper Village-Stuyvesant Town, which opened in 1947. In 1951–1952, the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of ...
relocated to a new
headquarters Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ) denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top ...
the East Side of Manhattan. The
Stonewall riots#REDIRECT Stonewall riots {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the
gay community The LGBT community (also known as the LGBTQ+ community, GLBT community, or the gay community) is a loosely defined grouping of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, LGBT organizations, and subcultures, united by a common culture and social movem ...
against a
police raid A police raid or razzia is a visit by police or other law-enforcement officers, often in the early morning or late at night, with the aim of using the element of surprise in an attempt to arrest suspects believed to be likely to hide evidence, ...
that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the
Stonewall Inn The Stonewall Inn, often shortened to Stonewall, is a gay bar and recreational tavern in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City, and the site of the Stonewall riots of 1969, which is widely considered to be the singl ...
in the
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan in New York City, bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contai ...
neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the
gay liberation The gay liberation movement is a social and political movement of the late 1960s through the mid-1980s that urged lesbians and gay men to engage in radical direct action, and to counter societal shame with gay pride.Hoffman, 2007, pp.xi-xiii. I ...
movement and the modern fight for
LGBT rights Rights affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or jurisdiction – encompassing everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty for homosexuality. Notably, , 29 ...
. In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City, including Manhattan, to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. The 1980s saw a rebirth of
Wall Street Wall Street is an eight-block-long street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It runs between Broadway in the west to South Street and the East River in the east. The term "Wall Street" has become a metonym for the f ...
, and Manhattan reclaimed its role at the center of the worldwide
financial industry Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, cons ...
. The 1980s also saw Manhattan at the heart of the AIDS crisis, with Greenwich Village at its epicenter. The organizations
Gay Men's Health Crisis The GMHC (formerly Gay Men's Health Crisis) is a New York City–based non-profit, volunteer-supported and community-based AIDS service organization whose mission statement is to "end the AIDS epidemic and uplift the lives of all affected." Histor ...
(GMHC) and
AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) is an international, grassroots political group working to end the AIDS pandemic. The group works to improve the lives of people with AIDS through direct action, medical research, treatment and advocacy, a ...
(ACT UP) were founded to advocate on behalf of those stricken with the disease. By the 1990s crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities,
gentrification Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases the e ...
, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Murder rates that had reached 2,245 in 1990 plummeted to 537 by 2008, and the
crack epidemic The "crack epidemic" in the United States was a surge of crack cocaine use in major cities across the United States between the early 1980s and the early 1990s. This resulted in a number of social consequences, such as increasing crime and violence ...
and its associated drug-related violence came under greater control. The outflow of population turned around, as the city once again became the destination of immigrants from around the world, joining with low
interest rate An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited, or borrowed (called the principal sum). The total interest on an amount lent or borrowed depends on the principal sum, the interest rate, the ...
s and Wall Street bonuses to fuel the growth of the real estate market. Important new sectors, such as
Silicon Alley Silicon Alley is an area of high tech companies centered around southern Manhattan's Flatiron district in New York City. The term was coined in the 1990s during the dot-com boom, alluding to California's Silicon Valley tech center. The term has gr ...
, emerged in Manhattan's economy.


21st century

On
September 11, 2001 The September 11 attacks, often referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Wahhabi terrorist group Al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks resulted i ...
, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center, and the towers subsequently collapsed.
7 World Trade Center 7 World Trade Center (7 WTC or WTC-7) refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was com ...

7 World Trade Center
collapsed due to fires and structural damage caused by heavy debris falling from the collapse of the Twin Towers. The other buildings within the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and soon after demolished. The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage to other surrounding buildings and skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan, and resulted in the deaths of 2,606 people, in addition to those on the planes. Since 2001, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored, although there has been controversy surrounding the rebuilding. Many rescue workers and residents of the area developed several life-threatening illnesses that have led to some of their subsequent deaths. A memorial at the site was opened to the public on September 11, 2011, and the museum opened in 2014. In 2014, the new
One World Trade Center One World Trade Center (also known as One World Trade, One WTC, or Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tall ...
, at and formerly known as the Freedom Tower, became the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, while other skyscrapers were under construction at the site. The
Occupy Wall Street Occupy Wall Street (OWS) was a protest movement against economic inequality that began in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City's Wall Street financial district, in September 2011. It gave rise to the wider Occupy movement in the United Stat ...
protests in
Zuccotti Park Zuccotti Park (formerly Liberty Plaza Park) is a publicly accessible park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City. It is located in a privately owned public space (POPS) controlled by Brookfield Properties and Goldman Sachs. ...
in the
Financial District This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as banks, insurance companies and other related finance corporations have ...
of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and spawning the
Occupy movement The Occupy movement was an international progressive socio-political movement that expresses opposition to social and economic inequality and to the lack of "real democracy" around the world. It aims primarily to advance social and economic justice ...
against
social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fro ...
and
economic inequality There are wide varieties of economic inequality, most notably measured using the distribution of income (the amount of money people are paid) and the distribution of wealth (the amount of wealth people own). Besides economic inequality between ...
worldwide. On October 29 and 30, 2012,
Hurricane Sandy Hurricane Sandy (unofficially referred to as Superstorm Sandy) was the deadliest, the most destructive, and the strongest hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm inflicted nearly $70 billion (2012 USD) in damage and kill ...
caused extensive destruction in the borough, ravaging portions of Lower Manhattan with record-high storm surge from New York Harbor, severe flooding, and high winds, causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of city residents and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal management, coastal barriers around the shorelines of the borough and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future. Around 15 percent of the borough is considered to be in Floodplain, flood-risk zones. On 2017 New York City truck attack, October 31, 2017, a terrorist took a rental pickup truck and deliberately drove down a bike path alongside the West Side Highway in Lower Manhattan, killing eight people and injuring a dozen others before crashing into a school bus.


Geography


Components

The borough consists of Manhattan Island, , and several small islands, including Randalls and Wards Islands, Randalls Island and Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and
Governors Island Governors Island is a island in New York Harbor, within the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is located approximately south of Manhattan Island, and is separated from Brooklyn to the east by the Buttermilk Channel. The National Park Ser ...

Governors Island
and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor.New York City Administrative Code Section 2-202 Division into boroughs and boundaries thereof – Division Into Boroughs And Boundaries Thereof.
, Justia. Accessed November 20, 2016. "The borough of Manhattan shall consist of the territory known as New York county, which shall contain all that part of the city and state, including that portion of land commonly known as Marble Hill and included within the county of New York and borough of Manhattan for all purposes pursuant to chapter nine hundred thirty-nine of the laws of nineteen hundred eighty-four and further including the islands called Manhattan Island, Governor's Island, Bedloe's Island, Ellis Island, Franklin D. Roosevelt Island, Randall's Island and Oyster Island..."
According to the United States Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of , of which is land and (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic Salient (geography), panhandle. Manhattan Island is in area, long and wide, at its widest (near 14th Street (Manhattan), 14th Street).How New York Works
, ''How Stuff Works''. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The island is , long and wide (at its widest point)."
Icebergs are often compared in size to the area of Manhattan.


Manhattan Island

Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Downtown (
Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in New York City. Lower Manhattan is defined most commonly as the area delineat ...
), Midtown (
Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Midtown is home to some of the city's most prominent buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Projec ...
), and Uptown (
Upper Manhattan Upper Manhattan is the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary has been variously defined, but some of the most common usages are 96th Street, the northern boundary of Central Park (110th Street), 125 ...
), with
Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem. It is considered one of the most expensive streets in the wor ...
dividing Manhattan lengthwise into its East Side (Manhattan), East Side and West Side (Manhattan), West Side. Manhattan Island is bounded by the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New ...
to the west and the
East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates the borough of Queens ...
to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from the Bronx and the mainland United States. Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street (Manhattan), West Street. When construction of the World Trade Center, building the World Trade Center in 1968, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m3) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or , covering , providing a riverfront esplanade and over of parks; Hudson River Park was subsequently opened in stages beginning in 1998.


Marble Hill

One neighborhood of New York County, Marble Hill, is contiguous with the U.S. mainland. Marble Hill at one time was part of Manhattan Island, but the Harlem River Ship Canal, dug in 1895 to improve navigation on the Harlem River, separated it from the remainder of Manhattan as an island between the Bronx and the remainder of Manhattan.Gray, Christopher
"Streetscapes: Spuyten Duyvil Swing Bridge; Restoring a Link In the City's Lifeline"
. ''The New York Times'', March 6, 1988. Accessed June 30, 2009.
Before World War I, the section of the original Harlem River channel separating Marble Hill from The Bronx was filled in, and Marble Hill became part of the mainland.Jackson, Nancy Beth

. ''The New York Times'', January 26, 2003. Accessed June 30, 2009. "The building of the Harlem River Ship Canal turned the hill into an island in 1895, but when Spuyten Duyvel Creek on the west was filled in before World War I, the became firmly attached to the mainland and the Bronx."
Marble Hill is one example of how Manhattan's land has been considerably altered by human intervention. The borough has seen substantial land reclamation along its waterfronts since Dutch colonial times, and much of the natural variation in its topography has been evened out.


Smaller islands

Within New York Harbor, there are three smaller islands: * Ellis Island, shared with New Jersey *
Governors Island Governors Island is a island in New York Harbor, within the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is located approximately south of Manhattan Island, and is separated from Brooklyn to the east by the Buttermilk Channel. The National Park Ser ...

Governors Island
* Liberty Island Other smaller islands, in the
East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates the borough of Queens ...
, include (from north to south): * Randalls and Wards Islands, joined by landfill * Mill Rock * Roosevelt Island * U Thant Island (legally Belmont Island)


Geology


Bedrock

The bedrock underlying much of Manhattan is a mica schist known as ''Manhattan schist'' of the Manhattan Prong physiographic region. It is a strong, Competence (geology), competent metamorphic rock that was created when Pangaea formed. It is well suited for the foundations of tall buildings. In
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
, outcrops of Manhattan schist occur and Rat Rock is one rather large example. Geologically, a predominant feature of the substrata of Manhattan is that the underlying bedrock base of the island rises considerably closer to the surface near Midtown Manhattan, dips down lower between 29th Street (Manhattan), 29th Street and Canal Street (Manhattan), Canal Street, then rises toward the surface again in Lower Manhattan. It has been widely believed that the depth to bedrock was the primary underlying reason for the clustering of skyscrapers in the Midtown and Financial District areas, and their absence over the intervening territory between these two areas. However, research has shown that economic factors played a bigger part in the locations of these skyscrapers.


Updated seismic analysis

According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in Manhattan than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near New York City, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.


Locations


Adjacent counties

* Bergen County, New Jersey—west and northwest * Hudson County, New Jersey—west and southwest * Bronx County (
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the U.S. state of New York, and the third-most-densely populated county in the United States. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across ...
)—north and northeast * Queens County (
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
)—east * Kings County (
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
)—south and southeast * Richmond County (Staten Island)—southwest


National protected areas

* African Burial Ground National Monument * Castle Clinton National Monument * Federal Hall National Memorial * General Grant National Memorial * Governors Island National Monument * Hamilton Grange National Memorial * Lower East Side Tenement National Historic Site * Statue of Liberty National Monument (part) * Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site


Neighborhoods

Manhattan's many neighborhoods are not named according to any particular convention. Some are geographical (the Upper East Side), or ethnically descriptive (Little Italy, Manhattan, Little Italy). Others are acronyms, such as TriBeCa (for "TRIangle BElow CAnal Street") or SoHo ("SOuth of HOuston"), or the far more recent vintages NoLIta, Manhattan, NoLIta ("NOrth of Little ITAly"). and NoMad ("NOrth of MADison Square Park"). Harlem is a name from the Dutch colonial era after Haarlem, a city in the Netherlands. Alphabet City, Manhattan, Alphabet City comprises Avenue A (Manhattan), Avenues A, Avenue B (Manhattan), B, Avenue C (Manhattan), C, and Avenue D (Manhattan), D, to which its name refers. Some have simple folkloric names, such as Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, Hell's Kitchen, alongside their more official but lesser used title (in this case, Clinton). Some neighborhoods, such as SoHo, which is mixed use, are known for luxury goods, upscale shopping as well as residential use. Others, such as
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan in New York City, bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contai ...
, the Lower East Side, Manhattan, Lower East Side, Alphabet City, Manhattan, Alphabet City and the East Village, Manhattan, East Village, have long been associated with the Bohemianism, Bohemian subculture. Chelsea, Manhattan, Chelsea is one of several Manhattan neighborhoods with large LGBT culture in New York City, gay populations and has become a center of both the international visual art, art industry and New York's nightlife. Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washington Heights is a primary destination for immigrants from the Dominican Republic.
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South Ameri ...
has the highest concentration of people of Chinese Americans in New York City, Chinese descent outside of Asia. Koreatown, Manhattan, Koreatown is roughly bounded by 6th and Madison Avenues, between 31st and 33rd Streets, where Hangul (한글) signage is ubiquitous. Rose Hill, Manhattan, Rose Hill features a growing number of Indian restaurants and spice shops along a stretch of Lexington Avenue between 25th and 30th Streets which has become known as ''Curry Hill''. Since 2010, a ''Little Australia'' has emerged and is growing in Nolita, Lower Manhattan. In Manhattan, ''uptown'' means north (more precisely north-northeast, which is the direction the island and its street grid system are oriented) and ''downtown'' means south (south-southwest). This usage differs from that of most American cities, where ''downtown'' refers to the central business district. Manhattan has two central business districts, the
Financial District This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as banks, insurance companies and other related finance corporations have ...
at the southern tip of the island, and
Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Midtown is home to some of the city's most prominent buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Projec ...
. The term ''uptown'' also refers to the northern part of Manhattan above 72nd Street (Manhattan), 72nd Street and ''downtown'' to the southern portion below 14th Street (Manhattan), 14th Street,, NYC & Company. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Downtown (below 14th Street) contains Greenwich Village, SoHo, TriBeCa, and the Wall Street financial district." with ''Midtown'' covering the area in between, though definitions can be rather fluid depending on the situation.
Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem. It is considered one of the most expensive streets in the wor ...
roughly bisects Manhattan Island and acts as the demarcation line for east/west designations (e.g., East 27th Street, West 42nd Street); street addresses start at Fifth Avenue and increase heading away from Fifth Avenue, at a rate of 100 per block on most streets. South of Waverly Place, Fifth Avenue terminates and Broadway becomes the east/west demarcation line. Although the grid does start with 1st Street, just north of Houston Street (the southernmost street divided in west and east portions; pronounced HOW-stin), the grid does not fully take hold until north of 14th Street (Manhattan), 14th Street, where nearly all east-west streets are numerically identified, which increase from south to north to 220th Street, the highest numbered street on the island. Streets in Midtown are usually one-way, with the few exceptions generally being the busiest cross-town thoroughfares (14th, 23rd, 34th, and 42nd Streets, for example), which are bidirectional across the width of Manhattan Island. The rule of thumb is that odd-numbered streets run west, while even-numbered streets run east.


Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (''Cfa''), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (''Dfa''). The city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually. The city lies in the USDA hardiness zone, 7b plant hardiness zone. Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachian Mountains, Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is ; temperatures usually drop to several times per winter, and reach several days in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically warm to hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of in July. Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, while daytime temperatures exceed on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed . Extreme temperatures have ranged from , recorded on February 9, 1934, up to on July 9, 1936. Summer evening temperatures are elevated by the urban heat island effect, which causes heat absorbed during the day to be radiated back at night, raising temperatures by as much as when winds are slow. Manhattan receives of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been ; this varies considerably from year to year.


Boroughscape


Demographics

At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 U.S. census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau to have increased 2.7% to 1,628,706 , representing 19.5% of New York City's population of 8,336,817 and 8.4% of New York State's population of 19,745,289. As of the 2017 census estimates, the population density of New York County was around 72,918 people per square mile (28,154/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). In 2006, the New York City Department of City Planning projected that Manhattan's population would increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period. However, since then, Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street (Manhattan), Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 , nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census. The southern tip of Manhattan became the fastest growing part of New York City between 1990 and 2014. According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish American, Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively. Manhattan is one of the Highest-income counties in the United States, highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. , Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the Highest-income counties in the United States#Per capita income, highest per capita income, being the sole county whose Personal income in the United States, per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. However, from 2011–2015 Census data of New York County, the per capita income was recorded in 2015 dollars as $64,993, with the median household income at $72,871, and poverty at 17.6%. In 2012, ''The New York Times'' reported that inequality was higher than in most developing countries, stating, "The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".


Religion

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Manhattan was the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, Archdiocese of New York, with 323,325 Catholics worshipping at 109 parishes, followed by 64,000 Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Jews with 77 congregations, an estimated 42,545 Islam in the United States, Muslims with 21 congregations, 42,502 Nondenominational Christianity, non-denominational adherents with 54 congregations, 26,178 Episcopal Church (United States), TEC Episcopalians with 46 congregations, 25,048 American Baptist Churches USA, ABC-USA Baptists with 41 congregations, 24,536 Reform Judaism, Reform Jews with 10 congregations, 23,982 Mahayana Buddhists with 35 congregations, 10,503 Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, PC-USA Presbyterians with 30 congregations, and 10,268 Reformed Church in America, RCA Presbyterians with 10 congregations. Altogether, 44.0% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information. In 2014, Manhattan had 703 religious organizations, the seventeenth most out of all US counties.


Languages

, 59.98% (902,267) of Manhattan residents, aged five and older, spoke only English at home, while 23.07% (347,033) spoke Spanish, 5.33% (80,240) Chinese, 2.03% (30,567) French, 0.78% (11,776) Japanese, 0.77% (11,517) Russian, 0.72% (10,788) Korean, 0.70% (10,496) German, 0.66% (9,868) Italian, 0.64% (9,555) Hebrew, and 0.48% (7,158) spoke African languages at home. In total, 40.02% (602,058) of Manhattan's population, aged five and older, spoke a language other than English at home.


Landmarks and architecture

Points of interest on Manhattan Island include the American Museum of Natural History; the The Battery (Manhattan), Battery; Broadway (Manhattan), Broadway and the Theater District, Manhattan, Theater District; Bryant Park;
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
,
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South Ameri ...
; the
Chrysler Building The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco skyscraper in the Turtle Bay neighborhood on the East Side of Manhattan, New York City, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue near Midtown Manhattan. At , it is the tallest brick building i ...
;
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columb ...
; Curry Hill; the
Empire State Building The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, United States. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and built from 1930 to 1931. Its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of ...
; Flatiron Building; the
Financial District This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as banks, insurance companies and other related finance corporations have ...
(including the New York Stock Exchange Building;
Wall Street Wall Street is an eight-block-long street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It runs between Broadway in the west to South Street and the East River in the east. The term "Wall Street" has become a metonym for the f ...
; and the South Street Seaport);
Grand Central Terminal Grand Central Terminal (GCT; also referred to as Grand Central Station or simply as Grand Central) is a commuter rail terminal located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Grand Central is the southern terminus of ...
;
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan in New York City, bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contai ...
(including
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private research university in New York City. Chartered in 1831 by the New York State Legislature, NYU was founded by a group of New Yorkers led by then Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin. In 1832, the i ...
; Washington Square Arch; and
Stonewall Inn The Stonewall Inn, often shortened to Stonewall, is a gay bar and recreational tavern in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City, and the site of the Stonewall riots of 1969, which is widely considered to be the singl ...
); Harlem and Spanish Harlem; the High Line; Koreatown, Manhattan, Koreatown; Lincoln Center; Little Australia, Manhattan, Little Australia; Little Italy, Manhattan, Little Italy; Madison Square Garden; Fifth Avenue, Museum Mile on Fifth Avenue (including the Metropolitan Museum of Art); Pennsylvania Station (New York City), Penn Station, Port Authority Bus Terminal; Rockefeller Center (including Radio City Music Hall);
Times Square Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center, and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City, at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. Brightly lit by numerous billboards a ...
; Trump Tower; and the World Trade Center (2001–present), World Trade Center (including the National September 11 Museum and
One World Trade Center One World Trade Center (also known as One World Trade, One WTC, or Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tall ...
). There are also numerous iconic
bridges A bridge is a structure built to span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle, usually something that is otherwi ...
across rivers that connect to Manhattan Island, as well as an emerging number of List of tallest buildings in New York City, supertall skyscrapers. The
Statue of Liberty The Statue of Liberty (''Liberty Enlightening the World''; french: La Liberté éclairant le monde, links=no) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor within New York City, in the United States. The copper sta ...

Statue of Liberty
rests on a pedestal on Liberty Island, an exclave of Manhattan, and part of Ellis Island is also an exclave of Manhattan. The borough has many Efficient energy use, energy-efficient, environmentally friendly office buildings, such as the Hearst Tower (New York City), Hearst Tower, the rebuilt
7 World Trade Center 7 World Trade Center (7 WTC or WTC-7) refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was com ...

7 World Trade Center
, and the Bank of America Tower (Manhattan), Bank of America Tower—the first skyscraper designed to attain a Platinum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, LEED Certification.


Architectural history

The
skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Historically, t ...
, which has shaped Manhattan's distinctive skyline, has been closely associated with New York City's identity since the end of the 19th century. From 1890 to 1973, the title of History of the tallest buildings in the world, world's tallest building resided continually in Manhattan (with a gap between 1894 and 1908, when the title was held by Philadelphia City Hall), with eight different buildings holding the title. The New York World Building on Park Row (Manhattan), Park Row, was the first to take the title in 1890, standing until 1955, when it was demolished to construct a new ramp to the
Brooklyn Bridge The Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge in New York City, spanning the East River between Manhattan Island and Brooklyn on Long Island. Opened on May 24, 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge was the first fixed crossing of the East R ...
. The nearby Park Row Building, with its 29 stories standing high, became the world's tallest office building when it opened in 1899. The 41-story Singer Building, constructed in 1908 as the headquarters of the eponymous sewing machine manufacturer, stood high until 1967, when it became the tallest building ever demolished. The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, standing at the foot of Madison Avenue, wrested the title in 1909, with a tower reminiscent of St Mark's Campanile in Venice. The Woolworth Building, and its distinctive Gothic architecture, took the title in 1913, topping off at . Structures such as the Equitable Building (Manhattan), Equitable Building of 1915, which rises vertically forty stories from the sidewalk, prompted the passage of the 1916 Zoning Resolution, requiring new buildings to contain setback (architecture), setbacks withdrawing progressively at a defined angle from the street as they rose, in order to preserve a view of the sky at street level. The Roaring Twenties saw a race to the sky, with three separate buildings pursuing the world's tallest title in the span of a year. As the stock market soared in the days before the Wall Street Crash of 1929, two developers publicly competed for the crown. At , 40 Wall Street, completed in May 1930 in only eleven months as the headquarters of the Bank of Manhattan, seemed to have secured the title. At Lexington Avenue (Manhattan), Lexington Avenue and 42nd Street (Manhattan), 42nd Street, auto executive Walter Chrysler and his architect William Van Alen developed plans to build the structure's trademark spire in secret, pushing the Chrysler Building to and making it the tallest in the world when it was completed in 1929. Both buildings were soon surpassed with the May 1931 completion of the 102-story Empire State Building with its
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, tra ...
tower reaching at the top of the building. The high pinnacle was later added bringing the total height of the building to . The former World Trade Center (1973–2001), Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were located in Lower Manhattan. At , the 110-story buildings were the world's tallest from 1972 until they were surpassed by the construction of the Willis Tower in 1974 (formerly known as the Sears Tower, located in Chicago). One World Trade Center, a replacement for the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, is currently the tallest building in the
Western Hemisphere#REDIRECT Western Hemisphere#REDIRECT Western Hemisphere {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
. In 1961, the Pennsylvania Railroad unveiled plans to tear down the old Pennsylvania Station (1910–1963), Penn Station and replace it with a new Madison Square Garden and One Penn Plaza, office building complex. Organized protests were aimed at preserving the McKim, Mead & White-designed structure completed in 1910, widely considered a masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of New York City. Despite these efforts, demolition of the structure began in October 1963. The loss of Penn Station—called "an act of irresponsible public vandalism" by historian Lewis Mumford—led directly to the enactment in 1965 of a local law establishing the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, which is responsible for preserving the "city's historic, aesthetic, and cultural heritage". The historic preservation movement triggered by Penn Station's demise has been credited with the retention of some one million structures nationwide, including over 1,000 in New York City. In 2017, a multibillion-dollar rebuilding plan was unveiled to restore the historic grandeur of Penn Station, in the process of upgrading the landmark's status as a critical transportation hub.


Parkland

Parkland composes 17.8% of the borough, covering a total of . The
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
, the largest park comprising 30% of Manhattan's parkland, is bordered on the north by West 110th Street (Manhattan), 110th Street (Central Park North), on the west by Eighth Avenue (Manhattan), Eighth Avenue (Central Park West), on the south by West 59th Street (Manhattan), 59th Street (Central Park South), and on the east by Fifth Avenue. Central Park, designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, offers extensive walking tracks, two ice-skating rinks, a wildlife sanctuary, and several lawns and sporting areas, as well as 21 playgrounds and a road from which automobile traffic is banned.Central Park General Information
, Central Park Conservancy. Accessed September 21, 2006.
While much of the park looks natural, it is almost entirely landscaped, and the construction of Central Park in the 1850s was one of the era's most massive public works projects, with some 20,000 workers crafting the topography to create the English-style pastoral landscape Olmsted and Vaux sought to create. The remaining 70% of Manhattan's parkland includes 204 playgrounds, 251 Greenstreets, 371 basketball courts, and many other amenities. The next-largest park in Manhattan is the Hudson River Park, stretches on the Hudson River and comprises . Other major parks include: * Bowling Green (New York City), Bowling Green * Bryant Park * City Hall Park * DeWitt Clinton Park * East River Greenway * Fort Tryon Park * Fort Washington Park (Manhattan), Fort Washington Park * Harlem River Park * Holcombe Rucker Park * Imagination Playground * Inwood Hill Park * Isham Park * J. Hood Wright Park * Jackie Robinson Park * Madison Square Park * Marcus Garvey Park * Morningside Park (Manhattan), Morningside Park * Randalls Island, Randall's Island Park * Riverside Park (Manhattan), Riverside Park * Sara D. Roosevelt Park * Seward Park (Manhattan), Seward Park * St. Nicholas Park * Stuyvesant Square * The Battery (Manhattan), The Battery * High Line, The High Line * Thomas Jefferson Park * Tompkins Square Park * Union Square Park * Washington Square Park


Economy

Manhattan is the economic engine of New York City, with its 2.3 million workers in 2007 drawn from the entire
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at , and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. The metropolitan area includes New York City (the most populous city in the Unit ...
accounting for almost two-thirds of all jobs in New York City. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in Manhattan (New York County) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. Manhattan's workforce is overwhelmingly focused on white-collar worker, white collar professions, with manufacturing nearly extinct. Manhattan also has the United States counties by per capita income, highest per capita income of any county in the United States. In 2010, Manhattan's daytime population was swelling to 3.94 million, with commuters adding a net 1.48 million people to the population, along with visitors, tourists, and commuting students. The commuter influx of 1.61 million workers coming into Manhattan was the largest of any county or city in the country, and was more than triple the 480,000 commuters who headed into second-ranked Washington, D.C.


Financial sector

Manhattan's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the financial center, U.S. financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. The borough's Security (finance), securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine for Manhattan, accounting in 2012 for 5 percent of private sector jobs in New York City, 8.5 percent (US$3.8 billion) of the city's tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of US$360,700. Wall Street investment banking fees in 2012 totaled approximately US$40 billion, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk management, risk and compliance functions earned as much as US$324,000 annually. Lower Manhattan is home to the
New York Stock Exchange The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE, nicknamed "The Big Board") is an American stock exchange in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed comp ...
(NYSE), at New York Stock Exchange Building, 11 Wall Street, and the
NASDAQ#REDIRECT Nasdaq#REDIRECT Nasdaq {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R up ...
{{Redirect category shell, {{R from move {{R up ...

NASDAQ, at One Liberty Plaza, 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall share trading value and by total
market capitalization Market capitalization, commonly called market cap, is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares. Market capitalization is equal to the share price multiplied by the number of shares outstanding. Since outstanding stock ...
of their listed companies in 2013. The NYSE American (formerly the American Stock Exchange, AMEX), New York Board of Trade, and the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) are also located downtown. In July 2013, NYSE Euronext, the operator of the New York Stock Exchange, took over the administration of the London interbank offered rate from the British Bankers Association.


Corporate sector

New York City is home to the most corporate headquarters of any city in the United States, the overwhelming majority based in Manhattan. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2018, making it the largest office market in the United States, while
Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Midtown is home to some of the city's most prominent buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Projec ...
, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2018, is the largest central business district in the world. New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising, advertising industry is metonymously reflected as Madison Avenue#Advertising industry, "Madison Avenue".


Tech and biotech

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonymy, metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high tech industries, including the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, biotechnology, game design, financial technology (''fintech''), and other fields within information technology that are supported by the area's entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. , New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over US$7.3 billion in venture capital investment, most based in Manhattan, as well as in
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
,
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
, and elsewhere in the region. High technology startup companies and employment are growing in Manhattan and across New York City, bolstered by the city's emergence as a global node of innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and sustainability, environmental sustainability, as well as New York's position as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center in North America, including its vicinity to several transatlantic telephone cable, transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, the city's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless network, wireless connectivity. Verizon Communications, headquartered at Verizon Building, 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a US$3 billion fiberoptic communication, fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. As of October 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector, with a significant proportion in Manhattan. The technology sector has been expanding across Manhattan since 2010. The biotechnology sector is also growing in Manhattan based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than US$30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than on 29th Street (Manhattan), East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of US$100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology. In 2011, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg had announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a US$2 billion graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island, Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital.


Tourism

Tourism is vital to Manhattan's economy, and the landmarks of Manhattan are the focus of New York City's tourists, enumerating an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. According to The Broadway League, shows on Broadway theatre, Broadway sold approximately US$1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an increase of 11.4% from US$1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season; attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million. As of June 2016, Manhattan had nearly 91,500 hotel rooms, a 26% increase from 2010.


Real estate

Real estate is a major force in Manhattan's economy, and indeed the city's, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at US$914.8 billion for the 2015 fiscal year. Manhattan has perennially been home to some of the nation's, as well as the world's, most valuable real estate, including the Time Warner Center, which had the highest-listed market value in the city in 2006 at US$1.1 billion, to be subsequently surpassed in October 2014 by the Waldorf Astoria New York, which became the most expensive hotel ever sold after being purchased by the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, for . When 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007, for US$510 million, about US$1,589 per square foot (US$17,104/m²), it broke the barely month-old record for an American office building of US$1,476 per square foot (US$15,887/m²) based on the sale of 660 Madison Avenue. In 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten zip codes in the United States by median housing price. In 2019, the most expensive home sale ever in the United States occurred in Manhattan, at a selling price of US$238 million, for a penthouse apartment overlooking
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
. Manhattan had approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m²) of office space in 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation based on office space, while Lower Manhattan is the third-largest (after Chicago's Chicago Loop, Loop).


Media

Manhattan has been described as the Media in New York City, media capital of the world. An integral component of this status is the significant array of media outlets and their journalists who report about international, American, business journalism, business, entertainment journalism, entertainment, and
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at , and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. The metropolitan area includes New York City (the most populous city in the Unit ...
-related matters from Manhattan.


News

Manhattan is served by the major New York City daily newspaper, news publications, including ''The New York Times'', which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for New Yorkers in journalism, journalism and is considered the U.S. media's "newspaper of record";the ''New York Daily News''; and the ''New York Post'', which are all headquartered in the borough. The nation's largest newspaper by circulation, ''The Wall Street Journal'', is also based in Manhattan. Other daily newspapers include ''AM New York'' and ''The Villager (Manhattan), The Villager''. ''The New York Amsterdam News'', based in Harlem, is one of the leading Black-owned weekly newspapers in the United States. ''The Village Voice'', historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.


Television, radio, film

The television industry developed in Manhattan and is a significant employer in the borough's economy. The four major American broadcast networks, American Broadcasting Company, ABC, CBS, NBC, and Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox, as well as Univision, are all headquartered in Manhattan, as are many cable channels, including CNN, MSNBC, MTV, Fox News, HBO, and Comedy Central. In 1971, WLIB became New York City's first Black-owned radio station and began broadcasts geared toward the African-American community in 1949. WQHT, also known as ''Hot 97'', claims to be the premier hip-hop station in the United States. WNYC, comprising an AM and FM signal, has the largest public radio audience in the nation and is the most-listened to commercial or non-commercial radio station in Manhattan. WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States. The oldest public-access television cable TV channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971, offers eclectic local programming that ranges from a jazz hour to discussion of labor issues to foreign language and religious programming. NY1, Time Warner Cable's local news channel, is known for its beat coverage of City Hall and state politics.


Education

Education in Manhattan is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are operated by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Charter schools include Success Academy Charter Schools, Success Academy Harlem 1 through 5, Success Academy Upper West, and Public Prep. Some notable New York City public high schools are located in Manhattan, including The Beacon School, Beacon High School, Stuyvesant High School, Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School of Music & Art and Performing Arts, Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School, High School of Fashion Industries, Eleanor Roosevelt High School (New York City, New York), Eleanor Roosevelt High School, NYC Lab School, Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics, Hunter College High School, and High School for Math, Science and Engineering at City College. Bard High School Early College, a hybrid school created by Bard College, serves students from around the city. Many private preparatory schools are also situated in Manhattan, including the Upper East Side's Brearley School, Dalton School, Browning School, Spence School, Chapin School (Manhattan), Chapin School, Nightingale-Bamford School, Convent of the Sacred Heart (New York), Convent of the Sacred Heart, Hewitt School, Saint David's School (New York City), Saint David's School, Loyola School (New York City), Loyola School, and Regis High School (New York City), Regis High School. The Upper West Side is home to the Collegiate School (New York City), Collegiate School and Trinity School (New York City), Trinity School. The borough is also home to Manhattan Country School, Trevor Day School, and the United Nations International School. Based on data from the 2011–2015 American Community Survey, 59.9% of Manhattan residents over age 25 have a bachelor's degree. As of 2005, about 60% of residents were college graduates and some 25% had earned advanced degrees, giving Manhattan one of the nation's densest concentrations of highly educated people. Manhattan has various colleges and universities, including
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columb ...
(and its affiliate Barnard College), Cooper Union, Marymount Manhattan College, New York Institute of Technology,
New York University New York University (NYU) is a private research university in New York City. Chartered in 1831 by the New York State Legislature, NYU was founded by a group of New Yorkers led by then Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin. In 1832, the i ...
(NYU), The Juilliard School, Pace University, Berkeley College, The New School, Yeshiva University, and a campus of Fordham University. Other schools include Bank Street College of Education, Boricua College, Jewish Theological Seminary of America, Manhattan School of Music, Metropolitan College of New York, Parsons School of Design, School of Visual Arts, Touro College, and Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York, Union Theological Seminary. Several other private institutions maintain a Manhattan presence, among them Mercy College (New York), Mercy College, St. John's University (Jamaica, New York), St. John's University, The College of New Rochelle, The King's College (New York), The King's College, and Pratt Institute.
Cornell Tech Cornell Tech is a technology, business, law, and design campus of Cornell University located on Roosevelt Island in Manhattan, New York City. It includes the Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute, a joint academic venture between Cornell and the Tech ...
is developing on Roosevelt Island. The City University of New York (CUNY), the municipal college system of New York City, is the largest urban university system in the United States, serving more than 226,000 degree students and a roughly equal number of adult, continuing and professional education students. A third of college graduates in New York City graduate from CUNY, with the institution enrolling about half of all college students in New York City. CUNY senior colleges located in Manhattan include: Baruch College, City College of New York, Hunter College, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, and the CUNY Graduate Center (graduate studies and doctorate granting institution). The only CUNY community college located in Manhattan is the Borough of Manhattan Community College. The State University of New York is represented by the Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York State College of Optometry, and Stony Brook Manhattan, Stony Brook University – Manhattan. Manhattan is a world center for training and education in medicine and the life sciences. The city as a whole receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities, the bulk of which goes to Manhattan's research institutions, including Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center,
Rockefeller University The Rockefeller University is a private graduate university in New York City. It focuses primarily on the biological and medical sciences and provides doctoral and postdoctoral education. It is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – Hig ...

Rockefeller University
, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons,
Weill Cornell Medical College Weill Cornell Medicine , officially the Joan & Sanford I. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, is the biomedical research unit and medical school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university. The medical college is located at 1300 ...
, and New York University School of Medicine. Manhattan is served by the New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country. The five units of the Central Library—Mid-Manhattan Library, 53rd Street Library, the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Andrew Heiskell Braille and Talking Book Library, and the Science, Industry and Business Library—are all located in Manhattan. More than 35 other branch libraries are located in the borough.


Culture and contemporary life

. The annual event rivals the sister São Paulo event as the world's largest gay pride parade, pride parade, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June. Manhattan is the borough most closely associated with New York City by non-residents; regionally, residents within the New York City metropolitan area, including natives of New York City's boroughs outside Manhattan, will often describe a trip to Manhattan as "going to the City". Journalist Walt Whitman characterized the streets of Manhattan as being traversed by "hurrying, feverish, electric crowds". Manhattan has been the scene of many important American cultural movements. In 1912, about 20,000 workers, a quarter of them women, marched upon Washington Square Park to commemorate the
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, on March 25, 1911, was the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city, and one of the deadliest in U.S. history. The fire caused ...
, which killed 146 workers on March 25, 1911. Many of the women wore fitted tucked-front blouses like those manufactured by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company, a clothing style that became the working woman's uniform and a symbol of women's liberation, reflecting the alliance of labor and suffrage movements. The
Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance was an intellectual and cultural revival of African American music, dance, art, fashion, literature, theater and politics centered in Harlem, Manhattan, New York City, spanning the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was kno ...
in the 1920s established the African-American literary canon in the United States and introduced writers Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston. Manhattan's vibrant visual art scene in the 1950s and 1960s was a center of the American pop art movement, which gave birth to such giants as Jasper Johns and Roy Lichtenstein. The downtown pop art movement of the late 1970s included artist Andy Warhol and clubs like Serendipity 3 and Studio 54, where he socialized. Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. Plays and musical theater, musicals are staged in one of the 39 larger professional theatres with at least 500 seats, almost all in and around Times Square. Off-Broadway theatres feature productions in venues with 100–500 seats. Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square, Manhattan, Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to 12 influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan. Manhattan is also home to some of the most extensive art collections in the world, both contemporary art, contemporary and classical art, including the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), the Frick Collection, the Whitney Museum of American Art, and the Frank Lloyd Wright-designed Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Guggenheim Museum. The Upper East Side has many art galleries, and the downtown neighborhood of Chelsea, Manhattan, Chelsea is known for its more than 200 art galleries that are home to modern art from both upcoming and established artists. Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in Manhattan. Manhattan is the center of LGBT culture in New York City. The borough is widely acclaimed as the cradle of the modern LGBT rights, LGBTQ rights movement, with its inception at the June 1969 Stonewall Riots in
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan in New York City, bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contai ...
, Lower Manhattan – widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the
gay liberation The gay liberation movement is a social and political movement of the late 1960s through the mid-1980s that urged lesbians and gay men to engage in radical direct action, and to counter societal shame with gay pride.Hoffman, 2007, pp.xi-xiii. I ...
movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States. Multiple LGBT culture in New York City#Gay villages, gay villages have developed, spanning the length of the borough from the Lower East Side, East Village (Manhattan), East Village, and Greenwich Village, through Chelsea and Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, Hell's Kitchen, uptown to Morningside Heights. The annual New York City Pride March (or New York City LGBT Pride March, gay pride march, pride parade) traverses southward down
Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem. It is considered one of the most expensive streets in the wor ...
and ends at Greenwich Village; the Manhattan parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June. Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the list of largest LGBT events, largest international Pride celebration in history, produced by Heritage of Pride and enhanced through a partnership with the I Love New York, I NY program's LGBT division, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising, with 150,000 participants and five million spectators attending in Manhattan alone.
Accessed July 3, 2019.
The borough has a place in several American idioms. The phrase ''wikt:New York minute, New York minute'' is meant to convey an extremely short time such as an instant, sometimes in hyperbolic form, as in "perhaps faster than you would believe is possible," referring to the rapid pace (speed), pace of life in Manhattan. The expression "melting pot" was first popularly coined to describe the densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side in Israel Zangwill's play ''The Melting Pot (play), The Melting Pot'', which was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's ''Romeo and Juliet'' set by Zangwill in New York City in 1908. The iconic Flatiron Building is said to have been the source of the phrase "23 skidoo (phrase), 23 skidoo" or scram, from what cops would shout at men who tried to get glimpses of women's dresses being blown up by the winds created by the triangular building. The "Big Apple" dates back to the 1920s, when a reporter heard the term used by New Orleans stablehands to refer to New York City's horse racing, horse racetracks and named his racing column "Around The Big Apple". Jazz musicians adopted the term to refer to the city as the world's jazz capital, and a 1970s ad campaign by the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau helped popularize the term. Manhattan, Kansas, a city of 53,000 people, was named by New York investors after the borough and is nicknamed the "little apple". Manhattan is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of higher profile parades in New York City are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade, beginning alongside
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. Other notable parades including the annual Saint Patrick's Day in the United States#New York City, St. Patrick's Day Parade in March, the New York City Pride Parade in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. List of ticker-tape parades in New York City, Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Broadway (Manhattan)#Canyon of Heroes, Canyon of Heroes on Broadway (Manhattan), Broadway from Bowling Green (New York City), Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan. New York Fashion Week, held at various locations in Manhattan, is a high-profile semiannual event featuring fashion model, models displaying the latest wardrobes created by prominent fashion designers worldwide in advance of these fashions proceeding to the retail, retail marketplace.


Sports

Manhattan is home to the National Basketball Association, NBA's New York Knicks and the National Hockey League, NHL's New York Rangers, both of which play their home games at Madison Square Garden, the only major professional sports arena in the borough. The Garden was also home to the Women's National Basketball Association, WNBA's New York Liberty through the 2017 New York Liberty season, 2017 season, but that team's primary home is now the Westchester County Center in White Plains, New York. The New York Jets proposed a West Side Stadium for their home field, but the proposal was eventually defeated in June 2005, and they now play at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey. While Manhattan does not currently have a professional baseball franchise, three of the four Major League Baseball teams to play in New York City played in Manhattan. The original History of the New York Giants (baseball), New York Giants baseball team played in the various incarnations of the Polo Grounds at 155th Street (Manhattan), 155th Street and Eighth Avenue (Manhattan), Eighth Avenue from their inception in 1883—except for 1889, when they split their time between Jersey City, New Jersey, Jersey City and Staten Island, and when they played in Hilltop Park in 1911—until they headed to California with the History of the Brooklyn Dodgers, Brooklyn Dodgers after the 1957 season. The New York Yankees began their History of the New York Yankees, franchise as the Highlanders, named for Hilltop Park, where they played from their creation in 1903 until 1912. The team moved to the Polo Grounds with the 1913 season, where they were officially christened the ''New York Yankees'', remaining there until they moved across the Harlem River in 1923 to Yankee Stadium (1923), Yankee Stadium. The New York Mets played in the Polo Grounds in 1962 and 1963, their first two seasons, before Shea Stadium was completed in 1964. After the Mets departed, the Polo Grounds was demolished in April 1964, replaced by public housing. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The New York Knicks started play in 1946 as one of the National Basketball Association's original teams, playing their first home games at the 69th Regiment Armory, before making Madison Square Garden their permanent home. The New York Liberty of the Women's National Basketball Association, WNBA shared the Garden with the Knicks from their creation in 1997 as one of the league's original eight teams through the 2017 season, after which the team moved nearly all of its home schedule to White Plains, New York, White Plains in
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populated county in New York and the most populated north of New York City. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to ...
. Rucker Park in Harlem is a playground court, famed for its ''streetball'' style of play, where many NBA athletes have played in the summer league. Although both of New York City's football teams play today across the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New ...
in MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, both teams started out playing in the Polo Grounds. The New York Giants played side-by-side with their baseball namesakes from the time they entered the National Football League in 1925, until crossing over to Yankee Stadium in 1956. The New York Jets, originally known as the ''Titans of New York'', started out in 1960 at the Polo Grounds, staying there for four seasons before joining the Mets in Queens at Shea Stadium in 1964. The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League have played in the various locations of Madison Square Garden since the team's founding in the 1926–1927 season. The Rangers were predated by the New York Americans, who started play in the Garden the previous season, lasting until the team folded after the 1941–1942 NHL season, a season it played in the Garden as the ''Brooklyn Americans''. The New York Cosmos (1971–1985), New York Cosmos of the North American Soccer League (1968–1984), North American Soccer League played their home games at Downing Stadium for two seasons, starting in 1974. The playing pitch and facilities at Downing Stadium were in unsatisfactory condition, however, and as the team's popularity grew they too left for Yankee Stadium, and then Giants Stadium. The stadium was demolished in 2002 to make way for the $45 million, 4,754-seat Icahn Stadium, which includes an Olympic-standard 400-meter running track and, as part of Pelé's and the Cosmos' legacy, includes a FIFA-approved floodlit soccer stadium that hosts matches between the 48 youth teams of a Manhattan soccer club.


Government

Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Manhattan has been governed by the New York City Charter, which has provided for a strong Mayor–council government, mayor–council system since its revision in 1989. The centralized New York City government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, New York City water supply system, water supply, and welfare services in Manhattan. The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In 1989, the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision. Since 1990, the largely powerless Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Manhattan's current Borough President is Gale Brewer, elected as a Democratic Party (United States), Democrat in November 2013 with 82.9% of the vote. Brewer replaced Scott Stringer, who went on to become New York City Comptroller. Cyrus Vance Jr., a Democrat, has been the New York County District Attorney, District Attorney of New York County since 2010. Manhattan has ten City Council members, the third largest contingent among the five boroughs. It also has twelve administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. As the host of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of ...
, the borough is home to the world's largest international Consul (representative), consular corps, comprising 105 consulates, consulates general and honorary consulates. It is also the home of
New York City Hall New York City Hall is the seat of New York City government, located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center area of Lower Manhattan, between Broadway, Park Row, and Chambers Street. Constructed from 1803 to 1812, the building is the ol ...

New York City Hall
, the seat of New York City government housing the Mayor of New York City and the New York City Council. The mayor's staff and thirteen municipal agencies are located in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, completed in 1914, one of the largest governmental buildings in the world.


Politics

The Democratic Party holds most public offices. Registered Republican Party (United States), Republicans are a minority in the borough, constituting 9.88% of the electorate . Registered Republicans are more than 20% of the electorate only in the neighborhoods of the Upper East Side and the
Financial District This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as banks, insurance companies and other related finance corporations have ...
. Democrats accounted for 68.41% of those registered to vote, while 17.94% of voters were unaffiliated. No Republican Party (United States), Republican has won the United States presidential election, presidential election in Manhattan since 1924 United States presidential election, 1924, when Calvin Coolidge won a plurality of the New York County vote over Democrat John W. Davis, 41.20%–39.55%. Warren G. Harding was the most recent Republican presidential candidate to win a majority of the Manhattan vote, with 59.22% of the 1920 vote. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 82.1% of the vote in Manhattan and Republican George W. Bush received 16.7%. The borough is the most important source of funding for presidential campaigns in the United States; in 2004, it was home to six of the top seven ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions. The top ZIP code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the United States presidential election for all presidential candidates, including both Kerry and Bush during the 2004 election.


Representatives in the U.S. Congress

In 2018, four Democrats represented Manhattan in the United States House of Representatives. * Nydia Velázquez (first elected in 1992) represents New York's 7th congressional district, which includes the Lower East Side and Alphabet City, Manhattan, Alphabet City. The district also covers central and western
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
and a small part of
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
. * Jerry Nadler (first elected in 1992) represents New York's 10th congressional district, which includes the West Side (Manhattan), West Side neighborhoods of Battery Park City, Chelsea, Manhattan, Chelsea,
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South Ameri ...
, the
Financial District This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as banks, insurance companies and other related finance corporations have ...
,
Greenwich Village Greenwich Village ( , , ) is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan in New York City, bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village also contai ...
, Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, Hell's Kitchen, SoHo, Manhattan, SoHo, Tribeca, and the Upper West Side. The district also covers southwestern Brooklyn. * Carolyn Maloney (first elected in 1992) represents New York's 12th congressional district, which includes the East Side (Manhattan), East Side neighborhoods of Gramercy Park, Kips Bay, Manhattan, Kips Bay,
Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Midtown is home to some of the city's most prominent buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Projec ...
, Murray Hill, Manhattan, Murray Hill, Roosevelt Island, Turtle Bay, Manhattan, Turtle Bay, Upper East Side, and most of the Lower East Side and the East Village, Manhattan, East Village. The district also covers western Queens. * Adriano Espaillat (first elected in 2016) represents New York's 13th congressional district, which includes the
Upper Manhattan Upper Manhattan is the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary has been variously defined, but some of the most common usages are 96th Street, the northern boundary of Central Park (110th Street), 125 ...
neighborhoods of East Harlem, Harlem, Inwood, Manhattan, Inwood, , Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washington Heights, and portions of Morningside Heights, Manhattan, Morningside Heights, as well as part of the northwest Bronx.


Federal offices

The United States Postal Service operates post offices in Manhattan. The James Farley Post Office at 421 Eighth Avenue (Manhattan), Eighth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, between 31st Street (Manhattan), 31st Street and 33rd Street (Manhattan), 33rd Street, is New York City's main post office. Both the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit are located in Lower Manhattan's Foley Square, and the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, U.S. Attorney and other federal offices and agencies maintain locations in that area.


Crime and public safety

Starting in the mid-19th century, the United States became a magnet for immigrants seeking to escape poverty in their home countries. After arriving in New York, many new arrivals ended up living in squalor in the slums of the Five Points, Manhattan, Five Points neighborhood, an area between Broadway (Manhattan), Broadway and the Bowery, northeast of
New York City Hall New York City Hall is the seat of New York City government, located at the center of City Hall Park in the Civic Center area of Lower Manhattan, between Broadway, Park Row, and Chambers Street. Constructed from 1803 to 1812, the building is the ol ...

New York City Hall
. By the 1820s, the area was home to many gambling dens and brothels, and was known as a dangerous place to go. In 1842, Charles Dickens visited the area and was appalled at the horrendous living conditions he had seen. The area was so notorious that it even caught the attention of Abraham Lincoln, who visited the area before his Cooper Union speech in 1860. The predominantly Irish Five Points Gang was one of the country's first major organized crime entities. As Italian immigration grew in the early 20th century many joined ethnic gangs, including Al Capone, who got his start in crime with the Five Points Gang. The Mafia (also known as ''Cosa Nostra'') first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily and spread to the East Coast of the United States during the late 19th century following waves of Sicilian and Southern Italian emigration. Lucky Luciano established Cosa Nostra in Manhattan, forming alliances with other criminal enterprises, including the Jewish mob, led by Meyer Lansky, the leading Jewish gangster of that period.Jaffe, Eric
"Talking to the Feds: The chief of the FBI's organized crime unit on the history of La Cosa Nostra"
, ''Smithsonian (magazine)'', April 2007. Accessed November 20, 2016.
From 1920–1933,
Prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture, storage (whether in barrels or in bottles), transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcoholic bev ...
helped create a thriving black market in liquor, upon which the Mafia was quick to capitalize. As in the whole of New York City, Manhattan experienced a sharp increase in crime during the 1960s and 1970s. Since 1990, crime in Manhattan has plummeted in all categories tracked by the CompStat profile. A borough that saw 503 murders in 1990 has seen a drop of nearly 88% to 62 in 2008 and has continued to decline since then. Robbery and burglary are down by more than 80% during the period, and auto theft has been reduced by more than 93%. In the seven major crime categories tracked by the system, overall crime has declined by more than 75% since 1990, and year-to-date statistics through May 2009 show continuing declines. Based on 2005 data, New York City has the lowest crime rate among the ten largest cities in the United States.Zeranski, Todd
NYC Is Safest City as Crime Rises in U.S., FBI Say"
. ''Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg News'', June 12, 2006. Accessed May 16, 2007.


Housing

During Manhattan's early history, wood construction and poor access to water supplies left the city vulnerable to fires. In 1776, shortly after the
Continental Army The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the former thirteen British colonies that later became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the ...
evacuated Manhattan and left it to the British, a massive fire broke out destroying one-third of the city and some 500 houses. The rise of immigration near the turn of the 20th century left major portions of Manhattan, especially the Lower East Side, densely packed with recent arrivals, crammed into unhealthy and unsanitary housing. Tenements were usually five stories high, constructed on the then-typical lots, with "cockroach landlords" exploiting the new immigrants.Peterson, Iver
"Tenements of 1880s Adapt to 1980s"
, ''The New York Times'', January 3, 1988. Accessed June 30, 2009. "Usually five stories tall and built on a lot, their exteriors are hung with fire escapes and the interiors are laid out long and narrow—in fact, the apartments were dubbed railroad flats."
By 1929, stricter fire codes and the increased use of elevators in residential buildings, were the impetus behind a new building code, housing code that effectively ended the tenement as a form of new construction, though many tenement buildings survive today on the East Side of the borough. Conversely, there were also areas with luxury apartment developments, the first of which was the Dakota on the Upper West Side. Manhattan offers a wide array of public and private housing options. There were 852,575 housing units in 2013 at an average density of 37,345 per square mile (14,419/km²). , only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.Percent of Occupied Housing Units That are Owner-occupied
United States Census Bureau. Accessed February 15, 2015.
Although the city of New York has the highest average cost for rent in the United States, it simultaneously hosts a higher average of income per capita. Because of this, rent is a lower percentage of annual income than in several other American cities. Manhattan's real estate market for luxury housing continues to be among the most expensive in the world, and Manhattan residential property continues to have the highest sale price per square foot in the United States. Manhattan's apartments cost , compared to San Francisco housing at , Boston housing at , and Los Angeles housing at .


Infrastructure


Transportation


Public transportation

Manhattan is unique in the U.S. for intense use of public transportation and lack of private car ownership. While 88% of Americans nationwide drive to their jobs, with only 5% using public transport, mass transit is the dominant form of travel for residents of Manhattan, with 72% of borough residents using public transport to get to work, while only 18% drove.Highlights of the 2001 National Household Travel Survey
, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, United States Department of Transportation. Accessed May 21, 2006.
According to the 2000 United States Census, 77.5% of Manhattan households do not own a car. In 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg New York congestion pricing, proposed a congestion pricing system to regulate entering Manhattan south of 60th Street (Manhattan), 60th Street. The state legislature rejected the proposal in June 2008. The
New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened on October 27, 1904, the ...

New York City Subway
, the largest Rapid transit, subway system in the world by number of stations, is the primary means of travel within the city, linking every borough except Staten Island. There are List of New York City Subway stations in Manhattan, 151 subway stations in Manhattan, out of the stations. A second subway, the PATH (rail system), PATH system, connects List of PATH stations, six stations in Manhattan to northern New Jersey. Passengers pay fares with pay-per-ride MetroCards, which are valid on all city buses and subways, as well as on PATH trains. There are 7-day and 30-day MetroCards that allow unlimited trips on all subways (except PATH) and MTA bus routes (except for express buses). The PATH QuickCard is being phased out, having been replaced by the SmartLink (smart card), SmartLink. The MTA is testing "smart card" payment systems to replace the MetroCard. regional rail, Commuter rail services operating to and from Manhattan are the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR), which connects Manhattan and other New York City boroughs to Long Island; the Metro-North Railroad, which connects Manhattan to Upstate New York and Southwestern Connecticut; and NJ Transit trains, which run to various points in New Jersey. The US$11.1 billion East Side Access project, which will bring LIRR trains to
Grand Central Terminal Grand Central Terminal (GCT; also referred to as Grand Central Station or simply as Grand Central) is a commuter rail terminal located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Grand Central is the southern terminus of ...
, is under construction and is scheduled to open in 2022; this project will create a new train tunnel beneath the
East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates the borough of Queens ...
, connecting the East Side (Manhattan), East Side of Manhattan with Long Island City, Queens. Four multi-billion-dollar projects were completed in the mid-2010s: the $1.4 billion Fulton Center in November 2014, the $2.4 billion 7 Subway Extension in September 2015, the $4 billion World Trade Center Transportation Hub in March 2016, and Phase 1 of the $4.5 billion Second Avenue Subway in January 2017. New York City Transit Authority, MTA New York City Transit offers a wide variety of local buses within Manhattan under the brand New York City Bus. An extensive network of express bus routes serves commuters and other travelers heading into Manhattan. The bus system served 784 million passengers citywide in 2011, placing the bus system's ridership as the highest in the nation, and more than double the ridership of the second-place Los Angeles system. The Roosevelt Island Tramway, one of two commuter cable car systems in North America, whisks commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan in less than five minutes, and has been serving the island since 1978. (The other system in North America is the Portland Aerial Tram.) The Staten Island Ferry, which runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, annually carries over 21 million passengers on the run between Manhattan and Staten Island. Each weekday, five vessels transport about 65,000 passengers on 109 boat trips. The ferry has been fare-free since 1997, when the then-50-cent fare was eliminated. In February 2015, Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to traditionally underserved communities in the city. The first routes of NYC Ferry opened in 2017. All of the system's routes have termini in Manhattan, and the Lower East Side and Soundview routes also have intermediate stops on the East River. The metro region's commuter rail lines converge at Pennsylvania Station (New York City), Penn Station and
Grand Central Terminal Grand Central Terminal (GCT; also referred to as Grand Central Station or simply as Grand Central) is a commuter rail terminal located at 42nd Street and Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Grand Central is the southern terminus of ...
, on the west and east sides of Midtown Manhattan, respectively. They are the two busiest rail stations in the United States. About one-third of users of mass transit and two-thirds of railway passengers in the country live in New York and its suburbs. Amtrak provides inter-city passenger rail service from Penn Station to Boston,
Philadelphia Philadelphia, colloquially Philly, is a city in the state of Pennsylvania in the United States. It is the sixth-most populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the state of Pennsylvania, with a 2019 estimated population o ...
, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.; Upstate New York and New England; cross-Canadian border service to Toronto and Montreal; and destinations in the Southern United States, Southern and
Midwestern United States The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). It occupies the northern central part of the United States.
.


Major highways

* * * * * * * *


Taxis

New York's iconic yellow taxicabs, which number 13,087 city-wide and must have the requisite medallion authorizing the pick up of street hails, are ubiquitous in the borough. Various private vehicle for hire companies provide significant competition for taxicab drivers in Manhattan.


Bicycles

Manhattan also has tens of thousands of cycling in New York City, bicycle commuters.


Streets and roads

File:Storm at Manhattan.jpg, upright=1.15, 8th Avenue (Manhattan), Eighth Avenue, looking northward ("Uptown"), in the rain; most streets and avenues in Manhattan's Commissioners' Plan of 1811, grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration The
Commissioners' Plan of 1811 The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was the original design for the streets of Manhattan above Houston Street and below 155th Street, which put in place the rectangular grid plan of streets and lots that has defined Manhattan to this day. It has be ...
called for twelve numbered avenues running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York in the United States. The river originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York, flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the Upper New ...
, each wide, with First Avenue (Manhattan), First Avenue on the east side and Twelfth Avenue (Manhattan), Twelfth Avenue on the west side. There are several intermittent avenues east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A (Manhattan), Avenue A eastward to Avenue D (Manhattan), Avenue D in an area now known as Alphabet City, Manhattan, Alphabet City in Manhattan's East Village, Manhattan, East Village. The numbered streets in Manhattan run east-west, and are generally wide, with about between each pair of streets. With each combined street and block adding up to about , there are almost exactly 20 blocks per mile. The typical block in Manhattan is . According to the original Commissioner's Plan, there were 155th Street (Manhattan), 155 numbered crosstown streets, but later the grid was extended up to the northernmost corner of Manhattan, where the last numbered street is 220th Street (Manhattan), 220th Street. Moreover, the numbering system continues even in
The Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the U.S. state of New York, and the third-most-densely populated county in the United States. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across ...
, north of Manhattan, despite the fact that the grid plan is not as regular in that borough, whose last numbered street is 263rd Street. Fifteen crosstown streets were designated as wide, including 34th Street (Manhattan), 34th, 42nd Street (Manhattan), 42nd, 57th Street (Manhattan), 57th and 125th Street (Manhattan), 125th Streets, which became some of the borough's most significant transportation and shopping venues. Broadway (Manhattan), Broadway is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at Bowling Green (New York City), Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan and continuing north into the Bronx at Manhattan's northern tip. In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating major named intersections at Union Square (New York City), Union Square (Park Avenue, Park Avenue South/Fourth Avenue and 14th Street), Madison Square (
Fifth Avenue Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem. It is considered one of the most expensive streets in the wor ...
and 23rd Street), Herald Square (Sixth Avenue and 34th Street),
Times Square Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center, and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City, at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. Brightly lit by numerous billboards a ...
(Seventh Avenue (Manhattan), Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street), and Columbus Circle (Eighth Avenue (Manhattan), Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and 59th Street). "Crosstown traffic" refers primarily to vehicular traffic between Manhattan's East Side (Manhattan), East Side and West Side (Manhattan), West Side. The trip is notoriously frustrating for drivers because of heavy traffic congestion, congestion on narrow local streets laid out by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, absence of express roads other than the Trans-Manhattan Expressway at the far north end of Manhattan Island; and restricted to very limited crosstown automobile travel within
Central Park Central Park is an urban park in New York City located between the Upper West and Upper East Sides of Manhattan. It is the fifth-largest park in the city by area, covering . It is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estima ...

Central Park
. Proposals in the mid-1900s to build express roads through the city's densest neighborhoods, namely the Mid-Manhattan Expressway and Lower Manhattan Expressway, did not go forward. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present, significantly shaping traffic patterns in Manhattan. Another consequence of the strict grid plan of most of Manhattan, and the grid's skew of approximately 28.9 degrees, is a phenomenon sometimes referred to as Manhattanhenge (by analogy with Stonehenge). On separate occasions in late May and early July, the sunset is aligned with the street grid lines, with the result that the sun is visible at or near the western horizon from street level. A similar phenomenon occurs with the sunrise in January and December. The FDR Drive and Harlem River Drive, both designed by controversial New York master planner Robert Moses, comprise a single, long limited-access highway, limited-access Parkway (New York), parkway skirting the east side of Manhattan along the
East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates the borough of Queens ...
and Harlem River south of Dyckman Street. The Henry Hudson Parkway is the corresponding parkway on the West Side north of 57th Street (Manhattan), 57th Street.


River crossings

Being primarily an island, Manhattan is linked to New York City's outer boroughs by numerous bridges, of various sizes. Manhattan has fixed highway connections with New Jersey to its west by way of the
George Washington Bridge The George Washington Bridge is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River, connecting the New York City borough of Manhattan with the New Jersey borough of Fort Lee. The bridge is named after George Washington, the first pres ...
, the Holland Tunnel, and the
Lincoln Tunnel The Lincoln Tunnel is an approximately tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey, to the west with Midtown Manhattan in New York City to the east. It was designed by Ole Singstad and named after Abraham Lincoln. The tunne ...

Lincoln Tunnel
, and to three of the four other New York City boroughs—the Bronx to the northeast, and
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
and
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
(both on Long Island) to the east and south. Its only direct connection with the fifth New York City borough, Staten Island, is the Staten Island Ferry across New York Harbor, which is free of charge. The ferry terminal is located near Battery Park (New York), Battery Park at Manhattan's southern tip. It is also possible to travel on land to Staten Island by way of Brooklyn, via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge. The George Washington Bridge, the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connects Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washington Heights, in
Upper Manhattan Upper Manhattan is the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary has been variously defined, but some of the most common usages are 96th Street, the northern boundary of Central Park (110th Street), 125 ...
, to Bergen County, in New Jersey. There are numerous bridges to the Bronx across the Harlem River, and five (listed north to south)—the Triborough (known officially as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge), Queensboro Bridge, Ed Koch Queensboro (also known as the 59th Street Bridge), Williamsburg,
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of t ...
, and
Brooklyn Bridge The Brooklyn Bridge is a hybrid cable-stayed/suspension bridge in New York City, spanning the East River between Manhattan Island and Brooklyn on Long Island. Opened on May 24, 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge was the first fixed crossing of the East R ...
s—that cross the
East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates the borough of Queens ...
to connect Manhattan to Long Island. Several tunnels also link Manhattan Island to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey. The
Lincoln Tunnel The Lincoln Tunnel is an approximately tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey, to the west with Midtown Manhattan in New York City to the east. It was designed by Ole Singstad and named after Abraham Lincoln. The tunne ...

Lincoln Tunnel
, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and
Midtown Manhattan Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Midtown is home to some of the city's most prominent buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Projec ...
, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sail through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel. The Queens–Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940; President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. The Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel runs underneath The Battery (Manhattan), Battery Park and connects the
Financial District This is a list of financial districts in cities around the world. Background A financial district is usually a central area in a city where financial services firms such as banks, insurance companies and other related finance corporations have ...
at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook, Brooklyn, Red Hook in Brooklyn. Several ferry services operate between New Jersey and Manhattan. These ferries mainly serve midtown (at W. 39th St.), Battery Park City (WFC at Brookfield Place), and Wall Street (Pier 11).


Heliports

Manhattan has three public heliports: the East 34th Street Heliport (also known as the Atlantic Metroport) at East 34th Street, owned by New York City and run by the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC); the Downtown Manhattan Heliport, Port Authority Downtown Manhattan/Wall Street Heliport, owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and run by the NYCEDC; and the West 30th Street Heliport, a privately owned heliport that is owned by the Hudson River Park Trust. US Helicopter offered regularly scheduled helicopter service connecting the Downtown Manhattan Heliport with John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens and Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, before going out of business in 2009.


Utilities

Gas and electric service is provided by Consolidated Edison to all of Manhattan. Con Edison's electric business traces its roots back to Thomas Edison's Edison Illuminating Company, Edison Electric Illuminating Company, the first investor-owned electric utility. The company started service on September 4, 1882, using one generator to provide 110 volts direct current (DC) to 59 customers with 800 light bulbs, in a one-square-mile area of Lower Manhattan from his Pearl Street Station. Con Edison steam operations, Con Edison operates the world's largest District heating, district steam system, which consists of of steam pipes, providing steam for heating, hot water, and air conditioning by some 1,800 Manhattan customers. Cable service is provided by Time Warner Cable and telephone service is provided by Verizon Communications, although AT&T is available as well. Manhattan witnessed the doubling of the natural gas supply delivered to the borough when a new gas pipeline opened on November 1, 2013. The New York City Department of Sanitation is responsible for garbage removal. The bulk of the city's trash ultimately is disposed at mega-dumps in Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina and Ohio (via transfer stations in New Jersey, Brooklyn and Queens) since the 2001 closure of the Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island. A small amount of trash processed at transfer sites in New Jersey is sometimes incinerated at waste-to-energy facilities. Like New York City, New Jersey and much of Greater New York relies on exporting its trash to far-flung areas. New York City has the largest clean-air diesel-hybrid vehicle, hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet, which also operates in Manhattan, in the country. It also has some of the first hybrid taxis, most of which operate in Manhattan.


Health care

There are many hospitals in Manhattan, including two of the 25 largest in the United States (as of 2017): * Bellevue Hospital * Lenox Hill Hospital * Lower Manhattan Hospital * Metropolitan Hospital Center * Mount Sinai Beth Israel, Mount Sinai Beth Israel Hospital * Mount Sinai Hospital (Manhattan), Mount Sinai Hospital * NewYork–Presbyterian Hospital * NYC Health + Hospitals/Harlem * NYU Langone Medical Center


Water purity and availability

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains Drainage basin, watershed. As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed water purification, natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. The Croton Falls Reservoir, Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water. Manhattan, surrounded by two Brackish water, brackish rivers, had a limited supply of fresh water. To satisfy its growing population, the City of New York acquired land in adjacent
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populated county in New York and the most populated north of New York City. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to ...
and constructed the old Croton Aqueduct system there, which went into service in 1842 and was superseded by the new Croton Aqueduct, which opened in 1890. This, however, was interrupted in 2008 for the ongoing construction of a US$3.2 billion water purification plant that can supply an estimated 290 million gallons daily when completed, representing an almost 20% addition to the city's availability of water, with this addition going to Manhattan and the Bronx. Water comes to Manhattan through the New York City water supply system#Tunnels, tunnels 1 and 2, completed in 1917 and 1935, and in future through New York City Water Tunnel No. 3, Tunnel No. 3, begun in 1970.


Address algorithm

The Manhattan address algorithm, address algorithm of Manhattan refers to the formulas used to estimate the closest east–west cross street for building numbers on north–south avenues. It is commonly noted in telephone directories, New York City travel guides, and MTA Regional Bus Operations, MTA Manhattan bus maps.


See also

* History of New York City * List of Manhattan neighborhoods * List of people from Manhattan * Manhattanization * National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan * Sawing-off of Manhattan Island * Timeline of New York City


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* Burke, Katie. ed. ''Manhattan Memories: A Book of Postcards of Old New York'' (2000); Postcards lacking the (c) symbol are not copyright and are in the public domain. * Jackson, Kenneth T. and David S. Dunbar, eds. ''Empire City: New York Through the Centuries'' (2005), 1015 pages o
excerpts
* Still, Bayrd, ed. ''Mirror for Gotham: New York as Seen by Contemporaries from Dutch Days to the Present'' (New York University Press, 1956
online edition Questia.com
* Virga, Vincent, ed. ''Historic Maps and Views of New York'' (2008) * Stokes, I.N. Phelps. ''The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498–1909 compiled from original sources and illustrated by photo-intaglio reproductions of important maps plans views and documents in public and private collections '' (6 vols., 1915–28). A highly detailed, heavily illustrated chronology of Manhattan and New York City. see The Iconography of Manhattan Island All volumes are on line free at: *
I.N. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 1. 1915
v. 1. The period of discovery (1524–1609); the Dutch period (1609–1664). The English period (1664–1763). The Revolutionary period (1763–1783). Period of adjustment and reconstruction; New York as the state and federal capital (1783–1811) *
I.N. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 2. 1916
v. 2. Cartography: an essay on the development of knowledge regarding the geography of the east coast of North America; Manhattan Island and its environs on early maps and charts / by F.C. Wieder and I.N. Phelps Stokes. The Manatus maps. The Castello plan. The Dutch grants. Early New York newspapers (1725–1811). Plan of Manhattan Island in 1908 *
I.N. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 3. 1918
v. 3. The War of 1812 (1812–1815). Period of invention, prosperity, and progress (1815–1841). Period of industrial and educational development (1842–1860). The Civil War (1861–1865); period of political and social development (1865–1876). The modern city and island (1876–1909) *
I.N. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 4. 1922
v. 4. The period of discovery (565–1626); the Dutch period (1626–1664). The English period (1664–1763). The Revolutionary period, part I (1763–1776) *
I.N. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 5. 1926
v. 5. The Revolutionary period, part II (1776–1783). Period of adjustment and reconstruction New York as the state and federal capital (1783–1811). The War of 1812 (1812–1815); period of invention, prosperity, and progress (1815–1841). Period of industrial and educational development (1842–1860). The Civil War (1861–1865); Period of political and social development (1865–1876). The modern city and island (1876–1909) *
I.N. Phelps Stokes; The Iconography of Manhattan Island Vol 6. 1928
v. 6. Chronology: addenda. Original grants and farms. Bibliography. Index.


Further reading

* Ric Burns, Burns, Ric, and James Sanders (architect), Sanders, James. ''New York: An Illustrated History'' (2003), book version of 17-hour Burns PBS documentary, ''New York: A Documentary Film'' * , The standard scholarly history, 1390pp * Ellis, Edward Robb. ''The Epic of New York City: A Narrative History'' (2004) 640pp
Excerpt and text search
Popular history concentrating on violent events & scandals * Homberger, Eric. ''The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York City's History'' (2005) * * Kouwenhoven, John Atlee. ''The Columbia Historical Portrait of New York: An Essay in Graphic History''. *1953) * Lankevich, George J. ''New York City: A Short History'' (2002) * McCully, Betsy. ''City at the Water's Edge: A Natural History of New York'' (2005), environmental histor
excerpt and text search
* Reitano, Joanne. ''The Restless City: A Short History of New York from Colonial Times to the Present'' (2010), Popular history with focus on politics and riot
excerpt and text search
* Martin Filler, Filler, Martin (April 2015).
New York: Conspicuous Construction
'' Analysis of architectural and social aspects of "ultra-luxury towers ... the smokestack-like protuberances that now disrupt the skyline of midtown Manhattan." ''The New York Review of Books'' * Story, Louise and Saul, Stephanie (February 2015).
Towers of Secrecy
'' A series of 6 articles "examining people behind shell companies buying high-end real estate" in midtown Manhattan. Part 1: Time Warner Center: Symbol of the Boom,   Part 2: The Mysterious Malaysian Financier,   Part 3: The Besieged Indian Builder,   Part 4: The Mexican Power Brokers,   Part 5: The Russian Minister and Friends,   Summary: The Hidden Money Buying Up New York Real Estate. ''The New York Times''


External links


Local government and services


Manhattan Borough President official site

New York City Government with links to Manhattan specific agencies


Maps

* Maps o
Building Heights
an
Land Value
plu
theoretical
an
zoning-based maps of underdevelopment
all from Radicalcartography.net * Historical: *

** William J. Broad

''The New York Times'', October 2007. Ten sites in Manhattan that helped to build the first atomic bomb in the 1940s *
Manhattan Lying on the North River
by Joan Vinckeboons, 1639, from the World Digital Library {{Authority control Manhattan, 1624 establishments in the Dutch Empire 1624 establishments in North America Boroughs of New York City County seats in New York (state) Islands of New York City Islands of Manhattan Islands of the Hudson River Populated places established in 1624 River islands of New York (state) Establishments in New Netherland Former cities in New York City