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Lusitania (; ) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled by a ...
located where modern
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...
(south of the
Douro The Douro (, , ; es, Duero ; la, Durius) is the highest-flow river of the Iberian Peninsula. It rises near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province, central Spain, meanders south briefly then flows generally west through the north-west part of cen ...
river) and part of western
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , ...
(the present autonomous community of
Extremadura Extremadura ( , ; ext, Estremaúra; pt, Estremadura; Fala: ''Extremaúra'') is an autonomous community of Spain. Its capital city is Mérida. Located in the central-western part of the Iberian Peninsula, it is made up of the two largest provi ...
and a part of the
province of Salamanca , population_note = 0.75% of Spain , blank_name_sec2 = Parliament , blank_info_sec2 = Cortes Generales , blank1_name_sec2 = Congress seats , blank1_info_sec2 = , blank2_name_sec2 = Senate seats , blank2_info_ ...
) lie. It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people (an
Indo-European people The Proto-Indo-Europeans were a hypothetical prehistoric ethnolinguistic group of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction. Knowledge of them comes chi ...
). Its capital was ''
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain. The city was founded by Roman Emperor Augustus to resettle Emeriti soldiers from the veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars, these ...
'' (currently
Mérida, Spain Mérida () is a city and municipality of Spain, part of the Province of Badajoz, and capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura. Located in the western-central part of the Iberian Peninsula at 217 metres above sea level, the city is crossed ...
), and it was initially part of the
Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
province of
Hispania Ulterior Hispania Ulterior (English: "Further Hispania", or occasionally "Thither Hispania") was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania (mode ...
, before becoming a province of its own in the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire. Romans first came to the territory around the mid-2nd century BC. A war with Lusitanian tribes followed, from 155 to 139 BC. In 27 BC, the province was created. Lusitania was and is often used as an alternative name for
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...
.


Origin of the name

The etymology of the name of the
Lusitani , Portugal. The Lusitanians (or la, Lusitani) were an Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory i ...
(who gave the Roman province their name) remains unclear. Popular etymology connected the name to a supposed Roman demigod
Lusus Lusus is the supposed son or companion of Bacchus, the Roman god of wine and divine madness, to whom Portuguese national mythology attributed the foundation of ancient Lusitania and the fatherhood of its inhabitants, the Lusitanians, seen as the an ...
, whereas some early-modern scholars suggested that ''Lus'' was a form of the Celtic
Lugus Lugus was a deity of the Celtic pantheon. His name is rarely directly attested in inscriptions, but his importance can be inferred from place names and ethnonyms, and his nature and attributes are deduced from the distinctive iconography of Gallo- ...
followed by another (unattested) root ''*tan-'', supposed to mean "tribe", while others derived the name from ''Lucis'', an ancient people mentioned in Avienus' ''Ora Maritima'' (4th century AD) and from ''tan'' (
-stan The suffix -stan ( fa, ـستان, translit=stân after a vowel; estân or istân after a consonant) has the meaning of ''"a place abounding in"'' or ''"a place where anything abounds"'' in Persian language. It appears in the names of many regions ...
in
Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran, a sovereign state * Iranian peoples, the speakers of the Iranian languages. The term Iranic peoples is also used for this term to distinguish the pan ethnic term from Iranian, used for the people of Iran * Iranian lang ...
), or from ''tain'', meaning "a region" or implying "a country of waters", a root word that formerly meant a prince or sovereign governor of a region. Ancient Romans, such as
Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and a friend of emperor Vespasian. He wrote the encyclopedic ''Natural ...

Pliny the Elder
(''
Natural History Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, including animals, fungi, and plants, in their natural environment, leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study. A person who studies natural history is calle ...
''
3.5
and
Varro Marcus Terentius Varro (; 116–27 BC) was one of ancient Rome's greatest scholars and a prolific author. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus. Biography Varro was born in or near ...
(116 – 27 BC, cited by Pliny), speculated that the name ''Lusitania'' had Roman origins, as when Pliny says "lusum enim Liberi Patris aut lyssam cum eo bacchantium nomen dedisse Lusitaniae et Pana praefectum eius universae" [Lusitania takes its name from the ''
Lusus Lusus is the supposed son or companion of Bacchus, the Roman god of wine and divine madness, to whom Portuguese national mythology attributed the foundation of ancient Lusitania and the fatherhood of its inhabitants, the Lusitanians, seen as the an ...
'' associated with Bacchus and the ''Lyssa'' of his Bacchantes, and Pan (mythology), Pan is its governor]. ''Lusus'' is usually translated as "game" or "play", while ''lyssa'' is a borrowing from the Greek language, Greek λυσσα, "frenzy" or "rage", and sometimes Rage personified; for later poets, Lusus and Lyssa become flesh-and-blood companions (even children) of
Bacchus Dionysus (; grc-gre, Διόνυσος) is the god of the grape-harvest, winemaking and wine, of fertility, orchards and fruit, vegetation, insanity, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, festivity and theatre in ancient Greek religion and myth. ...
.
Luís de Camões Luís Vaz de Camões (; sometimes rendered in English as Camoens or Camoëns, e.g. by Byron in ''English Bards and Scotch Reviewers'', ; c. 1524 or 1525 – ) is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet. His mastery of v ...
' epic ''
Os Lusíadas ''Os Lusíadas'' (), usually translated as ''The Lusiads'', is a Portuguese epic poem written by Luís Vaz de Camões ( – 1580) and first published in 1572. It is widely regarded as the most important work of Portuguese literature and is frequ ...

Os Lusíadas
'' (1572), which portrays Lusus as the founder of Lusitania, extends these ideas, which have no connection with modern etymology. In his work, ''Geography'', the classical geographer
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. The father of Pompey was called "Pompeius Strabo". A native of Sicily so clear-sighted that he could see t ...

Strabo
(died ca. 24 AD) suggests a change had occurred in the use of the name "Lusitanian". He mentions a group who had once been called "Lusitanians" living north of the Douro river but were called in his day "Callacans".


Lusitanians

The Lusitani, who were Indo-European speakers, established themselves in the region in the 6th century BC, but
historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are con ...
s and
archeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...
s are still undecided about their
ethnogenesis Ethnogenesis (from Greek ''ethnos'' , "group of people, nation", and ''genesis'' , "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group". This can originate through a process of group self-iden ...
. Some modern authors consider them to be an indigenous people who were Celticized culturally and possibly also through intermarriage. The archeologist Scarlat Lambrino defended the position that the Lusitanians were a tribal group of Celtic origin related to the
Lusones The Lusones (Greek: ''Lousones'') were an ancient Celtiberian (Pre-Roman) people of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania), who lived in the high Tajuña River valley, northeast of Guadalajara. They were eliminated by the Romans as a significan ...
(a tribe that inhabited the east of
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peninsula in the southwest corner of Europe, ...
). Some have claimed that both tribes came from the Swiss mountains. Others argue that the evidence points to the Lusitanians being a native Iberian tribe, resulting from intermarriage between different local tribes. The first area colonized by the Lusitani was probably the
Douro The Douro (, , ; es, Duero ; la, Durius) is the highest-flow river of the Iberian Peninsula. It rises near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province, central Spain, meanders south briefly then flows generally west through the north-west part of cen ...
valley and the region of Beira Alta (present day Portugal); in Beira, they stayed until they defeated the
Celtici ] The Celtici (in Portuguese, Spanish, and Galician languages, ) were a Celtic tribe or group of tribes of the Iberian peninsula, inhabiting three definite areas: in what today are the regions of Alentejo and the Algarve in Portugal; in the Provinc ...
and other tribes, then they expanded to cover a territory that reached Estremadura Province (historical), Estremadura before the arrival of the
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
s.


War against Rome

The Lusitani are mentioned for the first time in
Livy Titus Livius''Titus'' is the praenomen (the personal name); ''Livius'' is the nomen (the ''gentile'' name, i.e. "belonging to the gens Livia"). Therefore, Titus Livius did not have a cognomen (third name, i.e. family name), which was not unusual ...
(218 BC) and are described as fighting for the
Carthaginian
Carthaginian
s; they are reported as fighting against Rome in 194 BC, sometimes allied with Celtiberian tribes. In 179 BC, the ''
praetor Praetor ( , ), also spelled prætor or pretor in English, was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been muster ...
'' Lucius Postumius Albinus celebrated a
triumph The Roman triumph (Latin triumphus) was a celebration for a victorious military commander in ancient Rome. For later imitations, in life or in art, see Trionfo. Numerous later uses of the term, up to the present, are derived directly or indirectly ...
over the Lusitani, but in 155 BC, on the command of Punicus (Πουνίκου, perhaps a Carthaginian) first and Cesarus (Καίσαρος) after, the Lusitani reached
Gibraltar ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen" , song = "Gibraltar Anthem" , image_map = Gibraltar location in Europe.svg , map_alt = Location of Gibraltar in Europe , map_caption = United Kingdom shown in pale green , mapsize = 290px , image_map2 = Gibralt ...

Gibraltar
. Here they were defeated by the ''praetor''
Lucius Mummius use both this parameter and , birth_date to display the person's date of birth, date of death, and age at death) --> , death_place = , resting_place = , nationality = Roman , occupation = , years_active = , known_for = Destruction of ...
. From 152 BC onwards, the Roman Republic had difficulties in recruiting soldiers for the wars in Hispania, deemed particularly brutal. In 150 BC,
Servius Sulpicius Galba Galba (; Servius Galba Caesar Augustus, ; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January AD 69) was Roman emperor from 68 to 69, the first emperor in the Year of the Four Emperors. He was known as Lucius Livius Ocella Sulpicius Galba prior to taking the thron ...
organised a false armistice. While the Lusitani celebrated this new alliance, he massacred them, selling the survivors as slaves; this caused a new rebellion led by
Viriathus Viriathus (also spelled Viriatus; known as in Portuguese and Spanish; died 139 BC) was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of western Hispania (as the Romans called it) or western Ibe ...
, who was after many attempts killed by traitors paid by the Romans in 139 BC, after having led a successful guerrilla campaign against Rome and their local allies. Two years after, in 137 BC
Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus 250px, Iberian Peninsula circa 100 BC Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus (or Gallaecus or Callaecus) (180 BC113 BC) was a consul of the Roman Republic for the year 138 BC together with Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio. He was an optimate politi ...
led a successful campaign against the Lusitani, reaching as far north as the
Minho river The Minho ( , ) or Miño ( , , ; cel-x-proto, Miniu) is the longest river in Galicia, sharing the border with Portugal, with a length of . By discharge, it is the fourth river of the Iberian peninsula, after the Douro, Ebro and Tagus. The Minho ...
. Romans scored other victories with ''
proconsul A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul. A proconsul was typically a former consul. The term is also used in recent history for officials with delegated authority. In the Roman Republic, military command, or ''i ...
'' Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus and
Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (; – 13 January 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman. Victor of the Cimbric and Jugurthine wars, he held the office of consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. He was also noted for his important reforms of R ...
(elected in 113 BC), but still the Lusitani resisted with a long guerilla war; they later joined
Sertorius Quintus Sertorius (c. 126 – 73 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who led a large-scale rebellion against the Roman Senate on the Iberian peninsula. He had been a prominent member of the populist faction of Cinna and Marius. During the latter ...
' (a renegade Roman General) troops (around 80 BC) and
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Po ...

Julius Caesar
conducted a successful campaign against them in 61-60 BC, but they were not finally defeated until the reign of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...

Augustus
(around 28-24 BC).


Roman province


Division under Augustus (25–20 BC)

With Lusitania (and
Asturia Asturias (, ; ast, Asturies ), officially the Principality of Asturias ( es, Principado de Asturias; ast, Principáu d'Asturies; Galician-Asturian: ''Principao d'Asturias''), is an autonomous community in northwest Spain. It is coextensive with ...
and
Gallaecia Gallaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia. The Roman cities inclu ...
), Rome had completed the conquest of the
Iberian peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peninsula in the southwest corner of Europe, ...
, which was then divided by
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...

Augustus
(25–20 BC or 16-13 BC) into the eastern and northern
Hispania Tarraconensis Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. It encompassed much of the northern, eastern and central territories of modern Spain along with the Norte Region of modern Portugal. Southern Spain, the region now called Andalus ...
, the southwestern ''
Hispania Baetica Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula). Baetica was bordered to the west by Lusitania, and to the northeast by Hispania Tarraconensis. Baetica remained one of the basic divi ...
'' and the western '' Provincia Lusitana''. Originally, Lusitania included the territories of Asturia and Gallaecia, but these were later ceded to the jurisdiction of the new ''Provincia Tarraconensis'' and the former remained as ''Provincia Lusitania et Vettones''. Its northern border was along the Douro river, while on its eastern side its border passed through ''Salmantica'' (Salamanca) and ''Caesarobriga'' (Talavera de la Reina) to the ''Anas'' (Guadiana) river. Between 28-24 BC Augustus' military campaigns pacified all Hispania under Roman rule, with the foundation of Roman cities like Asturica Augusta (Astorga, Spain, Astorga) and Bracara Augusta (Braga) to the north, and to the south
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain. The city was founded by Roman Emperor Augustus to resettle Emeriti soldiers from the veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars, these ...
(Mérida, Spain, Mérida) (settled with the emeriti of the Legio V Alaudae and Legio X Gemina Roman legion, legions). Between the time of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...

Augustus
and Claudius, the province was divided into three conventus iuridicus, territorial units presided by capital cities with a court of justice and joint Roman/indigenous people assemblies (conventus), that counseled the Governor: *Conventus Emeritensis, with capital in
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain. The city was founded by Roman Emperor Augustus to resettle Emeriti soldiers from the veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars, these ...
(Mérida, Spain, Mérida,
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , ...
) *Conventus Scalabitanus, with capital in Scalabis, Scalabis Iulia (Santarém, Portugal, Santarém,
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...
) *Conventus Pacensis, with capital in Pax Julia, Pax Iulia (Beja (Portugal), Beja,
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...
) The ''conventus'' ruled of a total of 46 populis, 5 being Colonia (Roman), Roman colonies (
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain. The city was founded by Roman Emperor Augustus to resettle Emeriti soldiers from the veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars, these ...
(Mérida, Spain, Mérida,
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , ...
), Pax Iulia (Beja (Portugal), Beja), Scalabis (Santarém, Portugal, Santarém), Norba Caesarina and Metellinum). Felicitas Iulia Olisipo (Lisbon, which was a Roman law municipality) and 3 other towns had the old Latin status (Ebora (Évora), Myrtilis Iulia (Mértola) and Salacia (Alcácer do Sal). The other 37 were of ''stipendiarii'' class, among which Aeminium (Coimbra), Balsa (Roman town), Balsa (Tavira), or Miróbriga, Mirobriga (Santiago do Cacém). Other cities include Ossonoba (Roman city), Ossonoba (Faro, Portugal, Faro), Cetobriga (Tróia, Setúbal), Collippo (Leiria) or Arabriga (Roman city), Arabriga (Alenquer Municipality, Portugal, Alenquer).


Division under Diocletian

Under Diocletian, Lusitania kept its borders and was ruled by a ''praeses'', later by a ''consularis''; finally, in 298 AD, it was united with the other provinces to form the ''Diocesis Hispaniarum'' ("Roman diocese, Diocese of the Hispanias").


Governors

* Quintus Acutius Faienanus, ''legatus Augusti pro praetore'' between 19 and 1 BC. * Gaius Ummidius Durmius Quadratus, c. 37 * Lucius Calventius Vetus Carminius, ''legatus Augusti pro praetore'' 44-45 * Otho, Marcus Salvius Otho Caesar Augustus Governor 58-68 * Gaius Catellius Celer 75/76-77/78Unless otherwise noted, the governors from 75 to the end of Hadrian's reign are taken from Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", ''Chiron (journal), Chiron'', 12 (1982), pp. 281-362; 13 (1983), pp. 147-237. * ? Gaius Calpurnius Flaccus 119/120-120/121 * Gaius Oppius Sabinus Julius Nepos Manius Vibius Sollemnis Severus (under Hadrian) * Lucius Roscius Maecius Celer Postumus Mamilianus Vergilius Staberianus (under Hadrian) * Gaius Javolenus Calvinus (between 138 and 140)Géza Alföldy, ''Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter der Antoninen'' (Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag, 1977), p. 256 * Aulus Avillius Urinatius Quadratus c.151-c.154 * ? Cornelius Repentinus c. 185 - c. 188Leunissen, ''Konsuln und Konsulare'', p. 290 * Publius Septimius Geta (brother of Septimius Severus), Publius Septimius Geta c. 188 - c. 191Paul Leunissen, ''Konsuln und Konsulare in der Zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander'' (Amsterdam: J.C. Gieben, 1989), p. 289 * Gaius Caesonius Macer Rufinianus 193/194 - 197 * Gaius Junius Faustinus [Pl]a[cidus] Postumianus c. 197 - c. 200 * Decimus Jun[ius? ...] Coelianus between 198 and 209 * Sextus Furnius Julianus c. 211 * Rutilius Pudens Crispinus around 225 - 227. * Vettius Agorius Praetextatus (4th century)


''Coloniae'' and ''Municipia''

* ''Colonia Metellinum'' (Medellín (Badajoz), Medellín, Badajoz) * ''Colonia Norba Caesarina'' (Cáceres (province), Cáceres) * ''Colonia Emerita Augusta, Augusta Emerita'' (Merida (Spain), Mérida), provincial capital. * ''Colonia Pax Julia, Civitas Pacensis'' (Beja (Portugal), Beja, Portugal) * ''Colonia Scalabis Praesidium Iulium'' (Santarém, Portugal, Santarém, Portugal) * ''Municipium Caesarobriga'' (Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain, Toledo) * ''Municipium Talavera la Vieja, Augustobriga'' (Talavera la Vieja, Cáceres (province), Cáceres) * ''Municipium Aeminium'' (Coimbra, Portugal) * ''Municipium Conímbriga'' (Condeixa-a-Nova, Portugal) * ''Municipium Salmantica'' (Salamanca) * ''Municipium Caurium'' (Coria, Cáceres, Coria, Cáceres) * ''Municipium Turgalium'' (Trujillo (Cáceres), Trujillo, Cáceres) * ''Municipium Cáparra, Capara'' (Cáparra, Cáceres) * ''Municipium Olisipo'' (Lisboa, Portugal) * ''Municipium Egitania, Egitandiorum'' (Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal) * ''Municipium Regina Turdulorum'' (Casas de Reina, Badajoz) * ''Municipium Lacobriga'' (Lagos, Portugal)


Notable Lusitanians

*
Viriathus Viriathus (also spelled Viriatus; known as in Portuguese and Spanish; died 139 BC) was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of western Hispania (as the Romans called it) or western Ibe ...
*Gaius Appuleius Diocles


Legacy of the name

As with the Roman names of many European countries, ''Lusitania'' was and is often used as an alternative name for
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...
, especially in formal or literary and poetic contexts. The 16th-century colony that would eventually become Brazil was initially founded as "New Lusitania". In common use are such terms as Lusophone, meaning Portuguese-speaking, and Lusitanic, referring to the Community of Portuguese Language Countries—once Portuguese Empire, Portugal's colonies and presently independent countries still sharing some common heritage. Prior to his French invasion of Portugal, invasion in 1807, Napoleon Bonaparte proposed the establishment of a French-backed puppet Kingdom of Northern Lusitania as one of the successor states to Portugal under the assumption that such a campaign would result in an easy French victory. The province was also the namesake of the North Atlantic ocean liner RMS Lusitania, RMS ''Lusitania'' infamous for being torpedoed by a German U-boat in 1915. The ship’s owners the Cunard Line commonly named their vessels after Roman provinces with the ''Lusitania'' so being called after the Roman Iberian province to the north of the Strait of Gibraltar while her sister ship RMS Mauretania, RMS ''Mauretania'' was named after the Roman North African province on the south side of the strait.


See also

*Lusitanians *Lusitanian mythology *Lusitanian language *National Archaeology Museum (Portugal) *
Emerita Augusta Augusta Emerita, also called Emerita Augusta, was a Roman Colonia founded in 25 BC in present day Mérida, Spain. The city was founded by Roman Emperor Augustus to resettle Emeriti soldiers from the veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars, these ...
*Ophiussa *
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...
*History of Portugal *Timeline of Portuguese history *
Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 = , ...
*History of Spain *Timeline of Spanish history *Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula *Romanization of Hispania *Balsa (Roman town)


References


An etymological lexicon of Proto-Celtic


External links


Lusitania, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography


*[https://web.archive.org/web/20190708130808/https://www.southernstar.ie/News/Crewmans-strange-foreboding-of-disaster-24042015.htm Southern Star Article: Crewman's strange foreboding of disaster] {{coord, 38.7689, N, 7.2181, W, source:wikidata, display=title Lusitania, Portugal in the Roman era, .L Roman provinces in Hispania Provinces of the Roman Empire History of Portugal by polity Ancient Portugal Medieval Portugal States and territories established in the 1st century BC States and territories disestablished in the 9th century 1st-century BC establishments in the Roman Republic 9th-century disestablishments in Portugal 1st millennium in Portugal