Hawaii ( ; haw|Hawaii or ) is a
U.S. state In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares ...
in the
Western United States The Western United States (also called the American West, the Far West, and the West) is the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. As American settlement in the U.S. expanded westward, the meaning of the term ''the West'' ...
, in the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean (or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by the continents of Asia ...

Pacific Ocean
about 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from the U.S. mainland. It is the only state outside
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
, the only island state, and the only state in the
tropics The tropics are the region of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S; these latitudes correspond to the ...
. Hawaii is also one of a few U.S. states to have once been an independent nation. Hawaii comprises nearly the entire
Hawaiian archipelago#REDIRECT Hawaiian Islands {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, 137
volcanic islands Geologically, a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcanic origin. The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the uplifting of coral reefs (which have often formed on ...
spanning that are physiographically and ethnologically part of the
Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from gr|πολύς ''polys'' "many" and gr|νῆσος ''nēsos'' "island") ( to|Faka-Polinisia; mi|Porinihia; haw|Polenekia; fj|Kai-Polinesia; sm|Polenisia; rar|Porinetia) is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than ...

n subregion of
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of and a population of over 41 million. When compared to continents, ...
. The state's ocean coastline is consequently the fourth longest in the U.S., at about . The eight main islands, from northwest to southeast, are
Niihau Niihau (Hawaiian: ), anglicized as Niihau ( ), is the westernmost main and seventh largest inhabited island in Hawaii. It is southwest of Kauaʻi across the Kaulakahi Channel. Its area is . Several intermittent playa lakes provide wetland habitats ...
Kauai Kauai, () anglicized as Kauai ( ), is geologically the second-oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands (after Niʻihau). With an area of 562.3 square miles (1,456.4 km2), it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in t ...
Oahu Oahu () (Hawaiian: ''Oʻahu'' ()), also known as "The Gathering Place", is the third-largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It is home to roughly one million people—about two-thirds of the population of the U.S. state of Hawaii. The island lies wit ...
Molokai Molokai , or Molokai (), is the fifth most populated of the eight major islands that make up the Hawaiian Islands archipelago in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is 38 by 10 miles (61 by 16 km) in size at its extreme length and width with ...
, Lānai,
Kahoolawe Kahoolawe (Hawaiian: ) anglicized as Kahoolawe () is the smallest of the eight main volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. Kahoolawe is located about southwest of Maui and also southeast of Lānaʻi, and it is long by wide, with a total land ...
Maui The island of Maui (; Hawaiian: ) is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's f ...
, and
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw|Hawaii or ) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles (3,200 km) from the U.S. mainland. It is the only state outside North America, the only island state, and the only state in ...
, after which the state is named; it is often called the "Big Island" or "Hawaii Island" to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago. The uninhabited
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands or Leeward Islands are the small islands and atolls in the Hawaiian island chain located northwest (in some cases, far to the northwest) of the islands of Kauai and Niihau. Politically, they are all part of Honolu ...
make up most of the
Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (roughly ) is a World Heritage listed U.S. National Monument encompassing of ocean waters, including ten islands and atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Created in June 2006 with , it ...
, the nation's largest protected area and the third largest in the world. Settled by
Polynesians Polynesians form an ethnolinguistic group of closely related people who are native to Polynesia (islands in the Polynesian Triangle), an expansive region of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. They trace their early prehistoric origins to Island Southea ...
some time between 124 and 1120, Hawaii was home to numerous independent chiefdoms. British explorer
James Cook Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old Style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the British Royal Navy, famous for his three voyages between 1768 and 1779 in the Pacific Ocean and ...
was the first known non-Polynesian to arrive at the archipelago, in 1778; early British influence is reflected in the
state flag In vexillology, a state flag is either the flag of the government of a sovereign state, or the flag of an individual federated state (subnational administrative division). Government flag A state flag is a variant of a national flag (or occasio ...

state flag
's design. An influx of explorers, traders, and whalers arrived shortly thereafter, introducing diseases that decimated the once isolated indigenous community. Hawaii became a unified, internationally recognized kingdom in 1810, remaining independent until Western businessmen overthrew the monarchy in 1893; this led to annexation by the U.S. in 1898. As a strategically valuable U.S. territory, Hawaii was attacked by Japan on December 7, 1941, which brought it global and historical significance, and contributed to America's decisive entry into World War II. Hawaii is the most recent state to join the union, on August 21, 1959. In 1993, the U.S. government formally apologized for its role in the overthrow of Hawaii's government, which spurred the
Hawaiian sovereignty movement In the U.S. state of Hawaii, the Hawaiian sovereignty movement ( haw|ke ea Hawaiʻi) is a grassroots political and cultural campaign to establish an autonomous or independent nation or kingdom of Hawaii due to the desire for sovereignty, self-de ...
. Of the 50
U.S. states In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares ...
, Hawaii is the eighth-smallest in area and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated, with 1.4million residents. Two-thirds of the population lives on O'ahu, home to the state's capital and largest city,
Honolulu Honolulu (; ) is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaii, which is located in the Pacific Ocean. It is an unincorporated county seat of the consolidated City and County of Honolulu, situated along the southeast coast of the isla ...
. Hawaii is among the country's most diverse states, owing to its central location in the Pacific and over two centuries of migration; it has the nation's only
Asian American Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry (naturalized Americans who are immigrants from Asia may also identify as Asian-Americans). Although it had historically been used to describe all the indigenous peoples of the continent of Asia, th ...
plurality, largest Buddhist community, and largest proportion of
multiracial people Multiracial people (or mixed-race people) are people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds, including ''multiracial'', ''biracial'', ''multiethnic'', ''polyethnic'', ''Métis'', ''Creole'', ''Muwallad'', ' ...
. Consequently, it is a unique
melting pot The melting pot is a monocultural metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous, the different elements "melting together" with a common culture; an alternative being a homogeneous society becoming more heterogeneous through th ...
Southeast Asian Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent and north-west of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north b ...
East Asian East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The modern states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The East Asian states of China, North ...
North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to ...

North America
n cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Historically dominated by a plantation economy, Hawaii remains a major agricultural exporter due to its fertile soil and uniquely tropical climate in the U.S. Its economy has gradually diversified since the mid-20th century, with tourism and military defense becoming the two largest sectors. The state attracts tourists, surfers, and scientists from around the world with its diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes, and clear skies on the Big Island. Hawaii hosts the U.S. Pacific Fleet, the world's largest naval command, as well as 75,000 employees of the Defense Department. Although its relative isolation results in one of the nation's highest costs of living, Hawaii is the third-wealthiest state; Honolulu ranks high in several [[World's most liveable cities|world livability rankings, ranking 22nd out of 140 cities worldwide in the 2019 Global Liveability Index, the highest of any American city.


The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of its largest island, . A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of is that it was named for , a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth. He is said to have discovered the islands when they were first settled. The [[Hawaiian language word is very similar to [[Proto-Polynesian language|Proto-Polynesian ''Sawaiki'', with the [[internal reconstruction|reconstructed meaning "homeland". [[Cognates of are found in other Polynesian languages, including [[Māori language|Māori (), [[Cook Islands Maori|Rarotongan () and [[Samoan language|Samoan (). According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "elsewhere in Polynesia, or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning".

Spelling of state name

In 1978, Hawaiian was added to the Constitution of the State of Hawaii as an official state language alongside English. The title of the state constitution is ''The Constitution of the State of Hawaii''. ArticleXV, Section1 of the Constitution uses ''The State of Hawaii''. [[Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the and the in modern Hawaiian orthography. The exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is . In the [[Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized ''Hawaii'' as the official state name. Official government publications, department and office titles, and the [[Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length.

Geography and environment

There are eight main Hawaiian islands. Seven are inhabited, but only six are open to tourists and locals. Niihau is privately managed by brothers Bruce and [[Keith Robinson (environmentalist)|Keith Robinson; access is restricted to those who have their permission. This island is also home to native Hawaiians. Access to uninhabited [[Kahoʻolawe island is also restricted and anyone who enters without permission will be arrested. This island may also be dangerous since it was a military base during the world wars and could still have unexploded ordinances.


The Hawaiian archipelago is southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U.S. state and the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U.S. state. It is the only U.S. state that is not geographically located in North America, the only state completely surrounded by water and that is entirely an archipelago, and the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islands and islets. [[Kaʻula|Kaula is a small island near Niihau. The [[Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauai that extend from [[Nihoa to [[Kure Atoll; these are remnants of once much larger volcanic mountains. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as [[Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain [[Mauna Kea is above mean sea level; it is taller than [[Mount Everest if measured from the base of the mountain, which lies on the floor of the Pacific Ocean and rises about .


The Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea [[magma source called the [[Hawaii hotspot|Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; the [[plate tectonics|tectonic plate beneath much of the Pacific Ocean continually moves northwest and the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes. Because of the hotspot's location, all currently active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, [[Loihi Seamount|Lōihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island. The last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred at on Maui before the late 18thcentury, possibly hundreds of years earlier. In 1790, [[1790 Footprints|Kīlauea exploded; it was the deadliest eruption known to have occurred in the modern era in what is now the United States. Up to 5,405 warriors and their families marching on [[Kīlauea were killed by the eruption. Volcanic activity and subsequent erosion have created impressive geological features. Hawaii Island has the [[list of islands by highest point|second-highest point among the world's islands. On the flanks of the volcanoes, slope instability has generated damaging earthquakes and related [[tsunamis, particularly in [[1868 Hawaii earthquake|1868 and [[1975 Hawaii earthquake|1975. Steep cliffs have been created by catastrophic [[debris avalanches on the submerged flanks of ocean island volcanoes. The erupted in May 2018, opening 22 fissure vents on its East [[Rift Zone. The [[Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens are situated within this territory. The destruction affected at least 36 buildings and this coupled with the [[lava flows and the [[sulfur dioxide fumes, necessitated the evacuation of more than 2,000 local inhabitants from the neighborhoods.

Flora and fauna

The islands of Hawaii are distant from other land habitats, and life is thought to have arrived there by wind, waves (i.e., by ocean currents), and wings (i.e., birds, insects, and any seeds that they may have carried on their feathers). Hawaii has more endangered species and has lost a higher percentage of its endemic species than any other U.S. state. The endemic plant ''[[Brighamia'' now requires hand-pollination because its natural pollinator is presumed to be extinct. The two species of ''Brighamia''—''B. rockii'' and ''B. insignis''—are represented in the wild by around 120 individual plants. To ensure that these plants set seed, biologists rappel down cliffs to brush pollen onto their stigmas.

Protected areas

Several areas in Hawaii are under the protection of the [[National Park Service. Hawaii has two national parks: [[Haleakalā National Park located near [[Kula, Hawaii|Kula on the island of Maui, which features the dormant volcano Haleakalā that formed east Maui, and [[Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in the southeast region of the Hawaii Island, which includes the active volcano Kīlauea and its rift zones. There are three [[national historical parks; [[Kalaupapa National Historical Park in Kalaupapa, Molokai, the site of a former leper colony; [[Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park|Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park in [[Kailua, Hawaii County, Hawaii|Kailua-Kona on Hawaii Island; and [[Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park|Puuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park, an ancient place of refuge on Hawaii Island's west coast. Other areas under the control of the National Park Service include [[Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail on Hawaii Island and the [[USS Arizona Memorial|USS ''Arizona'' Memorial at [[Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The
Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (roughly ) is a World Heritage listed U.S. National Monument encompassing of ocean waters, including ten islands and atolls of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Created in June 2006 with , it ...
was proclaimed by President [[George W. Bush on June 15, 2006. The monument covers roughly of reefs, atolls, and shallow and deep sea out to offshore in the Pacific Ocean—an area larger than all the national parks in the U.S. combined.


Hawaii's climate is typical for the tropics, although temperatures and humidity tend to be less extreme because of near-constant [[trade winds from the east. Summer highs usually reach around during the day, with the temperature reaching a low of at night. Winter day temperatures are usually around ; at low elevation they seldom dip below at night. Snow, not usually associated with the tropics, falls at on Mauna Kea and [[Mauna Loa on Hawaii Island in some winter months. Snow rarely falls on Haleakalā. [[Mount Waialeale|Mount Waialeale on Kauai has the second-highest average annual rainfall on Earth, about per year. Most of Hawaii experiences only two seasons; the dry season runs from May to October and the wet season is from October to April. The warmest temperature recorded in the state, in [[Pahala on April 27, 1931, is , making it tied with [[Alaska as the lowest record high temperature observed in a U.S. state. Hawaii's record low temperature is observed in May1979, on the summit of Mauna Kea. Hawaii is the only state to have never recorded sub-zero Fahrenheit temperatures. Climates vary considerably on each island; they can be divided into [[windward and leeward (''koolau'' and ''kona'', respectively) areas based upon location relative to the higher mountains. Windward sides face cloud cover.


Hawaii is one of two states that were widely recognized independent nations prior to joining the United States. The [[Kingdom of Hawaii|Kingdom of Hawaii was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when [[Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii|the monarchy was overthrown by resident American and European capitalists and landholders. Hawaii was an independent republic from 1894 until August 12, 1898, when it officially became a territory of the United States. Hawaii was admitted as a U.S. state on August 21, 1959.

First human settlement—Ancient Hawaii (800–1778)

Based on archaeological evidence, the earliest habitation of the Hawaiian Islands dates to around AD 300, probably by Polynesian settlers from the [[Marquesas Islands. A second wave of migration from [[Raiatea and [[Bora Bora took place in the century. The date of the human discovery and habitation of the Hawaiian Islands is the subject of academic debate. Some archaeologists and historians think it was a later wave of immigrants from [[Tahiti around AD 1000 who introduced a new line of high chiefs, the [[kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice, and the building of ''[[heiau''. This later immigration is detailed in [[Hawaiian mythology (''moolelo'') about [[Pa'ao|Paao. Other authors say there is no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers and that Paao must be regarded as a myth. The history of the islands is marked by a slow, steady growth in population and the size of the [[chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, called [[Ali'i|alii, ruled their settlements, and launched wars to extend their influence and defend their communities from predatory rivals. Ancient Hawaii was a [[Makaainana|caste-based society, much like that of Hindus in India.

European arrival

The 1778 arrival of British explorer [[James Cook|Captain James Cook marked the first documented contact by a European explorer with Hawaii. Cook named the archipelago "the Sandwich Islands" in honor of his sponsor [[John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, publishing the islands' location and rendering the native name as ''Owyhee''. The form [[Owyhee (disambiguation)|'Owyhee' or 'Owhyhee' is preserved in the names of certain locations in the American part of the Pacific Northwest, among them [[Owyhee County, Idaho|Owyhee County and [[Owyhee Mountains in [[Idaho, named after three native Hawaiian members of a trapping party who went missing in the area. It is very possible that [[Conquistador|Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century, two hundred years before Cook's first documented visit in 1778. [[Ruy López de Villalobos commanded a fleet of six ships that left [[Acapulco in 1542 bound for the Philippines, with a Spanish sailor named Juan Gaetano aboard as pilot. Depending on the interpretation, Gaetano's reports describe an encounter with either Hawaii or the [[Marshall Islands. If de Villalobos' crew spotted Hawaii, Gaetano would thus be considered the first European to see the islands. Some scholars have dismissed these claims due to a lack of credibility. Nonetheless, Spanish archives contain a chart that depicts islands at the same latitude as Hawaii, but with a longitude ten degrees east of the islands. In this manuscript, the island of Maui is named ''La Desgraciada'' (The Unfortunate Island), and what appears to be Hawaii Island is named ''La Mesa'' (The Table). Islands resembling [[Kahoolawe|Kahoolawe', Lānai, and
Molokai Molokai , or Molokai (), is the fifth most populated of the eight major islands that make up the Hawaiian Islands archipelago in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. It is 38 by 10 miles (61 by 16 km) in size at its extreme length and width with ...
are named ''Los Monjes'' (The Monks). For two-and-a-half centuries, [[Manila galleon|Spanish galleons crossed the Pacific from Mexico along a route that passed south of Hawaii on their way to [[Manila. The exact route was kept secret to protect the Spanish trade monopoly against competing powers. Hawaii thus maintained independence, despite being situated on a sea route east–west between nations that were subjects of the [[Viceroyalty of New Spain, an empire that exercised jurisdiction over many subject civilizations and kingdoms on both sides of the Pacific. Despite such contested claims, Cook is generally credited as being the first European to land at Hawaii, having visited the Hawaiian Islands twice. As he prepared for departure after his second visit in 1779, a quarrel ensued as Cook took temple idols and fencing as "firewood", and a minor chief and his men stole a boat from his ship. Cook abducted the [[Alii Aimoku of Hawaii|King of Hawaii Island, [[Kalaniʻōpuʻu|Kalaniōpuu, and held him for ransom aboard his ship in order to gain return of Cook's boat, as this tactic had previously worked in Tahiti and other islands. Instead, the supporters of Kalaniōpuu attacked, killing Cook and four sailors as Cook's party retreated along the beach to their ship. The ship departed without retrieving the stolen boat. After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian Islands attracted many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers, who found the islands to be a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the design of the [[Flag of Hawaii|flag of Hawaii, which bears the [[Union Jack in the top-left corner. These visitors introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands, causing the Hawaiian population to drop precipitously. Native Hawaiians had no resistance to Eurasian diseases, such as [[influenza, [[smallpox and [[measles. By 1820, disease, famine and wars between the chiefs killed more than half of the Native Hawaiian population. During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people. Historical records indicated the earliest Chinese immigrants to Hawaii originated from [[Guangdong|Guangdong Province; a few sailors had arrived in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey, and more arrived in 1789 with an American trader who settled in Hawaii in the late 18th century. It is said that leprosy was introduced by Chinese workers by 1830, and as with the other new infectious diseases, it proved damaging to the Hawaiians.

Kingdom of Hawaii

House of Kamehameha

During the 1780s, and 1790s, chiefs often fought for power. After a series of battles that ended in 1795, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler, who became known as [[Kamehameha I|King Kamehameha the Great. He established the [[House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the kingdom until 1872. After [[Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, American Protestant missionaries to Hawaii converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. They used their influence to end many traditional practices of the people. During the reign of King [[Kamehameha III, Hawaiʻi turned into a Christian monarchy with the signing of the [[1840 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii|1840 Constitution. [[Hiram Bingham I, a prominent Protestant missionary, was a trusted adviser to the monarchy during this period. Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political affairs, leading to conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects. Catholic and Mormon missionaries were also active in the kingdom, but they converted a minority of the Native Hawaiian population. Missionaries from each major group administered to the leper colony at Kalaupapa on Molokai, which was established in 1866 and operated well into the 20th century. The best known were [[Father Damien and [[Mother Marianne Cope, both of whom were canonized in the early 21st century as Roman [[Catholic saints. The death of the bachelor [[Kamehameha V|King Kamehameha V—who did not name an heir—resulted in the popular election of [[Lunalilo over [[Kalākaua. Lunalilo died the next year, also without naming an heir. In 1874, the election was contested within the legislature between Kalākaua and [[Queen Emma of Hawaii|Emma, Queen Consort of Kamehameha IV. After riots broke out, the United States and Britain landed troops on the islands to restore order. [[Kalākaua|King Kalākaua was chosen as monarch by the [[Legislature of the Kingdom of Hawaii|Legislative Assembly by a vote of 39 to6 on February 12, 1874.

1887 Constitution and overthrow preparations

In 1887, Kalākaua was forced to sign the [[1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii|1887 Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Drafted by white businessmen and lawyers, the document stripped the king of much of his authority. It established a property qualification for voting that effectively disenfranchised most Hawaiians and immigrant laborers and favored the wealthier, white elite. Resident whites were allowed to vote but resident Asians were not. As the 1887 Constitution was signed under threat of violence, it is known as the Bayonet Constitution. King Kalākaua, reduced to a figurehead, reigned until his death in 1891. His sister, Queen [[Liliuokalani|Liliuokalani, succeeded him; she was the last monarch of Hawaii. In 1893, Queen Liliuokalani announced plans for a new constitution to proclaim herself an absolute monarch. On January 14, 1893, a group of mostly Euro-American business leaders and residents formed the [[Committee of Safety (Hawaii)|Committee of Safety to stage a [[Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii|coup d'état against the kingdom and seek annexation by the United States. United States Government Minister [[John L. Stevens, responding to a request from the Committee of Safety, summoned a company of U.S. Marines. The Queen's soldiers did not resist. According to historian William Russ, the monarchy was unable to protect itself.

Overthrow of 1893—Republic of Hawaii (1894–1898)

On January 17, 1893, Queen [[Liliʻuokalani|Liliuokalani was overthrown and replaced by a provisional government composed of members of the Committee of Safety. The United States Minister to the [[Kingdom of Hawaii ([[John L. Stevens) conspired with U.S. citizens to overthrow the monarchy. After the overthrow, Lawyer [[Sanford B. Dole, a citizen of Hawaii, became President of the Republic when the [[Provisional Government of Hawaii|Provisional Government of Hawaii ended on July 4, 1894. Controversy ensued in the following years as the Queen tried to regain her throne. The administration of President [[Grover Cleveland commissioned the [[Blount Report, which concluded that the removal of Liliuokalani had been illegal. The U.S. government first demanded that Queen Liliuokalani be reinstated, but the Provisional Government refused. Congress conducted an independent investigation, and on February 26, 1894, submitted the [[Morgan Report, which found all parties, including Minister Stevens—with the exception of the Queen—"not guilty" and not responsible for the coup. Partisans on both sides of the debate questioned the accuracy and impartiality of both the Blount and Morgan reports over the events of 1893. In 1993, the US Congress passed a joint [[Apology Resolution regarding the overthrow; it was signed by President [[Bill Clinton. The resolution apologized and said that the overthrow was illegal in the following phrase: "The Congress—on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, acknowledges the historical significance of this event which resulted in the suppression of the inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian people." The Apology Resolution also "acknowledges that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with the active participation of agents and citizens of the United States and further acknowledges that the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum".

Annexation—Territory of Hawaii (1898–1959)

After [[William McKinley won the 1896 U.S. presidential election, advocates pressed to annex the Republic of Hawaii. The previous president, Grover Cleveland, was a friend of Queen Liliuokalani. McKinley was open to persuasion by U.S. expansionists and by annexationists from Hawaii. He met with three non-native annexationists: [[Lorrin A. Thurston, Francis March Hatch and [[William Ansel Kinney. After negotiations in June 1897, Secretary of State [[John Sherman (politician)|John Sherman agreed to a treaty of annexation with these representatives of the Republic of Hawaii. The [[U.S. Senate never ratified the treaty. Despite the opposition of most native Hawaiians, the [[Newlands Resolution was used to annex the Republic to the U.S.; it became the [[Territory of Hawaii|Territory of Hawaii. The Newlands Resolution was passed by the House on June 15, 1898, by 209 votes in favor to 91 against, and by the Senate on July 6, 1898, by a vote of 42 to 21. In 1900, Hawaii was granted self-governance and retained [[Iolani Palace|Iolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. Despite several attempts to become a state, Hawaii remained a territory for 60 years. Plantation owners and capitalists, who maintained control through financial institutions such as the [[Big Five (Hawaii)|Big Five, found territorial status convenient because they remained able to import cheap, foreign labor. Such immigration and labor practices were prohibited in many states. [[Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii|Puerto Rican immigration to Hawaii began in 1899, when Puerto Rico's sugar industry was devastated by [[1899 San Ciriaco hurricane|a hurricane, causing a worldwide shortage of sugar and a huge demand for sugar from Hawaii. Hawaiian [[sugarcane [[Sugar plantations in Hawaii|plantation owners began to recruit experienced, unemployed laborers in Puerto Rico. Two waves of [[Korean immigration to Hawaii|Korean immigration to Hawaii occurred in the 20th century. The first wave arrived between 1903 and 1924; the second wave began in 1965 after President [[Lyndon B. Johnson signed the [[Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which removed racial and national barriers and resulted in significantly altering the demographic mix in the U.S. Oahu was the target of a surprise [[attack on Pearl Harbor by [[Imperial Japan on December 7, 1941. The attack on Pearl Harbor and other military and naval installations, carried out by [[Warplane|aircraft and by [[midget submarines, brought the United States into [[World War II.

Political changes of 1954—State of Hawaii (1959–present)

In the 1950s, the power of the plantation owners was broken by the descendants of immigrant laborers, who were born in Hawaii and were U.S. citizens. They voted against the [[Hawaii Republican Party|Hawaii Republican Party, strongly supported by plantation owners. The new majority voted for the [[Democratic Party of Hawaii|Democratic Party of Hawaii, which dominated territorial and state politics for more than 40 years. Eager to gain full representation in Congress and the Electoral College, residents actively campaigned for statehood. In Washington there was talk that Hawaii would be a Republican Party stronghold so it was matched with the admission of Alaska, seen as a Democratic Party stronghold. These predictions turned out to be inaccurate; today, Hawaii votes Democratic predominantly, while Alaska votes Republican. In March 1959, Congress passed the [[Hawaii Admission Act|Hawaii Admissions Act, which U.S. President [[Dwight D. Eisenhower signed into law. The act excluded [[Palmyra Atoll from statehood; it had been part of the Kingdom and Territory of Hawaii. On June 27, 1959, a referendum asked residents of Hawaii to vote on the statehood bill; 94.3% voted in favor of statehood and 5.7% opposed it. The referendum asked voters to choose between accepting the Act and remaining a U.S. territory. The United Nations' [[Special Committee on Decolonization later removed Hawaii from [[United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories|its list of non-self-governing territories. After attaining statehood, Hawaii quickly modernized through construction and a rapidly growing tourism economy. Later, state programs promoted Hawaiian culture. The [[1978 Hawaii State Constitutional Convention|Hawaii State Constitutional Convention of 1978 created institutions such as the [[Office of Hawaiian Affairs to promote indigenous language and culture.



After Europeans and mainland Americans first arrived during the [[Kingdom of Hawaii period, the overall population of Hawaii—which until that time composed solely of Indigenous Hawaiians—fell dramatically. Many people of the Indigenous Hawaiian population died to foreign diseases, declining from 300,000 in the 1770s, to 60,000 in the 1850s, to 24,000 in 1920. In 1923 42% of the population was of Japanese descent, 9% was of Chinese descent, and 16% was native descent. The population of Hawaii began to finally increase after an influx of primarily Asian settlers that arrived as migrant laborers at the end of the 19thcentury. The unmixed indigenous Hawaiian population has still not restored itself to its 300,000 pre-contact level. , only 156,000 persons declared themselves to be of Native Hawaiian-only ancestry, just over half the pre-contact level Native Hawaiian population, although an additional 371,000 persons declared themselves to possess Native Hawaiian ancestry in combination with one or more other races (including other Polynesian groups, but mostly Asian and/or Caucasian). The [[United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Hawaii was 1,420,491 on July 1, 2018; an increase of 4.42% since the [[2010 United States Census. , Hawaii had an estimated population of 1,420,491; a decrease of 7,047 from the previous year and an increase of 60,190 (4.42%) since 2010. This includes a natural increase of 48,111 (96,028 births minus 47,917 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 16,956 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 30,068; migration within the country produced a net loss of 13,112 people. The center of population of Hawaii is located on the island of [[O'ahu. Large numbers of Native Hawaiians have moved to [[Las Vegas, which has been called the "ninth island" of Hawaii. Hawaii has a ''de facto'' population of over 1.4million, due in part to a large number of military personnel and tourist residents. [[O'ahu is the most populous island; it has the highest population density with a resident population of just under one million in , approximately 1,650 people per square mile. Hawaii's 1.4million residents, spread across of land, result in an average population density of 188.6 persons per square mile. The state has a lower population density than [[Ohio and [[Illinois. The average projected lifespan of people born in Hawaii in 2000 is 79.8 years; 77.1 years if male, 82.5 if female—longer than the average lifespan of any other
U.S. state In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares ...
. the U.S. military reported it had 42,371 personnel on the islands.


According to the 2010 United States Census, Hawaii had a population of 1,360,301. The state's population identified as 38.6% [[Asian American|Asian; 24.7% [[White American|White (22.7% non-Hispanic White alone); 23.6% from two or more races; 10.0% Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders; 8.9% [[Hispanic and Latino Americans|Hispanics and Latinos of any race; 1.6% Black or African American; 1.2% from some other race; and 0.3% Native American and Alaska Native. Hawaii has the highest percentage of Asian Americans and multiracial Americans and the lowest percentage of White Americans of any state. It is the only state where people who identify as Asian Americans are the largest ethnic group. In 2012, 14.5% of the resident population under age 1 was non-Hispanic white. Hawaii's Asian population consists mainly of 198,000 (14.6%) Filipino Americans, 185,000 (13.6%) Japanese Americans, roughly 55,000 (4.0%) Chinese Americans, and 24,000 (1.8%) [[Korean Americans. There are more than 80,000 Indigenous Hawaiians—5.9% of the population. Including those with partial ancestry, Samoan Americans constitute 2.8% of Hawaii's population, and Tongan Americans constitute 0.6%. Over 120,000 (8.8%) Hispanic and Latino Americans live in Hawaii. Mexican Americans number over 35,000 (2.6%); Puerto Ricans exceed 44,000 (3.2%). Multiracial Americans constitute almost 25% of Hawaii's population, exceeding 320,000 people. Eurasian Americans are a prominent mixed-race group, numbering about 66,000 (4.9%). The non-Hispanic White population numbers around 310,000—just over 20% of the population. The multi-racial population outnumbers the non-Hispanic white population by about 10,000 people. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Hawaii's population was 38.8% white and 57.7% Asian and Pacific Islander. The five largest European ancestries in Hawaii are German (7.4%), Irish (5.2%), English (4.6%), Portuguese (4.3%) and Italian (2.7%). About 82.2% of the state's residents were born in the United States. Roughly 75% of foreign-born residents originate in Asia. Hawaii is a [[majority-minority state. It was expected to be one of three states that will not have a non-Hispanic white plurality in 2014; the other two are [[California and [[New Mexico. The third group of foreigners to arrive in Hawaii were from China. Chinese workers on Western trading ships settled in Hawaii starting in 1789. In 1820, the first American missionaries arrived to preach Christianity and teach the Hawaiians Western ways. , a large proportion of Hawaii's population have Asian ancestry—especially Filipino, Japanese and Chinese. Many are descendants of immigrants brought to work on the sugarcane plantations in the mid-to-late 19th century. The first 153 Japanese immigrants arrived in Hawaii on June 19, 1868. They were not approved by the then-current Japanese government because the contract was between a broker and the [[Tokugawa shogunate—by then replaced by the [[Meiji Restoration. The first Japanese current-government-approved immigrants arrived on February 9, 1885, after Kalākaua's petition to [[Emperor Meiji when Kalākaua visited Japan in 1881. Almost 13,000 Portuguese migrants had arrived by 1899; they also worked on the sugarcane plantations. See pp. 332–33. By 1901, more than 5,000 Puerto Ricans were living in Hawaii.


[[English language|English and [[Hawaiian language|Hawaiian are listed as Hawaii's official languages in the state's 1978 constitution, in Article XV, Section 4. However, the use of Hawaiian is limited because the constitution specifies that "Hawaiian shall be required for public acts and transactions only as provided by law". [[Hawaiian Pidgin|Hawaiʻi Creole English, locally referred to as "Pidgin", is the native language of many native residents and is a second language for many others. As of the 2000 Census, 73.4% of Hawaii residents age5 and older exclusively speak English at home. According to the 2008 American Community Survey, 74.6% of Hawaii's residents older than5 speak only English at home. In their homes, 21.0% of state residents speak an additional [[Languages of Asia|Asian language, 2.6% speak Spanish, 1.6% speak other [[Indo-European languages and 0.2% speak another language. After English, other languages popularly spoken in the state are [[Tagalog language|Tagalog, Japanese and [[Ilocano language|Ilocano. Significant numbers of European immigrants and their descendants also speak their native languages; the most numerous are German, Portuguese, Italian and French. 5.4% of residents speak Tagalog—which includes non-native speakers of [[Filipino language, the national, co-official, Tagalog-based language; 5.0% speak Japanese and 4.0% speak Ilocano; 1.2% speak Chinese, 1.7% speak Hawaiian; 1.7% speak Spanish; 1.6% speak [[Korean language|Korean; and 1.0% speak [[Samoan language|Samoan.


The Hawaiian language has about 2,000 native speakers, about 0.15% of the total population. According to the [[United States Census, there were more than 24,000 total speakers of the language in Hawaii in 2006–2008. Hawaiian is a Polynesian member of the [[Austronesian languages|Austronesian language family. It is closely related to other [[Polynesian languages, such as [[Marquesan language|Marquesan, [[Tahitian language|Tahitian, [[Māori language|Māori, [[Rapa Nui language|Rapa Nui (the language of [[Easter Island), and less closely to [[Samoan language|Samoan and [[Tongan language|Tongan. According to Schütz, the Marquesans colonized the archipelago in roughly AD 300 and were later followed by waves of seafarers from the [[Society Islands, [[Samoa and [[Tonga. These Polynesians remained in the islands; they eventually became the Hawaiian people and [[Hawaiian language#Family and origin|their languages evolved into the Hawaiian language. Kimura and Wilson say, "[l]inguists agree that Hawaiian is closely related to Eastern Polynesian, with a particularly strong link in the Southern Marquesas, and a secondary link in Tahiti, which may be explained by voyaging between the Hawaiian and Society Islands". Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, the Hawaiian language had no written form. That form was developed mainly by American Protestant missionaries between 1820 and 1826 who assigned to the Hawaiian phonemes letters from the Latin alphabet. Interest in Hawaiian increased significantly in the late 20th century. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, specially designated immersion schools in which all subjects would be taught in Hawaiian were established. The [[University of Hawaii System|University of Hawaii developed a Hawaiian language graduate studies program. Municipal codes were altered to favor Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments. Hawaiian distinguishes between [[vowel length|long and short vowel sounds. In modern practice, vowel length is indicated with a [[macron (diacritic)|macron (''[[Hawaiian language#Orthography (writing system)|kahakō''). Hawaiian-language newspapers (''nūpepa'') published from 1834 to 1948 and traditional native speakers of Hawaiian generally omit the marks in their own writing. The ʻokina and kahakō are intended to help non-native speakers. The Hawaiian language uses the [[glottal stop (''[[ʻOkina|ʻokina'') as a consonant. It is written as a symbol similar to the apostrophe or left-hanging (opening) single quotation mark. The keyboard layout used for Hawaiian is [[QWERTY.

Hawaiian Pidgin

Some residents of Hawaii speak [[Hawaiian Pidgin|Hawaiʻi Creole English (HCE), endonymically called ''pidgin'' or ''pidgin English''. The lexicon of HCE derives mainly from English but also uses words that have derived from Hawaiian, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Ilocano and Tagalog. During the 19th century, the increase in immigration—mainly from China, Japan, Portugal—especially from the [[Azores and [[Madeira, and Spain—catalyzed the development of a hybrid variant of English known to its speakers as ''pidgin''. By the early 20th century, pidgin speakers had children who acquired it as their first language. HCE speakers use some Hawaiian words without those words being considered archaic. Most place names are retained from Hawaiian, as are some names for plants and animals. For example, tuna fish is often called by its Hawaiian name, ''ahi''. HCE speakers have modified the meanings of some English words. For example, "aunty" and "uncle" may either refer to any adult who is a friend or be used to show respect to an elder. [[Syntax and [[grammar follow distinctive rules different from those of General American English. For example, instead of "it is hot today, isn't it?", an HCE speaker would say simply "stay hot, eh?" The term ''[[da kine'' is used as a [[filler (linguistics)|filler; a substitute for virtually any word or phrase. During the [[surfing boom in Hawaii, HCE was influenced by surfer slang. Some HCE expressions, such as ''brah'' and ''da kine'', have found their ways elsewhere through surfing communities.

Hawaiʻi Sign Language

[[Hawaiʻi Sign Language, a [[sign language for the Deaf based on the Hawaiian language, has been in use in the islands since the early 1800s. It is dwindling in numbers due to [[American Sign Language supplanting HSL through schooling and various other domains.


Christianity is the most widespread religion in Hawaii, mainly represented by various [[Protestants groups, [[Roman Catholics and [[Mormons. The second largest religion is [[Buddhism, especially among the Japanese community. The uaffiliated account for one-quarter of the population, making Hawaii one of the most secular states in the U.S.. The [[Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew (Honolulu)|Cathedral Church of Saint Andrew in Honolulu was formally the seat of the [[Church of Hawaii|Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church. When the Hawaiian Reformed Catholic Church, a province of the [[Anglican Communion, was merged into the [[Episcopal Church (USA)|Episcopal Church in the 1890s following the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, it became the seat of the [[Episcopal Diocese of Hawaii. The [[Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Peace and the [[Co-Cathedral of Saint Theresa of the Child Jesus (Honolulu, Hawaii)|Co-Cathedral of Saint Theresa of the Child Jesus serve as seats of the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. The Eastern Orthodox community is centered around the [[Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Cathedral of the Pacific (Honolulu)|Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Cathedral of the Pacific. The largest denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with 249,619 adherents in 2010, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 68,128 adherents in 2009, the [[United Church of Christ with 115 congregations and 20,000 members, and the Southern Baptist Convention with 108 congregations and 18,000 members. All non-denominational churches have 128 congregations and 32,000 members. According to data provided by religious establishments, religion in Hawaii in 2000 was distributed as follows: * Christianity: 351,000 (29%) * Buddhism: 110,000 (9%) * Judaism: 10,000 (1%) * Other: 100,000 (10%) * Unaffiliated: 650,000 (51%) A [[Pew Research Center|Pew poll found that the religious composition was as follows:

Birth data

''Note: Births in this table do not add up, because Hispanic peoples are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.'' :1) Until 2016, data for births of Asian origin, included also births of the Pacific Islander group. :2) Since 2016, data for births of [[White Hispanic and Latino Americans|White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one ''Hispanic'' group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Hawaii has had a long history of [[LGBT identities. ''[[Māhū'' ("in the middle") were a precolonization [[third gender with traditional spiritual and social roles; ''māhū'' were a respected group of people widely regarded as healers. The concept of ''[[aikāne'' referred to homosexual relationships, widely accepted as a normal part of ancient Hawaiian society. Among men, ''aikāne'' relationships often began as teens and continued throughout their adult lives, even if they also maintained heterosexual partners. While ''aikāne'' usually refers to male homosexuality, some stories also refer to women, implying that women may have been involved in ''aikāne'' relationships as well. Journals written by [[James Cook|Captain Cook's crew record that many ''[[aliʻi'' (hereditary nobles) also engaged in ''aikāne'' relationships, and [[Kamehameha I|Kamehameha the Great, the founder and first ruler of the [[Kingdom of Hawaii, was also known to participate. Cook's second lieutenant and co-astronomer [[James King (Royal Navy officer)|James King observed that "all the chiefs had them", and recounts that Cook was actually asked by one chief to leave King behind, considering the role a great honor. According to Hawaiian scholar [[Lilikalā Kameʻeleihiwa, "If you didn't sleep with a man, how could you trust him when you went into battle? How would you know if he was going to be the warrior that would protect you at all costs, if he wasn't your lover?" During the late 19th and early 20th century, the word ''aikāne'' was [[Expurgation|expurgated of its original sexual meaning by colonialism, and in print simply meant "friend". Nonetheless, in Hawaiian language publications its metaphorical meaning can still mean either "friend" or "lover" without stigmatization. A 2012 poll by Gallup found that Hawaii had the largest proportion of LGBT adults in the U.S., at 5.1%, comprising an estimated adult LGBT population of 53,966 individuals. The number of same-sex couple households in 2010 was 3,239; a 35.5% increase of figures from a decade earlier. In 2013, Hawaii became the fifteenth U.S. state to legalize same-sex marriage; a University of Hawaii researcher reported at the time that the law may have been able to boost tourism by $217million.


The history of Hawaii's economy can be traced through a succession of dominant industries: [[sandalwood, [[whaling, sugarcane, [[pineapple, the military, tourism and education. Since statehood in 1959, tourism has been the largest industry, contributing 24.3% of the gross state product (GSP) in 1997, despite efforts to diversify. The state's gross output for 2003 was billion; per capita income for Hawaii residents in 2014 was . Hawaiian exports include food and clothing. These industries play a small role in the Hawaiian economy, due to the shipping distance to viable markets, such as the West Coast of the contiguous U.S. The state's food exports include coffee, macadamia nuts, pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey. By weight, honey bees may be the state's most valuable export. According to the Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service, agricultural sales were million from diversified agriculture, million from pineapple, and million from sugarcane. Hawaii's relatively consistent climate has attracted the seed industry, which is able to test three generations of crops per year on the islands, compared with one or two on the mainland. Seeds yielded million in 2012, supporting 1,400 workers. , the state's unemployment rate was 3.2%. In 2009, the United States military spent billion in Hawaii, accounting for 18% of spending in the state for that year. 75,000 United States Department of Defense personnel live in Hawaii. According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Hawaii had the fourth-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 7.2%.


Tax is collected by the [[Hawaii Department of Taxation. Hawaii residents pay the most per person in state taxes in the United States. Millions of tourists pay [[excise|general excise tax and hotel room tax. The Hawaii Tax Foundation considers the state's tax burden too high, which it says contributes to higher prices and the perception of an unfriendly business climate. [[Hawaii Senate|State Senator [[Sam Slom says state taxes are comparatively higher than other states because the state government handles education, health care, and social services that are usually handled at a county or municipal level in most other states.

Cost of living

The cost of living in Hawaii, specifically Honolulu, is high compared to that of most major U.S. cities, although it is 6.7% lower than in New York City and 3.6% lower than in San Francisco. These numbers may not take into account some costs, such as increased travel costs for flights, additional shipping fees, and the loss of promotional participation opportunities for customers outside the contiguous U.S. While some online stores offer free shipping on orders to Hawaii, many merchants exclude Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico and certain other U.S. territories. [[Hawaiian Electric Industries, a privately owned company, provides 95% of the state's population with electricity, mostly from fossil-fuel power stations. Average electricity prices in October 2014 () were nearly three times the national average () and 80% higher than the second-highest state, Connecticut. The median home value in Hawaii in the 2000 U.S. Census was , while the national median home value was . Hawaii home values were the highest of all states, including California with a median home value of . Research from the [[National Association of Realtors places the 2010 median sale price of a single family home in Honolulu, Hawaii, at and the U.S. median sales price at . The sale price of single family homes in Hawaii was the highest of any U.S. city in 2010, just above that of the Silicon Valley area of California (). Hawaii's very high [[cost of living is the result of several interwoven factors of the global economy in addition to domestic U.S. government trade policy. Like other regions with desirable weather throughout the year, such as areas of [[California, [[Arizona and [[Florida, Hawaii's residents can be considered to be subject to a "[[sunshine tax". This situation is further exacerbated by the natural factors of geography and world distribution that lead to higher prices for goods due to increased shipping costs, a problem which many [[island country|island states and territories suffer from as well. The higher costs to ship goods across an ocean may be further increased by the requirements of the [[Merchant Marine Act of 1920|Jones Act, which generally requires that goods be transported between places within the U.S., including between the mainland U.S. west coast and Hawaii, using only U.S.-owned, built, and crewed ships. Jones Act-compliant vessels are often more expensive to build and operate than foreign equivalents, which can drive up shipping costs. While the Jones Act does not affect transportation of goods to Hawaii directly from Asia, this type of trade is nonetheless not common; this is a result of other primarily economic reasons including additional costs associated with stopping over in Hawaii (e.g. pilot and port fees), the market size of Hawaii, and the economics of using ever-larger ships that cannot be handled in Hawaii for transoceanic voyages. Therefore, Hawaii relies on receiving most inbound goods on Jones Act-qualified vessels originating from the U.S. west coast, which may contribute to the increased cost of some consumer goods and therefore the overall cost of living. Critics of the Jones Act contend that Hawaii consumers ultimately bear the expense of transporting goods imposed by the Jones Act.


The aboriginal culture of Hawaii is Polynesian. Hawaii represents the northernmost extension of the vast [[Polynesian Triangle of the south and central Pacific Ocean. While traditional Hawaiian culture remains as vestiges in modern Hawaiian society, there are re-enactments of the ceremonies and traditions throughout the islands. Some of these cultural influences, including the popularity (in greatly modified form) of ''[[luau|lūau'' and ''[[hula'', are strong enough to affect the wider United States.


The [[cuisine of Hawaii is a fusion of many foods brought by immigrants to the Hawaiian Islands, including the earliest Polynesians and [[Native Hawaiian cuisine, and [[Cuisine of the United States|American, [[Chinese cuisine|Chinese, [[Philippine cuisine|Filipino, [[Japanese cuisine|Japanese, [[Korean cuisine|Korean, [[Polynesian cuisine|Polynesian, [[Puerto Rican cuisine|Puerto Rican, and [[Portuguese cuisine|Portuguese origins. Plant and animal food sources are imported from around the world for agricultural use in Hawaii. ''[[Poi (food)|Poi'', a starch made by pounding [[taro, is one of the traditional foods of the islands. Many local restaurants serve the ubiquitous [[plate lunch, which features two scoops of rice, a simplified version of American [[macaroni salad and a variety of toppings including [[hamburger patties, a fried egg, and [[gravy of a ''[[loco moco'', Japanese style ''[[tonkatsu'' or the traditional lūau favorites, including ''[[kalua|kālua'' pork and ''[[laulau''. ''[[Spam musubi'' is an example of the fusion of ethnic cuisine that developed on the islands among the mix of immigrant groups and military personnel. In the 1990s, a group of chefs developed [[Hawaii regional cuisine as a contemporary fusion cuisine.

Customs and etiquette

Some key customs and etiquette in Hawaii are as follows: when visiting a home, it is considered good manners to bring a small gift for one's host (for example, a dessert). Thus, parties are usually in the form of potlucks. Most locals take their shoes off before entering a home. It is customary for Hawaiian families, regardless of ethnicity, to hold a luau to celebrate a child's first birthday. It is also customary at Hawaiian weddings, especially at Filipino weddings, for the bride and groom to do a money dance (also called the [[pandanggo). Print media and local residents recommend that one refer to non-Hawaiians as "locals of Hawaii" or "people of Hawaii".

Hawaiian mythology

Hawaiian mythology includes the legends, historical tales, and sayings of the ancient Hawaiian people. It is considered a variant of a more general [[Polynesian mythology that developed a unique character for several centuries before ''circa'' 1800. It is associated with the [[Hawaiian religion, which was officially suppressed in the 19th century but was kept alive by some practitioners to the modern day. Prominent figures and terms include [[Aumakua, the spirit of an ancestor or family god and [[Kāne, the highest of the four major Hawaiian deities.

Polynesian mythology

Polynesian mythology is the [[oral traditions of the people of Polynesia, a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island [[archipelagos in the [[Polynesian triangle together with the scattered cultures known as the [[Polynesian outliers. Polynesians speak languages that descend from a language reconstructed as [[Proto-Polynesian language|Proto-Polynesian that was probably spoken in the area around Tonga and Samoa in around 1000 BC. Prior to the 15th century, [[Polynesian culture|Polynesian people migrated east to the [[Cook Islands, and from there to other island groups such as Tahiti and the [[Marquesas. Their descendants later discovered the islands Tahiti, Rapa Nui and later the Hawaiian Islands and New Zealand. The Polynesian languages are part of the Austronesian language family. Many are close enough in terms of vocabulary and grammar to be [[mutual intelligibility|mutually intelligible. There are also substantial cultural similarities between the various groups, especially in terms of social organization, childrearing, horticulture, building and textile technologies. Their mythologies in particular demonstrate local reworkings of commonly shared tales. The Polynesian cultures each have distinct but related oral traditions; legends or myths are traditionally considered to recount ancient history (the time of "pō") and the adventures of gods ("[[atua") and deified ancestors.

List of state parks

There are [[list of Hawaiian state parks|many Hawaiian state parks. * The [[Hawaii (island)|Island of Hawaii has state parks, recreation areas, and historical parks. *
Kauai Kauai, () anglicized as Kauai ( ), is geologically the second-oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands (after Niʻihau). With an area of 562.3 square miles (1,456.4 km2), it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in t ...
has the [[Ahukini State Recreation Pier, six state parks, and the [[Russian Fort Elizabeth State Historical Park. *
Maui The island of Maui (; Hawaiian: ) is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's f ...
has two state monuments, several state parks, and the [[Polipoli Spring State Recreation Area. [[Moloka'i has the [[Pala'au State Park. *
Oahu Oahu () (Hawaiian: ''Oʻahu'' ()), also known as "The Gathering Place", is the third-largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It is home to roughly one million people—about two-thirds of the population of the U.S. state of Hawaii. The island lies wit ...
has several state parks, a number of state recreation areas, and a number of monuments, including the [[Ulu Pō Heiau State Monument.


The literature of Hawaii is diverse and includes authors [[Kiana Davenport, [[Lois-Ann Yamanaka, and [[Kaui Hart Hemmings. Hawaiian magazines include ''[[Hana Hou!'', ''[[Hawaii Business Magazine'' and ''[[Honolulu (magazine)|Honolulu'', among others.


[[File:Bonnaroo08 jackjohnson2 lg.jpg|[[Jack Johnson (musician)|Jack Johnson, folk rock musician, was born and raised on [[North Shore (Oahu)|Oahu's North Shore. The music of Hawaii includes traditional and popular styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern [[rock music|rock and [[hip hop music|hip hop. Hawaii's musical contributions to the [[music of the United States are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles such as [[slack-key guitar are well known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a frequent part of [[Cinema of the United States|Hollywood soundtracks. Hawaii also made a major contribution to [[country music with the introduction of the [[steel guitar. Traditional Hawaiian folk music is a major part of the state's musical heritage. The Hawaiian people have inhabited the islands for centuries and have retained much of their traditional musical knowledge. Their music is largely religious in nature, and includes chanting and dance music. Hawaiian music has had an enormous impact on the [[Polynesian music|music of other Polynesian islands; according to Peter Manuel, the influence of Hawaiian music a "unifying factor in the development of modern Pacific musics". Native Hawaiian musician and Hawaiian sovereignty activist [[Israel Kamakawiwoʻole, famous for his medley of "[[Somewhere Over the Rainbow/What a Wonderful World", was named "The Voice of Hawaii" by [[NPR in 2010 in its 50 great voices series.


[[Surfing has been a central part of [[Polynesian culture for centuries. Since the late 19th century, Hawaii has become a major site for surfists from around the world. Notable competitions include the [[Triple Crown of Surfing and [[The Eddie. The only [[NCAA Division I team in Hawaii is the [[Hawaii Rainbow Warriors and Rainbow Wahine, which competes at the [[Big West Conference (major sports), [[Mountain West Conference (football) and [[Mountain Pacific Sports Federation (minor sports). There are three teams in NCAA Division II: [[Chaminade Silverswords, [[Hawaii Pacific Sharks and Hawaii-Hilo Vulcans, all of which compete at the [[Pacific West Conference. Notable college sports events in Hawaii include the [[Maui Invitational Tournament, [[Diamond Head Classic (basketball) and [[Hawaii Bowl (football). Notable professional teams include [[The Hawaiians (WFL)|The Hawaiians, which played at the [[World Football League in 1974 and 1975; the [[Hawaii Islanders, a Triple-A minor league baseball team that played at the [[Pacific Coast League from 1961 to 1987; and [[Team Hawaii, a [[North American Soccer League (1968–84)|North American Soccer League team that played in 1977. Hawaii has hosted the [[Sony Open in Hawaii golf tournament since 1965, the [[Tournament of Champions (golf)|Tournament of Champions golf tournament since 1999, the [[Lotte Championship golf tournament since 2012, the [[Honolulu Marathon since 1973, the [[Ironman World Championship triathlon race since 1978, the [[Ultraman (endurance challenge)|Ultraman triathlon since 1983, the [[National Football League's [[Pro Bowl from 1980 to 2016, the [[2000 FINA World Open Water Swimming Championships, and the [[2008 Pan-Pacific Championship and [[2012 Hawaiian Islands Invitational soccer tournaments.


Tourism is an important part of the Hawaiian economy. In 2003, according to state government data, there were more than 6.4million visitors, with expenditures of over $10billion, to the Hawaiian Islands. Due to the mild year-round weather, tourist travel is popular throughout the year. The major holidays are the most popular times for outsiders to visit, especially in the winter months. Substantial numbers of Japanese tourists still visit the islands but have now been surpassed by Chinese and Koreans due to the collapse of the value of the Yen and the weak Japanese economy. The average Japanese stays only five days, while other Asians stay over 9.5 days and spend 25% more. Hawaii hosts numerous cultural events. The annual [[Merrie Monarch Festival is an international Hula competition. The [[Hawaii International Film Festival is the premier film festival for Pacific rim cinema. Honolulu hosts the state's long-running LGBT film festival, the [[Rainbow Film Festival.


, Hawaii's health care system insures 92% of residents. Under the state's plan, businesses are required to provide insurance to employees who work more than twenty hours per week. Heavy regulation of insurance companies helps reduce the cost to employers. Due in part to heavy emphasis on preventive care, Hawaiians require hospital treatment less frequently than the rest of the United States, while total health care expenses measured as a percentage of state GDP are substantially lower. Proponents of [[universal health care elsewhere in the U.S. sometimes use Hawaii as a model for proposed federal and state health care plans.


Public schools

Hawaii has the only school system within the U.S. that is unified statewide. Policy decisions are made by the fourteen-member state [[Hawaii Board of Education|Board of Education, which sets policy and hires the superintendent of schools, who oversees the state Department of Education. The Department of Education is divided into seven districts; four on Oahu and one for each of the other three counties. Public elementary, middle and high school test scores in Hawaii are below national averages on tests mandated under the [[No Child Left Behind Act. The Hawaii Board of Education requires all eligible students to take these tests and report all student test scores. This may have unbalanced the results that reported in August 2005 that of 282 schools across the state, 185 failed to reach federal minimum performance standards in mathematics and reading. The [[ACT (examination)|ACT college placement tests show that in 2005, seniors scored slightly above the national average (21.9 compared with 20.9), but in the widely accepted [[SAT examinations, Hawaii's college-bound seniors tend to score below the national average in all categories except mathematics. The first native controlled public charter school was the [[Kanu O Ka Aina New Century Charter School.

Private schools

Hawaii has the highest rates of private school attendance in the nation. During the 2011–2012 school year, Hawaii public and charter schools had an enrollment of 181,213, while private schools had 37,695. Private schools educated over 17% of students in Hawaii that school year, nearly three times the approximate national average of 6%. According to Alia Wong of ''[[Honolulu Civil Beat'', this is due to private schools being relatively inexpensive compared to ones on the mainland as well as the overall reputations of private schools. It has four of the largest independent schools; [[Iolani School|Iolani School, [[Kamehameha Schools, [[Mid-Pacific Institute and [[Punahou School. [[Pacific Buddhist Academy, the second Buddhist high school in the U.S. and first such school in Hawaii, was founded in 2003. Independent and charter schools can select their students, while the public schools are open to all students in their district. The Kamehameha Schools are the only schools in the U.S. that openly grant admission to students based on ancestry; collectively, they are one of the wealthiest schools in the United States, if not the world, having over eleven billion [[US dollars in estate assets. In 2005, Kamehameha enrolled 5,398 students, 8.4% of the Native Hawaiian children in the state.

Colleges and universities

The largest institution of higher learning in Hawaii is the [[University of Hawaii System, which consists of the research university at [[University of Hawaii at Manoa|Mānoa, two comprehensive campuses at [[University of Hawaii at Hilo|Hilo and [[University of Hawaii-West Oahu|West Oahu, and seven community colleges. Private universities include [[Brigham Young University–Hawaii, [[Chaminade University of Honolulu, [[Hawaii Pacific University, and [[Wayland Baptist University. [[Saint Stephen Diocesan Seminary, Honolulu|Saint Stephen Diocesan Center is a [[seminary of the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu. Kona hosts the [[University of the Nations, which is not an [[educational accreditation|accredited university.


A [[List of Hawaii state highways|system of state highways encircles each main island. Only Oahu has federal highways, and is the only area outside the contiguous 48 states to have signed [[Interstate Highway System|Interstate highways. Narrow, winding roads and congestion in populated places can slow traffic. Each major island has a public bus system. [[Honolulu International Airport ([[International Air Transport Association airport code|IATA:HNL), which shares runways with the adjacent [[Hickam Field (IATA:HIK), is the major commercial aviation hub of Hawaii. The commercial aviation airport offers intercontinental service to North America, Asia, Australia and Oceania. [[Hawaiian Airlines, [[Mokulele Airlines and [[go! (airline)|go! use jets to provide services between the large airports in Honolulu, Līhue, Kahului, Kona and Hilo. [[Island Air (Hawaii)|Island Air and [[Pacific Wings serve smaller airports. These airlines also provide air freight services between the islands. On May 30, 2017, the airport was officially renamed as the [[Daniel K. Inouye International Airport (HNL), after U.S. Senator [[Daniel Inouye|Daniel K. Inouye. Until air passenger services began in the 1920s, private boats were the sole means of traveling between the islands. Seaflite operated [[hydrofoils between the major islands in the mid-1970s. The [[Hawaii Superferry operated between Oahu and Maui between December 2007 and March 2009, with additional routes planned for other islands. Protests and legal problems over environmental impact statements ended the service, though the company operating Superferry has expressed a wish to recommence ferry services in the future. Currently there is a passenger ferry service in [[Maui County between Lanai and Maui, which does not take vehicles; a passenger ferry to Molokai ended in 2016. Currently [[Norwegian Cruise Lines and [[Princess Cruises provide passenger cruise ship services between the larger islands.


At one time Hawaii had a network of railroads on each of the larger islands that transported farm commodities and passengers. Most were [[narrow gauge systems but there were some gauge on some of the smaller islands. The standard gauge in the U.S. is . By far the largest railroad was the [[Oahu Railway and Land Company (OR&L) that ran lines from Honolulu across the western and northern part of Oahu. The OR&L was important for moving troops and goods during World War II. Traffic on this line was busy enough for signals to be used to facilitate movement of trains and to require [[wigwag (railroad)|wigwag signals at some railroad crossings for the protection of motorists. The main line was officially abandoned in 1947, although part of it was bought by the U.S. Navy and operated until 1970. of track remain; preservationists occasionally run trains over a portion of this line. The [[Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project aims to add elevated passenger rail on Oahu to relieve highway congestion.


Political subdivisions and local government

The movement of the Hawaiian royal family from Hawaii Island to Maui, and subsequently to Oahu, explains the modern-day distribution of population centers. [[Kamehameha III chose the largest city, Honolulu, as his capital because of its natural harbor—the present-day [[Honolulu Harbor. Now the state capital, Honolulu is located along the southeast coast of Oahu. The previous capital was [[Lahaina, Hawaii|Lahaina, Maui, and before that [[Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Some major towns are [[Hilo, Hawaii|Hilo; [[Kaneohe, Hawaii|Kaneohe; [[Kailua, Honolulu County, Hawaii|Kailua; [[Pearl City, Hawaii|Pearl City; [[Waipahu, Hawaii|Waipahu; [[Kahului, Hawaii|Kahului; [[Kailua, Hawaii County, Hawaii|Kailua-Kona. [[Kihei, Hawaii|Kīhei; and [[Lihue, Hawaii|Līhue. Hawaii has five counties: the [[Honolulu County, Hawaii|City and County of Honolulu, [[Hawaii County, Hawaii|Hawaii County, [[Maui County, Hawaii|Maui County, [[Kauai County, Hawaii|Kauai County, and [[Kalawao County, Hawaii|Kalawao County. Hawaii has the fewest local governments among U.S. states. Unique to this state is the lack of [[Municipal corporation|municipal governments. All local governments are generally administered at the [[County (United States)|county level. The only incorporated area in the state is [[Honolulu County, Hawaii|Honolulu County, a [[consolidated city–county that governs the entire island of Oahu. County executives are referred to as mayors; these are the [[Mayor of Hawaii County, [[Mayor of Honolulu, [[Mayor of Kauai|Mayor of Kauai, and the [[Mayor of Maui. The mayors are all elected in [[nonpartisan elections. Kalawao County has no elected government, and as [[#Education|mentioned above there are no local [[school districts and instead all local public education is administered at the state level by the [[Hawaii Department of Education. The remaining local governments are [[Special-purpose district|special districts.

State government

The state government of Hawaii is modeled after the federal government with adaptations originating from the kingdom era of Hawaiian history. As codified in the [[Constitution of Hawaii, there are three [[branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. The executive branch is led by the [[Governor of Hawaii, who is assisted by the [[Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii, both of whom are elected on the same ticket. The governor is the only state public official elected statewide; all others are appointed by the governor. The lieutenant governor acts as the [[Secretary of State of Hawaii|Secretary of State. The governor and lieutenant governor oversee twenty agencies and departments from offices in the [[Hawaii State Capitol|State Capitol. The official residence of the governor is [[Washington Place. The legislative branch consists of the [[Bicameralism|bicameral [[Hawaii State Legislature, which is composed of the 51-member [[Hawaii House of Representatives led by the [[Speaker (politics)|Speaker of the House, and the 25-member [[Hawaii Senate led by the [[President of the Senate. The Legislature meets at the State Capitol. The unified judicial branch of Hawaii is the [[Hawaii State Judiciary. The [[State supreme court|state's highest court is the [[Supreme Court of Hawaii, which uses [[Aliiolani Hale|Aliiōlani Hale as its chambers.

Federal government

File:Brian Schatz, official portrait, 113th Congress 2.jpg|Senator [[Brian Schatz File:Mazie Hirono, official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg|Senator [[Mazie Hirono File:Ed Case, Official Portrait, 116th Congress 2.jpg|Representative [[Ed Case ([[Hawaii's 1st congressional district|) File:Kai_Kahele_117th_U.S_Congress.jpg|Representative [[Kai Kahele ([[Hawaii's 2nd congressional district|HI-2) Hawaii is represented in the [[United States Congress by two senators and two [[United States House of Representatives|representatives. , all four seats are held by Democrats. Former representative [[Ed Case was elected in 2018 to the [[Hawaii's 1st congressional district|1st congressional district. [[Kai Kahele represents the [[Hawaii's 2nd congressional district|2nd congressional district, representing the rest of the state, which is largely rural and semi-rural. [[Brian Schatz is the senior United States Senator from Hawaii. He was appointed to the office on December 26, 2012, by Governor [[Neil Abercrombie, following the death of former senator [[Daniel Inouye. The state's junior senator is [[Mazie Hirono, the former representative from the second congressional district. Hirono is the first female Asian American senator and the first Buddhist senator. Hawaii incurred the biggest [[Seniority in the United States Senate|seniority shift between the [[112th United States Congress|112th and [[113th United States Congress|113th Congresses. The state went from a delegation consisting of senators who were first and twenty-first in seniority to their respective replacements, relative newcomers Schatz and Hirono. Federal officials in Hawaii are based at the [[Prince Kuhio Federal Building|Prince Kūhiō Federal Building near the [[Aloha Tower and Honolulu Harbor. The [[Federal Bureau of Investigation, [[Internal Revenue Service and the [[United States Secret Service|Secret Service maintain their offices there; the building is also the site of the [[United States federal courts|federal [[United States District Court for the District of Hawaii|District Court for the District of Hawaii and the [[United States Attorney for the District of Hawaii.


Since gaining statehood and participating in its first election in [[1960 United States presidential election|1960, Hawaii has supported Democrats in all but two presidential elections; [[1972 United States presidential election|1972 and [[1984 United States presidential election|1984, both of which were landslide reelection victories for Republicans [[Richard Nixon and [[Ronald Reagan respectively. In Hawaii's statehood tenure, only Minnesota has supported Republican candidates fewer times in presidential elections. The 2016 [[Cook Partisan Voting Index ranks Hawaii as the most heavily Democratic state in the nation. Hawaii has not elected a Republican to represent the state in the U.S. Senate since [[Hiram Fong in 1970; since 1977, both of the state's U.S. Senators have been Democrats. In [[2004 United States presidential election|2004, [[John Kerry won the state's four electoral votes by a margin of nine percentage points with 54% of the vote. Every county supported the Democratic candidate. In 1964, [[favorite son candidate senator [[Hiram Fong of Hawaii sought the [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican presidential nomination, while [[Patsy Mink ran in the Oregon primary in 1972. Honolulu-born [[Barack Obama, then serving as [[United States Senator from [[Illinois, was elected the [[List of United States Presidents|44th President of the United States on [[2008 United States presidential election|November 4, 2008 and was re-elected for a second term on [[2012 United States presidential election|November 6, 2012. Obama had won the Hawaii Democratic caucus on February 19, 2008, with 76% of the vote. He was the third Hawaii-born candidate to seek the nomination of a major party, the first presidential nominee and first president from Hawaii.

State police

Hawaii has an statewide sheriff department that provides law enforcement protection to government buildings and [[Daniel K Inoyue International Airport as well as correction services to all correctional facilities owned by the state. County Police have their own respective jurisdiction such as Kauai Police for the island of Kauai. Honolulu Police for Oahu, Maui Police for Molokai, Maui and Lanai and Hawaii County Police for the Big Islands Forensic services for all agencies in the state are provided by the [[Honolulu Police Department.

Hawaiian sovereignty movement

While Hawaii is internationally recognized as a state of the United States while also being broadly accepted as such in mainstream understanding, the [[Legal status of Hawaii|legality of this status has been questioned in U.S. District Court, the U.N., and other international forums. Domestically, the debate is a topic covered in the [[Kamehameha Schools curriculum, and in classes at the [[University of Hawaii at Manoa|University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. [[Political organizations seeking some form of sovereignty for Hawaii have been active since the late 19th century. Generally, their focus is on [[self-determination and [[self-governance, either for Hawaii as an independent nation (in many proposals, for "Hawaiian nationals" descended from subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom or declaring themselves as such by choice), or for people of whole or part [[native Hawaiian ancestry in an indigenous "''nation to nation''" relationship akin to [[tribal sovereignty with [[US federal recognition of Native Hawaiians. The pro-federal recognition [[Akaka Bill drew substantial opposition among Hawaiian residents in the [[2000s (decade)|2000s. Opponents to the tribal approach argue it is not a legitimate path to Hawaiian nationhood; they also argue that the U.S. government should not be involved in re-establishing Hawaiian sovereignty. The
Hawaiian sovereignty movement In the U.S. state of Hawaii, the Hawaiian sovereignty movement ( haw|ke ea Hawaiʻi) is a grassroots political and cultural campaign to establish an autonomous or independent nation or kingdom of Hawaii due to the desire for sovereignty, self-de ...
views the [[overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 as illegal, and views the subsequent [[Newlands Resolution|annexation of Hawaii by the United States as illegal as well; the movement seeks some form of greater autonomy for Hawaii, such as [[associated state|free association or independence from the United States. Some groups also advocate some form of redress from the United States for the [[Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii|1893 overthrow of [[Liliuokalani|Queen Liliuokalani, and for what is described as a prolonged [[military occupation beginning with the 1898 annexation. The [[Apology Resolution passed by US Congress in 1993 is cited as a major impetus by the movement for Hawaiian sovereignty. The sovereignty movement considers Hawaii to be an illegally occupied nation.

International sister relationships

* [[Ehime Prefecture|Ehime, [[Japan * [[Fukuoka Prefecture|Fukuoka, Japan * [[Hiroshima Prefecture|Hiroshima, Japan * [[Hokkaido, Japan * [[Okinawa Prefecture|Okinawa, Japan * [[Guangdong Province|Guangdong, [[China|People's Republic of China (PRC) * [[Hainan Province|Hainan, People's Republic of China (PRC) * [[Jeju Province|Jeju, [[South Korea * [[Taiwan, Republic of China (ROC) * [[Cebu Province|Cebu, [[Philippines * [[Isabela Province|Isabela, Philippines * [[Pangasinan Province|Pangasinan, Philippines * [[Ilocos Sur Province|Ilocos Sur, Philippines * [[Ilocos Norte Province|Ilocos Norte, Philippines * [[Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaër, [[Morocco * [[Azores|Azores Islands, [[Portugal * [[Bali Province|Bali, [[Indonesia * [[Goa State|Goa, [[India

See also

* [[Index of Hawaii-related articles * [[Outline of Hawaii


Informational notes



* * * Russ Jr., William Adam (1961) ''The Hawaiian Republic (1894–98) and Its Struggle to Win Annexation.'' Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania: Susquehanna University Press. * * Schamel, Wynell and Charles E. Schamel. "The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii." Social Education 63,7 (November/December 1999): 402–08. *

External links

Hawaii State Guide from the Library of Congress
Hawaii State Fact Sheet
from the U.S. Department of Agriculture
USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Hawaii

Energy Data & Statistics for Hawaii

Satellite image of Hawaiian Islands
at [[NASA's [[Earth Observatory
Documents relating to Hawaii Statehood, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library

by ''The New York Times''
"Hawaii Then and Now"
slideshow by ''[[Life (magazine)|Life'' magazine (Archived fro
the original
on November 3, 2010) *

From th
Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress
{{Authority control [[Category:Hawaii| [[Category:1959 establishments in the United States [[Category:Geography of Polynesia [[Category:States and territories established in 1959 [[Category:States of the United States [[Category:Western United States [[Category:Islands of Oceania [[Category:Articles containing video clips