Firefox Browser, also known as Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox, is a free and open-source
developed by the Mozilla Foundation
and its subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation
. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine
to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards
. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum
to promote parallelism
and a more intuitive user interface
. Firefox is officially available for Windows 7
or newer, macOS
, and Linux
. Its unofficial ports
are available for various Unix
operating systems including FreeBSD
and Solaris Unix
Firefox is also available for Android
. However, the iOS version uses the WebKit
layout engine instead of Gecko due to platform requirements, as with all other iOS web browsers. An optimized version of Firefox is also available on the Amazon Fire TV
, as one of the two main browsers available with Amazon's Silk
Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla
community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite
bundle. During its beta
phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed, security, and add-ons compared to Microsoft
's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6
. Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, and challenged Internet Explorer
's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor
of Netscape Navigator
, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape
in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL
Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32.21% at the end of 2009,
with Firefox 3.5
overtaking Internet Explorer 7
, although not all versions of Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage then declined in competition with Google Chrome
, according to StatCounter
, Firefox has 8.17% usage share as a "desktop" web browser, making it the third-most popular web browser after Google Chrome (66.47%) and Safari
(10.27%), its usage share across all platforms
is lower at 3.76% (third-most popular after Google Chrome with 63.59% and Safari with 19.14%).
The project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project
by Dave Hyatt
, Joe Hewitt
, and Blake Ross
. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape
's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep
compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser. To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite
's software bloat
, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite.
Version 0.1 was released on September 23, 2002. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization
announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird
The Firefox project has undergone several name changes. The nascent browser was originally named Phoenix, after the mythical bird
that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor (in this case, from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator, after it was side-lined by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War
"). Phoenix was renamed due to a trademark claim from Phoenix Technologies
. The replacement name, Firebird, provoked an intense response from the Firebird
database software project. The Mozilla Foundation reassured them that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox on February 9, 2004. The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda
, which became the mascot for the newly named project.
For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers ''Fx'' or ''fx,'' although it is often abbreviated as ''FF''.
The Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 and had already gained a great deal of acclaim from numerous media outlets, such as ''Forbes
'' and ''The Wall Street Journal
''. Among Firefox's popular features were the integrated pop-up blocker
, tabbed browsing, and an extension mechanism for adding functionality. Although these features have already been available for some time in other browsers such as the Mozilla Suite
, Firefox was the first of these browsers to have achieved large-scale adoption. Firefox attracted attention as an alternative to Internet Explorer
, which had come under fire for its alleged poor program design and insecurity—detractors cite IE's lack of support for certain Web standards, use of the potentially dangerous ActiveX
component, and vulnerability to spyware and malware installation. Microsoft responded by releasing Windows XP
Service Pack 2, which added several important security features to Internet Explorer 6.
Version 1.0 of Firefox was released on November 9, 2004. This was followed by version 1.5 in November 2005, version 2.0 in October 2006, version 3.0 in June 2008, version 3.5 in June 2009, version 3.6 in January 2010, and version 4.0 in March 2011. From version 5 onwards, the development and release model changed into a "rapid" one; by the end of 2011 the stable release was version 9, and by the end of 2012 it reached version 17.
In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum
, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, and transition the browser to a multi-process
model. These improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome
, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons
for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension
system that is designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, which was released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, and has thus been named ''Firefox Quantum''. A Mozilla executive stated that Quantum was the "biggest update" to the browser since version 1.0.
On May 3, 2019, the expiration of an intermediate signing certificate caused Firefox to automatically disable all browser extensions (add-ons).
Mozilla began the roll-out of a fix shortly thereafter, using their Mozilla Studies component.
Features include tabbed browsing
, spell checking
, incremental search
, live bookmarking
, Smart Bookmarks
, a download manager
, private browsing
, location-aware browsing (also known as "geolocation
") based on a Google service,
[ (section "''What information is being sent, and to whom? (...)''")]
and an integrated search system, which uses Google by default in most markets.
Additionally, Firefox provides an environment for web developers in which they can use built-in tools, such as the Error Console or the DOM Inspector
, and extensions
, such as Firebug
and more recently there has been an integration feature with Pocket
. Firefox Hello was an implementation of WebRTC
, added in October 2014, which allows users of Firefox and other compatible systems to have a video call, with the extra feature of screen and file sharing by sending a link to each other. Firefox Hello was scheduled to be removed in September 2016.
Functions can be added through add-ons
created by third-party developer
s. Add-ons are primarily coded using an HTML
, with API
known as WebExtensions
, which is designed to be compatible with Google Chrome
and Microsoft Edge
extension systems. Firefox previously supported add-ons using the XUL
APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As compatibility was not included in the multi-process architecture, XUL add-ons have been deemed ''Legacy add-ons'' and are no longer supported on Firefox 57 and newer.
Firefox can have themes added to it, which users can create or download from third parties to change the appearance of the browser. The Firefox add-on website also gives users the ability to add other applications such as games, ad-blockers, screenshot apps, and many other apps.
Firefox for Android was equipped with a ''guest session'' feature, introduced in 2013, which, when initiated, would memorize ordinary browsing data such as tabs, cookies, and history, but for the duration of the guest session. The guest session data would be kept even when restarting the browser or device, while deleted only upon a manual exit. The feature was removed, for which Mozilla claims to "''streamline the experience''".
Firefox implements many web standards
, including HTML4
(almost full HTML5
2 (partial), CSS
, and APNG
) images with alpha transparency
. Firefox also implements standards proposals created by the WHATWG
such as client-side storage, and the canvas element
. These standards are implemented through the Gecko layout engine, and SpiderMonkey
Firefox has passed the Acid2
standards-compliance test since version 3.0. Mozilla had originally stated that they did not intend for Firefox to pass the Acid3
test fully because they believed that the SVG fonts part of the test had become outdated and irrelevant, due to WOFF
being agreed upon as a standard by all major browser makers. Because the SVG font tests were removed from the Acid3 test in September 2011, Firefox 4 and greater scored 100/100.
Firefox also implements "Safe Browsing,"
a proprietary protocol
from Google used to exchange data related with phishing and malware protection.
Since version 38 on Windows Vista
and newer, Firefox supports the playback of video content protected by HTML5 Encrypted Media Extensions
(EME). For security and privacy reasons, EME is implemented within a wrapper of open-source code that allows execution of a proprietary DRM
module by Adobe Systems
—Adobe Primetime Content Decryption Module (CDM). CDM runs within a "sandbox
" environment to limit its access to the system and provide it a randomized device ID to prevent services from uniquely identifying the device
for tracking purposes. The DRM module, once it has been downloaded, is enabled, and disabled in the same manner as other plug-ins
. Since version 47, "Google's Widevine CDM on Windows and Mac OS X so streaming services like Amazon Video
can switch from Silverlight
to encrypted HTML5 video" is also supported. Mozilla justified its partnership with Adobe and Google by stating:
and that it is "an important step on Mozilla's roadmap to remove NPAPI
plugin support." Upon the introduction of EME support, builds of Firefox on Windows were also introduced that exclude support for EME.
The Free Software Foundation
and Cory Doctorow
condemned Mozilla's decision to support EME.
On the HTML5 web standards test, Firefox 79 scores 529 out of 582 points (82.0 alpha has 534 points).
Firefox allowed for a sandbox security model
code, but that feature has since been deprecated. It limits scripts from accessing data from other websites based on the same-origin policy
. It also provides support for smart card
s to web applications, for authentication purposes. It uses TLS
to protect communications with web servers using strong cryptography
when using the HTTPS
protocol. The freely available HTTPS Everywhere
add-on enforces HTTPS, even if a regular HTTP URL
is entered. Firefox now supports HTTP/2.
The Mozilla Foundation offers a "bug bounty" (US$3,000 to US$7,500 cash reward) to researchers who discover severe security holes in Firefox. Official guidelines for handling security vulnerabilities discourage early disclosure of vulnerabilities
so as not to give potential attackers an advantage in creating exploits.
Because Firefox generally has fewer publicly known security vulnerabilities
than Internet Explorer (see ''Comparison of web browsers
''), improved security is often cited as a reason to switch from Internet Explorer to Firefox.
''The Washington Post
'' reported that exploit code for known critical security vulnerabilities in Internet Explorer was available for 284 days in 2006. In comparison, exploit code for known, critical security vulnerabilities in Firefox was available for nine days before Mozilla issued a patch to remedy the problem.
A 2006 Symantec
study showed that, although Firefox had surpassed other browsers in the number of vendor-confirmed vulnerabilities that year through September, these vulnerabilities were patched far more quickly than those found in other browsers, with Firefox's vulnerabilities being fixed on average one day after the exploit code was made available, as compared to nine days for Internet Explorer. Symantec later clarified their statement, saying that Firefox still had fewer security vulnerabilities than Internet Explorer, as counted by security researchers.
In 2010, a study of the National Institute of Standards and Technology
(NIST), based on data compiled from the National Vulnerability Database
(NVD), Firefox was listed as the fifth-most vulnerable desktop software, with Internet Explorer as the eighth, and Google Chrome
as the first.
has cited security experts saying that, as Firefox becomes more popular, more vulnerabilities will be found, a claim that Mitchell Baker
, president of the Mozilla Foundation, has denied. "There is this idea that market share alone will make you have more vulnerabilities. It is not relational at all," she said.
In October 2009, Microsoft's security engineers acknowledged that Firefox was vulnerable to a security issue found in the 'Windows Presentation Foundation' browser plug-in since February of that year. A .NET Framework
3.5 SP1 Windows Update
had silently installed the vulnerable plug-in into Firefox. This vulnerability has since been patched by Microsoft.
, Firefox 3.6 had no known unpatched security vulnerabilities
according to Secunia. Internet Explorer 8
had five unpatched security vulnerabilities; the worst being rated "Less Critical" by Secunia. Mozilla claims that all patched vulnerabilities of Mozilla products are publicly listed.
On January 28, 2013, Mozilla was recognized as the most trusted internet company for privacy in 2012. This study was performed by the Ponemon Institute and was a result of a survey from more than 100,000 consumers in the United States.
In February 2013, plans were announced for Firefox 22 to disable third-party cookie
s by default. However, the introduction of the feature was then delayed so Mozilla developers could "collect and analyze data on the effect of blocking some third-party cookies." Mozilla also collaborated with Stanford University
's "Cookie Clearinghouse" project to develop a blacklist
of sites that will be used in the filter.
Version 23, released in August 2013, followed the lead of its competitors by blocking iframe
In January 2015, TorrentFreak
reported that using Firefox when connected to the internet using a VPN can be a serious security issue due to the browser's support for WebRTC
Beginning with Firefox 48, all extensions must be signed by Mozilla to be used in release and beta versions of Firefox. Firefox 43 blocked unsigned extensions but allowed enforcement of extension signing to be disabled. All extensions must be submitted to Mozilla Add-ons
and be subject to code analysis in order to be signed, although extensions do not have to be listed on the service to be signed.
On May 2, 2019, Mozilla announced that it would be strengthening the signature enforcement with methods that included the retroactive disabling of old extensions now deemed to be insecure. A Firefox update on May 3 led to bug reports about all extensions being disabled. This was found to be the result of an overlooked certificate and not the policy change set to go into effect on June 10.
In Firefox versions prior to 7.0, an information bar
appears on the browser's first start asking users whether they would like to send performance statistics, or "telemetry", to Mozilla
transmitted is the user's IP address
In November 2018, Firefox began using a sandbox
to isolate web tabs from each other and from the rest of the system. Its lack of such a feature had previously earned it negative comparisons with Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge.
Since version 60 Firefox includes the option to use DNS over HTTPS
(DoH), which causes DNS lookup
requests to be sent encrypted over the HTTPS protocol. To use this feature the user must set certain preferences beginning with "network.trr" (Trusted Recursive Resolver) in about:config
: if network.trr.mode is 0, DoH is disabled; 1 activates DoH in addition to unencrypted DNS; 2 causes DoH to be used before unencrypted DNS; to use only DoH, the value must be 3. By setting network.trr.uri to the UR18.104.22.168 — The free app that makes your Internet faster.
servers will be activated. Mozilla has a privacy agreement with this server host that restricts their collection of information about incoming DNS requests.
On May 21, 2019, Firefox was updated to include the ability to block scripts that used a computer's CPU to mine cryptocurrency
without a user's permission, in Firefox version 67.0. The update also allowed users to block known fingerprinting
scripts that track their activity across the web, however it does not resist fingerprinting on its own.
On July 2, 2019, Mozilla introduced a mechanism to allow Firefox to automatically trust OS-installed certificates to prevent TLS errors.
In October 2019, ZDNet
reported Firefox version 68 ESR passed all minimum requirements for mandatory security features during an exam by the Federal Office for Information Security
In Mozilla Foundation Security Advisory 2020–03, the company reported that the vulnerability (type confusion vulnerability in IonMonkey) had been detected in the wild and was being actively exploited.
In March 2021, Firefox launched SmartBlock in version 87 to offer protection against cross-site tracking
, without breaking the websites users visit.
Firefox is a widely localized
web browser. The first official release in November 2004 was available in 24 different languages and for 28 locales
, including British English
, American English
, European Spanish
, Argentine Spanish
in Traditional Chinese characters
and Simplified Chinese characters
and in Bengali script
. , currently supported versions 87.0 and 78.9esr are available in 97 locales (88 languages).
The desktop version of Firefox is available and supported for Microsoft Windows, macOS and Linux, while Firefox for Android
is available for Android (formerly Firefox for mobile, it also ran on Firefox OS).
Firefox source code may be compiled
for various operating systems; however, officially distributed binaries are provided for the following:
Firefox 1.0 was released for Windows 9x
, as well as Windows NT 4.0
and later. Some users reported the 1.x builds were operable (but not installable) on Windows NT 3.51
In September 2013, a Metro-style version
of Firefox optimized for touchscreen
use was introduced on the "Aurora" release channel. However, the project has since been canceled , with Mozilla citing a lack of user adoption of the beta versions.
Version 42.0 included the first x64
builds, made for Windows 7
and Server 2008 R2
. Version 49.0 dropped support for processors without the SSE2
instruction set on Windows.
In April 2017, users of Firefox 52.0.2 on Windows XP
, Windows Vista
, Windows Server 2003
and Windows Server 2008
who had automatic updates enabled were migrated to Firefox 52 ESR. Support for these operating systems ended in June 2018.
The first official release (Firefox version 1.0) supported macOS
(then called Mac OS X) on the PowerPC
architecture. Mac OS X builds for the IA-32
architecture became available via a universal binary
which debuted with Firefox 22.214.171.124 in 2006.
Starting with version 4.0, Firefox was released for the x64 architecture to which macOS had migrated.
Version 4.0 also dropped support for PowerPC architecture, although other projects continued development of a PowerPC version of Firefox.
Firefox was originally released for Mac OS X 10.0 and higher. The minimum OS then increased to Mac OS X 10.2 in Firefox 1.5 and 10.4 in Firefox 3. Firefox 4 dropped support for Mac OS X 10.4 and PowerPC Macs, and Firefox 17 dropped support for Mac OS X 10.5 entirely. The system requirements were left unchanged until 2016, when Firefox 49 dropped support for Mac OS X 10.6–10.8. Most recently, Mozilla ended support for OS X 10.9–10.11 in Firefox 79, with those users being supported on the Firefox 78 ESR branch until July 2021.
Since its inception, Firefox for Linux supported the 32-bit memory architecture of the IA-32 instruction set. 64-bit builds were introduced in the 4.0 release.
The 46.0 release replaced GTK+ 2.18 with 3.4 as a system requirement on Linux and other systems running X.Org. Starting with 53.0, the 32-bit builds require the SSE2
instruction set. Firefox also can run on number of other architectures on Linux, including ARM
, and in the past Alpha
, IA-64 (Intel Itanium)
Firefox for mobile
Firefox for mobile is a web browser for mobile phones, tablets, and PDAs. It was originally first released for the Nokia Maemo
operating system, specifically the Nokia N900, on January 28, 2010. On March 29, 2011, an Android version was released, being based on version 4.
With the release of the mobile version, the browser's version number was bumped from 2 to 4, synchronizing it with all future desktop releases of Firefox because the rendering engines used in both browsers are the same. Version 7 was the last release for Maemo on the N900.
The former Firefox for Android
), was a web browser for Android devices, such as mobile phones and tablets. Its user interface was optimized for small screens and tablets. It included the Awesome Bar, tabbed browsing, add-on support, a password manager, location-aware browsing, and the ability to synchronize with the user's other devices with Firefox Browser using Firefox Sync
. It was criticized for being slow, however, in part due to its poor port of Gecko.
At the end of its existence, it had a marketshare of 0.5% on Android.
In April 2013, then-Mozilla CEO Gary Kovacs
said that Firefox would not come to iOS if Apple required the use of the WebKit
, a private web browser.
In August 2020, Mozilla launched a new version of its Firefox for Android
app, named Firefox Daylight to the public
and codenamed Fenix
, after a little over a year of testing.
It boasted higher speeds with its new GeckoView engine
, which is described as being "the only independent web engine browser
available on Android
". It also added Enhanced Tracking Protection 2.0, a feature that blocks many known trackers
on the Internet. It also added the ability to place the address bar on the bottom, and a new Collections feature.
However, it was criticized for only having nine Add-ons
at launch, and missing certain features. In response, Mozilla stated that they will allow more Add-ons with time.
Firefox Reality (AR/VR)
Firefox Reality was released for Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality headsets in September 2018.
It supports traditional web-browsing through 2D windows and immersive VR pages through Web VR
. Firefox Reality is available on HTC Vive
, Google Daydream
and Microsoft Hololens
Firefox has also been ported to FreeBSD
[tp://ftp.fr.netbsd.org/pub/pkgsrc/packages/NetBSD/amd64/6.1.2/All/firefox-24.0.tgz NetBSD binary package of Firefox 24] OpenBSD
[Source package of Firefox 3.6.15](_blank) OS/2
, RISC OS
and an unofficial rebranded version called Timberwolf
has been available for AmigaOS 4
. An unofficial continuation of the Mac OS X PowerPC
release continues as TenFourFox
The Firefox port for OpenBSD is maintained by Landry Breuil since 2010. Firefox is regularly built for the current branch of the operating system, the latest versions are packaged for each release and remain frozen until the next release. In 2017, Landry began hosting packages of newer Firefox versions for OpenBSD releases from 6.0 onwards, making them available to installations without the ports system.
port of Firefox (including OpenSolaris
) was maintained by the Oracle Solaris Desktop Beijing Team, until March 2017 when the team was disbanded. There was also an unofficial port of Firefox 3.6
.x to IBM AIX
and of v1.7.x to UnixWare
File:Firefox Logo Evolution.png|Firefox Logo Evolution
File:FennecMeeGo (cropped).png|Firefox on MeeGo OS
File:Firefox 16.0.2 on Ubuntu 12.04.png|Firefox 16.0.2 on Ubuntu 12.04
File:Firefox in firefox os.png|Firefox on Firefox OS
File:Firefox 57 High Sierra.png|Firefox 57 on macOS High Sierra
File:Firefox Android 62.png|Firefox for Android 62 on Android
File:Firefox Developer Edition 70.0b3.png|Firefox Developer Edition 70.0b3 on Arch Linux
File:Firefox Android 79 screenshot.jpg|Firefox for Android 79 on Android
File:Firefox 83.png|Firefox 83 on Windows 10
Experimental builds and ESR
Besides official releases, Mozilla provides development builds of Firefox in distribution channels named, in order of most to least stable, "Beta", "Developer Edition" (formerly "Aurora", renamed on November 10, 2014), and "Nightly". Starting from Firefox 54, "Developer Edition" is based on the "Beta" build.
Firefox ESR () is a version of Firefox for organizations and other groups that need extended support for mass deployments. Each ESR release, based on the regular version released at the same time, is supported for one year.
Unlike the regular ("rapid") releases, ESRs are not updated with new features and performance enhancements every four weeks, but rather are updated with only high-risk-reduction or high-impact security fixes or major stability fixes with point release
s, until the end of the ESR cycle.
Firefox source code
is free software
, with most of it being released under the Mozilla Public License
(MPL) version 2.0.
This license permits anyone to view, modify, or redistribute the source code. As a result, several publicly released applications have been built from it, such as Netscape
, GNU IceCat
, Pale Moon
, and Comodo IceDragon
In the past, Firefox was licensed solely under the MPL, then version 1.1,
which the Free Software Foundation
criticized for being weak copyleft
, as the license permitted, in limited ways, proprietary derivative work
s. Additionally, code only licensed under MPL 1.1 could not legally be linked with code under the GPL
. To address these concerns, Mozilla re-licensed most of Firefox under the tri-license
scheme of MPL 1.1, GPL 2.0, or LGPL
2.1. Since the re-licensing, developers were free to choose the license under which they received most of the code, to suit their intended use: GPL or LGPL linking and derivative works when one of those licenses is chosen, or MPL use (including the possibility of proprietary derivative works) if they chose the MPL.
[ However, on January 3, 2012, Mozilla released the GPL-compatible MPL 2.0, and with the release of Firefox 13 on June 5, 2012, Mozilla used it to replace the tri-licensing scheme.
The crash reporting service was initially closed-source but switched with version 3 from a program called Talkback to the open-source Breakpad (and Socorro server).
Trademark and logo
The name "Mozilla Firefox" is a registered trademark; along with the official Firefox logo, it may only be used under certain terms and conditions. Anyone may redistribute the official binaries in unmodified form and use the Firefox name and branding for such distribution, but restrictions are placed on distributions which modify the underlying source code. The name "Firefox" derives from a nickname of the red panda.
Mozilla has placed the Firefox logo files under open-source licenses, but its trademark guidelines do not allow displaying altered or similar logos [ ''"Don't Create new elements that look enough like the Firefox logo so as to cause confusion."''] in contexts where trademark law applies.
There has been some controversy over the Mozilla Foundation's intentions in stopping certain open-source distributions from using the "Firefox" trademark. [ Open-source browsers "enable greater choice and innovation in the market rather than aiming for mass-market domination."] Mozilla Foundation Chairperson Mitchell Baker explained in an interview in 2007 that distributions could freely use the Firefox trademark if they did not modify source code, and that the Mozilla Foundation's only concern was with users getting a consistent experience when they used "Firefox".
To allow distributions of the code ''without'' using the official branding, the Firefox build system contains a "branding switch". This switch, often used for alphas ("Auroras") of future Firefox versions, allows the code to be compiled without the official logo and name and can allow a derivative work unencumbered by restrictions on the Firefox trademark to be produced. In the unbranded build, the trademarked logo and name are replaced with a freely distributable generic globe logo and the name of the release series from which the modified version was derived.
Distributing modified versions of Firefox under the "Firefox" name required explicit approval from Mozilla for the changes made to the underlying code, and required the use of ''all'' of the official branding. For example, it was not permissible to use the name "Firefox" without also using the official logo. When the Debian project decided to stop using the official Firefox logo in 2006 (because Mozilla's copyright restrictions at the time were incompatible with Debian's guidelines), they were told by a representative of the Mozilla Foundation that this was not acceptable and were asked either to comply with the published trademark guidelines or cease using the "Firefox" name in their distribution. Debian switched to branding their modified version of Firefox "Iceweasel" (but in 2016 switched back to Firefox), along with other Mozilla software. GNU IceCat is another derived version of Firefox distributed by the GNU Project, which maintains its own separate branding.
Branding and visual identity
The Firefox icon is a trademark used to designate the official Mozilla build of the Firefox software and builds of official distribution partners. For this reason, software distributors who distribute modified versions of Firefox do not use the icon.
Early Firebird and Phoenix releases of Firefox were considered to have reasonable visual designs but fell short when compared to many other professional software packages. In October 2003, professional interface designer Steven Garrity authored an article covering everything he considered to be wrong with Mozilla's visual identity.
Shortly afterwards, the Mozilla Foundation invited Garrity to head up the new visual identity team. The release of Firefox 0.8 in February 2004 saw the introduction of the new branding efforts. Included were new icon designs by silverorange, a group of web developers with a long-standing relationship with Mozilla. The final renderings are by Jon Hicks, who had worked on Camino. The logo was later revised and updated, fixing several flaws found when it was enlarged. The animal shown in the logo is a stylized fox, although "firefox" is usually a common name for the red panda. The panda, according to Hicks, "didn't really conjure up the right imagery" and was not widely known.
In June 2019, Mozilla unveiled a revised Firefox logo, which was officially implemented on version 70. The new logo is part of an effort to build a brand system around Firefox and its complimentary apps and services, which are now being promoted as a suite under the Firefox brand. The logo of the Firefox family uses only the flame component of the logo, and Firefox itself (whose logo was revised to match the new branding style) is now being referred to in branding as "Firefox Browser".
File:Mozilla Phoenix logo vector.svg|Logo of "Phoenix" and "Firebird" before being renamed as Firefox
File:Mozilla Firefox 0.8 logo.png|Firefox 0.8 – 0.10, from February 9, 2004 to November 8, 2004
File:Mozilla Firefox logo 2004.svg|Firefox 1.0 – 3.0, from November 9, 2004 to June 29, 2009
File:Mozilla Firefox logo 2009.png|Firefox 3.5 – 22, from
June 30, 2009 to
August 5, 2013
File:Mozilla Firefox logo 2013.svg|Firefox 23 – 56, from August 6, 2013 to November 13, 2017
File:Firefox Logo, 2017.svg|Firefox 57 – 69, from November 14, 2017 to October 21, 2019
File:Firefox logo, 2019.svg|Firefox 70 and later, since October 22, 2019
File:Mozilla Nightly icon 2011.png|The 2011 Nightly logo, used to represent nightly builds of pre-alpha versions
File:Mozilla Firefox Nightly logo 2013.png|The 2013 Nightly logo
File:Firefox Nightly Logo, 2017.svg|The 2017 Nightly logo
File:Firefox Nightly logo, 2019.svg|The 2019 Nightly logo
File:Mozilla Aurora icon.png|The 2011 Aurora logo, used to represent an alpha release
File:Mozilla Firefox Aurora logo 2013.png|The 2013 Aurora logo
File:Firefox Developer Edition logo.png|The 2015 Developer Edition logo
File:Firefox Developer Edition Logo, 2017.svg|The 2017 Developer Edition logo
File:Firefox Developer Edition logo,2019.svg|The 2019 Developer Edition logo
File:Deer park globe.svg|Blue globe artwork, distributed with the source code, and is explicitly not protected as a trademark
File:Firefox Project Logo, 2019.svg|The logo for the Firefox brand of products and services, as of July 2019. It appears as if the fox was removed, but this is not the logo for the browser itself.
Firefox was adopted rapidly, with 100 million downloads in its first year of availability. This was followed by a series of aggressive marketing campaigns starting in 2004 with a series of events Blake Ross and Asa Dotzler called "marketing weeks".
Firefox continued to heavily market itself by releasing a marketing portal dubbed "Spread Firefox" (SFX) on September 12, 2004, It debuted along with the Firefox Preview Release, creating a centralized space for the discussion of various marketing techniques. The release of their manifesto stated that "the Mozilla project is a global community of people who believe that openness, innovation and opportunity are key to the continued health of the Internet."
A two-page ad in the edition of December 16 of ''The New York Times'', placed by Mozilla Foundation in coordination with Spread Firefox, featured the names of the thousands of people worldwide who contributed to the Mozilla Foundation's fundraising campaign to support the launch of the Firefox 1.0 web browser. SFX portal enhanced the "Get Firefox" button program, giving users "referrer points" as an incentive. The site lists the top 250 referrers. From time to time, the SFX team or SFX members launch marketing events organized at the Spread Firefox website. As a part of the Spread Firefox campaign, there was an attempt to break the world download record with the release of Firefox 3. This resulted in an official certified Guinness world record, with over eight million downloads. In February 2011, Mozilla announced that it would be retiring Spread Firefox (SFX). Three months later, in May 2011, Mozilla officially closed Spread Firefox. Mozilla wrote that "there are currently plans to create a new iteration of this website pread Firefoxat a later date."
In celebration of the third anniversary of the founding of the Mozilla Foundation, the "World Firefox Day" campaign was established on July 15, 2006, and ran until September 15, 2006. Participants registered themselves and a friend on the website for nomination to have their names displayed on the Firefox Friends Wall, a digital wall that was displayed at the headquarters of the Mozilla Foundation.
The Firefox community has also engaged in the promotion of their web browser. In 2006, some of Firefox's contributors from Oregon State University made a crop circle of the Firefox logo in an oat field near Amity, Oregon, near the intersection of Lafayette Highway and Walnut Hill Road. After Firefox reached 500 million downloads on February 21, 2008, the Firefox community celebrated by visiting Freerice to earn 500 million grains of rice.
Other initiatives included Live Chat – a service Mozilla launched in 2007 that allowed users to seek technical support from volunteers. The service was later retired.
To promote the launch of Firefox Quantum in November 2017, Mozilla partnered with Reggie Watts to produce a series of TV ads and social media content.
In December 2005, ''Internet Week'' ran an article in which many readers reported high memory usage in Firefox 1.5. Mozilla developers said that the higher memory use of Firefox 1.5 was at least partially due to the new fast backwards-and-forwards (FastBack) feature. Other known causes of memory problems were malfunctioning extensions such as Google Toolbar and some older versions of AdBlock, or plug-ins, such as older versions of Adobe Acrobat Reader. When ''PC Magazine'' in 2006 compared memory usage of Firefox 2, Opera 9, and Internet Explorer 7, they found that Firefox used approximately as much memory as each of the other two browsers.
In 2006, Softpedia noted that Firefox 1.5 took longer to start up than other browsers, which was confirmed by further speed tests.
Internet Explorer 6 launched more swiftly than Firefox 1.5 on Windows XP since many of its components were built into the OS and loaded during system startup. As a workaround for the issue, a preloader application was created that loaded components of Firefox on startup, similar to Internet Explorer. A Windows Vista feature called SuperFetch performs a similar task of preloading Firefox if it is used often enough.
Tests performed by ''PC World'' and Zimbra in 2006 indicated that Firefox 2 used less memory than Internet Explorer 7. Firefox 3 used less memory than Internet Explorer 7, Opera 9.50 Beta, Safari 3.1 Beta, and Firefox 2 in tests performed by Mozilla, CyberNet, and The Browser World. In mid-2009, BetaNews benchmarked Firefox 3.5 and declared that it performed "nearly ten times better on XP than Microsoft Internet Explorer 7".
In January 2014, a benchmark testing the memory usage of Firefox 29, Google Chrome 34, and Internet Explorer 11 indicated that Firefox used the least memory when a substantial number of tabs were open.
Downloads have continued at an increasing rate since Firefox 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004, and Firefox had already been downloaded over one billion times. This number does not include downloads using software updates or those from third-party websites. They do not represent a user count, as one download may be installed on many machines, one person may download the software multiple times, or the software may be obtained from a third-party.
In July 2010, IBM asked all employees (about 400,000) to use Firefox as their default browser.
Firefox was the second-most used web browser until November 2011, when Google Chrome surpassed it. According to Mozilla, Firefox has more than 450 million users .
Up to early 2020, Firefox was the second-most widely used desktop browser, and that position made it the third-most popular with 3.82% of worldwide usage share of web browsers across all platforms.
According to the Firefox Public Data report by Mozilla, the active monthly count of Desktop clients has decreased from around 310 million in 2017 to 260 million in 2019.
Firefox has had much success in some countries and continues to have it; , it is the most popular browser on traditional PCs in e.g. Eritrea and Cuba, with 63.08% and 53.03% of the market share, respectively.
* Firefox User Extension Library
* History of the web browser
* List of free and open-source software packages
* Mozilla Prism
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