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Dallas () is a city in the
U.S. state In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares ...
of
Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central region of the United States. It is the second largest U.S. state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansa ...

Texas
and the largest city in and
seat SEAT, S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Martorell, Spain. It was founded on May 9, 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI), a Spanish state-owned i ...
of Dallas County, with portions extending into Collin, Denton, Kaufman and Rockwall counties. With an estimated 2019 population of 1,343,573, it is the ninth most-populous city in the U.S. and the third-largest in Texas after
Houston Houston ( ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth-most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as the sixth-most populous in North America, with an estimated 2019 popu ...
and
San Antonio ("Cradle of Freedom") | image_map = Bexar SanAntonio.svg | mapsize = 280px | map_caption = Location within Bexar County | pushpin_map = Texas#USA#North America ...
. Located in
North Texas North Texas (also commonly called North Central Texas, Northeastern Texas, and Nortex) is a term used primarily by residents of Dallas, Fort Worth, and surrounding areas to describe much of the northern portion of the U.S. state of Texas. Residen ...
, the city of Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the
Southern United States The southern United States, also known as the American South, the southern states, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States. It is between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwester ...
and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.5 million people. Dallas and nearby
Fort Worth Fort Worth is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Texas and the 13th-largest city in the United States. It is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly into three other counties: Denton, Parker, and Wise. According to the 2019 c ...
were initially developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to
cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus ''Gossypium'' in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the ...

cotton
,
cattle Cattle, or cows (female) and bulls (male), are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus ''Bos'', and are most commonly clas ...

cattle
and later
oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving"). Oils have a ...
in
North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. Etymology The word ''north'' is re ...
and
East Texas East Texas is a distinct cultural, geographic, and ecological region in the U.S. state of Texas. According to the ''Handbook of Texas'', the East Texas area "may be separated from the rest of Texas roughly by a line extending from the Red Rive ...
. The construction of the
Interstate Highway System The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States. Cons ...
reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas then developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major
inland port Examples The United States Army Corps of Engineers publishes biannually a list of such locations and for this purpose states that "inland ports" are ports that are located on rivers and do not handle deep draft ship traffic. The list includes por ...
, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways and the construction of
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport , also known as DFW Airport, is the primary international airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex area in the U.S. state of Texas. It is the largest hub for American Airlines, which is headqua ...
, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. In addition, Dallas has DART (
Dallas Area Rapid Transit Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is a transit agency serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex of Texas. It operates buses, light rail, commuter rail, and high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Dallas and twelve of its suburbs. DART was created in 1983 t ...
) with different colored train lines that transport throughout the Metroplex. Dominant sectors of its diverse economy include
defense Defense or defence may refer to: Tactical, martial, and political acts or groups * Defense (military), forces primarily intended for warfare * Civil defense, the organizing of civilians to deal with enemy attacks * Defense industry, industry whic ...
,
financial services Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, cons ...
,
information technology#REDIRECT Information technology#REDIRECT Information technology {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
,
telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasi ...
, and
transportation Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism ...
. Dallas is home to ten
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune'' magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes publicly held companies, along wit ...
companies within the city limits. The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts an additional twenty-three Fortune 500 companies, including
American Airlines American Airlines, Inc. (AA or AAL) is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, and revenu ...
(Fort Worth) and
ExxonMobil Exxon Mobil Corporation, stylized as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil, and was formed on November 30, 199 ...
(
IrvingIrving may refer to: *Irving (name), including a list of people with the name Places Canada * Irving Nature Park, a park in Saint John, N.B. United States *Irving, California, former name of Irvington, California *Irving, Illinois *Irving, Iowa *I ...
). Over 41 colleges and universities are located within its metropolitan area, which is the most of any metropolitan area in Texas. The city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and one of the largest LGBT communities in the U.S.
WalletHub WalletHub (formerly CardHub.com) is a personal finance website that was launched in early August 2013. It is based in Washington, D.C. and owned by Evolution Finance, Inc. According to Web reports, WalletHub initially positioned itself as a “pe ...
named Dallas the fifth most diverse city in the U.S. in 2018.


History

Preceded by thousands of years of varying
cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.Tylor, Edward. (1871). ...
, the
Caddo The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes. Their ancestors historically inhabited much of what is now East Texas, Louisiana, and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. They were descendants of the Caddo ...
people A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group, nation or the public of a polity. In politics Various states govern or claim to govern in the name of ''the people''. Both the Roman Republic a ...
inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the
Viceroyalty of New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es|Virreinato de Nueva España ), was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas. It covered a huge area ...
. Later, France also claimed the area but never established much settlement. In all, six flags have flown over the area preceding and during the city's history: those of France, Spain, and Mexico, the flag of the Republic of Texas, the Confederate flag, and the flag of the United States of America. In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the
Red River Red River usually refers to one of the following: * Red River (East and Southeast Asia) (Chinese: 紅河, 红河, ''Hóng Hé''; Vietnamese: ''Sông Hồng'') in China and Vietnam * Red River of the North in Canada and the United States * Red River ...
as the northern boundary of New Spain, officially placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory. The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, and the area was considered part of the Mexican state of
Coahuila y Tejas Coahuila y Tejas (''Coahuila and Texas'') was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution. It had two capitals: first Saltillo (1822–1825) for petition of Miguel Ramos Arizpe, that ch ...
. In 1836,
Texians Texians were Anglo-American residents of Mexican Texas and, later, the Republic of Texas. Today, the term is used to distinguish early settlers of Texas, especially those who supported the Texas Revolution. Mexican settlers of that era are refe ...
, with a majority of
Anglo-American Anglo-Americans are people who are English-speaking inhabitants of Anglo-America. It typically refers to the nations and ethnic groups in the Americas that speak English as a native language who comprise the majority of people who speak English ...
settlers, [[Texas Revolution|gained independence from Mexico and formed the [[Republic of Texas. Three years after Texas achieved independence, [[John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. In 1839, accompanied by his dog and a Cherokee he called Ned, he planted a stake in the ground on a bluff located near three forks of the Trinity River and left. Two years later, in 1841, he returned to establish a permanent settlement named Dallas. The [[History of Dallas (1839–1855)#Establishment|origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President [[George M. Dallas of [[Philadelphia, [[Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, [[Alexander J. Dallas (United States Navy officer)|Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas. A further theory gives the ultimate origin as the village of [[Dallas, Moray, [[Scotland, similar to the way [[Houston, Texas, was named after [[Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of [[Houston, Renfrewshire. The Republic of Texas was [[Texas annexation|annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856. In the mid-1800s, a group of French Socialists established [[La Réunion (Dallas)|La Réunion, a short-lived community, along the Trinity River in what is now West Dallas. With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century. It became an industrial city, attracting workers from
Texas Texas (, ) is a state in the South Central region of the United States. It is the second largest U.S. state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansa ...

Texas
, the South, and the [[Midwestern United States|Midwest. The [[Praetorian Building in Dallas of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first [[skyscraper west of [[Mississippi River|the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time. It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for [[thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth, where a similar drivers club was based. The rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing. In 1921, the Mexican president [[Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in [[Little Mexico; the small park was on the corner of Akard and Caruth Street, site of the current Fairmont Hotel. The small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Latin American population that had been drawn to Dallas by factors including the [[American Dream, better living conditions, and the Mexican Revolution.During [[World War II, Dallas was a major manufacturing center for military automobiles and aircraft for the United States and Allied forces. Over 94,000 jeeps and over 6,000 military trucks were produced at the Ford plant in East Dallas. North American Aviation manufactured over 18,000 aircraft at their plant in Dallas, including the [[North American T-6 Texan|T-6 Texan trainer, [[North American P-51 Mustang|P-51 Mustang fighter, and [[Consolidated B-24 Liberator|B-24 Liberator bomber. On November 22, 1963, [[President of the United States|United States President [[Assassination of John F. Kennedy|John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his [[SS-100-X|motorcade passed through [[Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas. The upper two floors of the building from which [[assassin [[Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the [[Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments. Kennedy died at [[Parkland Memorial Hospital, 30 minutes after the shooting. On July 7, 2016, [[2016 shooting of Dallas police officers|multiple shots were fired at a Black Lives Matter protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states. The gunman, later identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m., killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were also injured. This marked the deadliest day for U.S. law enforcement since the [[September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he was upset about recent police shootings of black men and wanted to kill whites, especially white officers. After hours of negotiation failed, police resorted to a robot-delivered bomb, killing Johnson inside [[El Centro College. The shooting occurred in an area of hotels, restaurants, businesses, and residential apartments only a few blocks away from [[Dealey Plaza.


Geography

Dallas is situated in the
Southern United States The southern United States, also known as the American South, the southern states, or simply the South, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States. It is between the Atlantic Ocean and the western United States, with the midwester ...
, in
North Texas North Texas (also commonly called North Central Texas, Northeastern Texas, and Nortex) is a term used primarily by residents of Dallas, Fort Worth, and surrounding areas to describe much of the northern portion of the U.S. state of Texas. Residen ...
. It is the [[county seat of Dallas County and portions of the city extend into neighboring Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties. Many suburbs surround Dallas; three [[enclaves are within the city boundaries—[[Cockrell Hill, Texas|Cockrell Hill, [[Highland Park, Texas|Highland Park, and [[University Park, Texas|University Park. According to the [[United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of ; of Dallas is land and of it (11.75%) is water. Dallas makes up one-fifth of the much larger urbanized area known as the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, in which one quarter of all Texans live.


Architecture

Dallas's skyline has twenty buildings classified as [[skyscrapers, over 150 meters in height. Despite its tallest building not reaching 300 meters, Dallas does have a signature building in [[Bank of America Plaza (Dallas)|Bank of America Plaza which is lit up in neon but falls outside the top two hundred tallest buildings in the world. Although some of Dallas's architecture dates from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the notable architecture in the city is from the [[modern architecture|modernist and [[postmodern architecture|postmodernist eras. Iconic examples of modernist architecture include [[Reunion Tower, the [[JFK Memorial, [[I. M. Pei's [[Dallas City Hall and the [[Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center. Good examples of postmodernist skyscrapers are [[Fountain Place, [[Bank of America Plaza (Dallas)|Bank of America Plaza, [[Renaissance Tower (Dallas)|Renaissance Tower, [[JPMorgan Chase Tower (Dallas)|JPMorgan Chase Tower, and [[Comerica Bank Tower. [[Downtown Dallas also has residential offerings in downtown, some of which are signature skyline buildings. Several smaller structures are fashioned in the [[Gothic Revival architecture|Gothic Revival style, such as the [[Kirby Building, and the [[neoclassical architecture|neoclassical style, as seen in the [[Davis Building|Davis and [[Wilson Building (Dallas, Texas)|Wilson Buildings. One architectural "hotbed" in the city is a stretch of historic houses along [[Swiss Avenue, which has all shades and variants of architecture from [[Victorian architecture|Victorian to neoclassical. The [[Dallas Downtown Historic District protects a cross-section of Dallas commercial architecture from the 1880s to the 1940s.


Neighborhoods

The city of Dallas is home to many areas, neighborhoods, and communities. Dallas can be divided into several geographical areas which include larger geographical sections of territory including many subdivisions or neighborhoods, forming macroneighborhoods.


Central Dallas

Central Dallas is anchored by [[Downtown Dallas|Downtown, the center of the city, along with [[Oak Lawn, Dallas|Oak Lawn and [[Uptown Dallas|Uptown, areas characterized by dense retail, restaurants, and nightlife. Downtown Dallas has a variety of named districts, including the [[West End, Dallas|West End Historic District, the [[Arts District, Dallas|Arts District, the [[Main Street, Dallas|Main Street District, [[Farmers Market, Dallas|Farmers Market District, the [[City Center District, Dallas|City Center Business District, the [[Convention Center District, Dallas|Convention Center District, and the [[Reunion, Dallas|Reunion District. "Hot spots" in this area include Uptown, [[Victory Park, Dallas, Texas|Victory Park, Harwood, Oak Lawn, [[the Design District Dallas, Texas|Dallas Design District, [[Trinity Groves, Dallas|Trinity Groves, [[Turtle Creek, Dallas|Turtle Creek, [[Cityplace, Dallas|Cityplace, [[Knox Park, Dallas|Knox/Henderson, [[Lower Greenville, Dallas|Greenville, and [[West Village, Dallas|West Village.


East Dallas

[[East Dallas is home to [[Deep Ellum, a trendy arts area close to Downtown, the homey [[Lakewood, Dallas|Lakewood neighborhood (and adjacent areas, including [[Lakewood Heights, Dallas|Lakewood Heights, [[Wilshire Heights, Dallas|Wilshire Heights, [[Lower Greenville, Dallas|Lower Greenville, [[Junius Heights, Dallas|Junius Heights, and [[Hollywood Heights, Dallas|Hollywood Heights/Santa Monica), historic [[Vickery Place and [[Bryan Place, and the architecturally significant neighborhoods of Swiss Avenue and [[Munger Place. Its historic district has one of the largest collections of [[Frank Lloyd Wright-inspired [[Frank Lloyd Wright#Prairie houses|prairie-style homes in the United States. In the northeast quadrant of the city is [[Lake Highlands, one of Dallas's most unified middle-class neighborhoods.Lake Highlands Area Improvement Association

Map
Retrieved October 3, 2006.


South Dallas

[[South Dallas, a distinct neighborhood southeast of Downtown, lays claim to the [[Cedars, Dallas|Cedars, an eclectic artist hotbed, and [[Fair Park, home of the annual [[State Fair of Texas, held from late September through mid-October. Southwest of Downtown lies [[Oak Cliff, a hilly area that has undergone [[gentrification in recent years, in neighborhoods such as the [[Bishop Arts District. Oak Cliff was a township founded in the mid-1800s and annexed in 1903 by Dallas. Today, most of the area's northern residents are [[Hispanic and Latino Americans|Hispanic and Latin American. The [[ghost town of [[La Reunion (Dallas)|La Reunion once occupied the north tip of Oak Cliff. South Oak Cliff's population is a mix of [[African Americans|African American, [[Hispanic, and [[Native Americans in the United States|Native American. South Side Dallas is a popular location for nightly entertainment at the [[Nylo Hotels|NYLO rooftop patio and lounge, The Cedars Social. The neighborhood has undergone extensive development and community integration. What was once an area characterized by high rates of poverty and crime is now one of the city's most attractive social and living destinations. Further east, in the southeast quadrant of the city, is the large neighborhood of [[Pleasant Grove, Dallas|Pleasant Grove. Once an independent city, it is a collection of mostly lower-income residential areas stretching to [[Seagoville, Texas|Seagoville in the southeast. Though a city neighborhood, Pleasant Grove is surrounded by undeveloped land on all sides. Swampland and wetlands separating it from South Dallas are part of the [[Great Trinity Forest, a subsection of the city's [[Trinity River Project, newly appreciated for habitat and [[flood control.


Districts

* [[Bishop Arts District, Dallas|Bishop Arts District * [[Casa Linda Estates, Dallas|Casa Linda * [[Casa View, Dallas|Casa View * [[Cedars, Dallas|Cedars, The * [[Deep Ellum, Dallas|Deep Ellum * [[Design District, Dallas|Design District * [[Downtown Dallas|Downtown * [[Exposition Park, Dallas|Exposition Park * [[Fair Park * [[Highland Hills, Dallas|Highland Hills * [[Kessler, Dallas|Kessler Park * [[Knox Park, Dallas|Knox-Henderson * [[Lakewood, Dallas|Lakewood * [[Lake Highlands * [[Lower Greenville, Dallas|Lower Greenville * [[Greenland Hills, Dallas|"M" Streets * [[Oak Cliff * [[Oak Lawn, Dallas|Oak Lawn * [[Park Cities, Texas|Park Cities * [[Pleasant Grove, Dallas|Pleasant Grove * [[Preston Hollow, Dallas|Preston Hollow * [[Southwestern Medical District * [[Trinity Groves, Dallas|Trinity Groves * [[Turtle Creek, Dallas|Turtle Creek * [[Uptown, Dallas|Uptown * [[Victory Park, Dallas|Victory Park * [[West End Historic District (Dallas)|West End


Topography

Dallas and its surrounding area are mostly flat. The city lies at elevations ranging from above sea level. The western edge of the Austin Chalk Formation, a [[limestone [[escarpment (also known as the "White Rock Escarpment"), rises and runs roughly north–south through Dallas County. South of the [[Trinity River (Texas)|Trinity River, the uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhoods of Oak Cliff and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill, [[Cedar Hill, Texas|Cedar Hill, [[Grand Prairie, Texas|Grand Prairie, and
IrvingIrving may refer to: *Irving (name), including a list of people with the name Places Canada * Irving Nature Park, a park in Saint John, N.B. United States *Irving, California, former name of Irvington, California *Irving, Illinois *Irving, Iowa *I ...
. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in [[Tarrant County, Texas|Tarrant County surrounding Fort Worth, as well as along Turtle Creek north of Downtown. Dallas, like many other cities, was founded along a river. The city was founded at the location of a "white rock crossing" of the Trinity River, where it was easier for wagons to cross the river in the days before ferries or bridges. The Trinity River, though not usefully navigable, is the major waterway through the city. [[Interstate 35E (Texas)|Interstate 35E parallels its path through Dallas along the [[Stemmons Corridor, then south alongside the western portion of Downtown and past South Dallas and Pleasant Grove, where the river is paralleled by [[Interstate 45 (Texas)|Interstate 45 until it exits the city and heads southeast towards
Houston Houston ( ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth-most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as the sixth-most populous in North America, with an estimated 2019 popu ...
. The river is flanked on both sides by tall earthen [[levees to protect the city from frequent floods. Since it was rerouted in the late 1920s, the river has been little more than a drainage ditch within a floodplain for several miles above and below Downtown, with a more normal course further upstream and downstream, but as Dallas began shifting towards postindustrial society, public outcry about the lack of aesthetic and recreational use of the river ultimately gave way to the [[Trinity River Project, which was begun in the early 2000s. The project area reaches for over in length within the city, while the overall geographical land area addressed by the Land Use Plan is approximately in size—about 20% of the land area in Dallas. Green space along the river encompasses approximately , making it one of the largest and diverse urban parks in the world. [[White Rock Lake, a reservoir built at the beginning of the 20th century, is Dallas's other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination for boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers, as well as visitors seeking peaceful respite from the city at the [[Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, on the lake's eastern shore. [[White Rock Creek feeds into White Rock Lake, and then exits on to the Trinity River southeast of Downtown Dallas. Trails along White Rock Creek are part of the extensive Dallas County Trails System. [[Bachman Lake, just northwest of [[Dallas Love Field|Love Field Airport, is a smaller lake also popularly used for recreation. Northeast of the city is [[Lake Ray Hubbard, a vast reservoir in an extension of Dallas surrounded by the suburbs of [[Garland, Texas|Garland, [[Rowlett, Texas|Rowlett, [[Rockwall, Texas|Rockwall, and [[Sunnyvale, Texas|Sunnyvale. To the west of the city is [[Mountain Creek Lake, once home to the [[Naval Air Station Dallas ([[Hensley Field) and a number of defense aircraft manufacturers. [[North Lake (Dallas County, Texas)|North Lake, a small body of water in an extension of the city limits surrounded by Irving and [[Coppell, Texas|Coppell, initially served as a water source for a nearby power plant but is now being targeted for redevelopment as a recreational lake due to its proximity to [[Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport|Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, a plan the lake's neighboring cities oppose.


Climate

Dallas has a [[humid subtropical climate ([[Köppen climate classification: Cfa) characteristic of the [[Great Plains|Southern Plains of the United States. It also has continental characteristics, characterized by a relatively wide annual temperature range for the latitude. Located at the lower end of [[Tornado Alley, it is prone to extreme weather, tornadoes, and hailstorms. Summers in Dallas are very hot and humid, although low humidity characteristics of desert locations can appear at any time of the year. July and August are typically the hottest months, with an average high of and an average low of . Heat indices regularly surpass at the height of summer. The all-time record high is , set on June 26 and 27, 1980 during the [[Heat Wave of 1980 at nearby
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport , also known as DFW Airport, is the primary international airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex area in the U.S. state of Texas. It is the largest hub for American Airlines, which is headqua ...
. Winters in Dallas are cool to mild, with occasional cold spells. The average date of first frost is November 12, and the average date of last frost is March 12. January is typically the coldest month, with an average daytime high of and an average nighttime low of . The normal daily average temperature in January is but sharp swings in temperature can occur, as strong cold fronts known as "[[Texas Norther|Blue Northers" pass through the Dallas region, forcing daytime highs below the mark for several days at a time and often between days with high temperatures above . Snow accumulation is seen in the city in about 70% of winter seasons, and snowfall generally occurs 1–2 days out of the year for a seasonal average of . Some areas in the region, however, receive more than that, while other areas receive negligible snowfall or none at all. The all-time record low temperature within the city is , set on January 18, 1930. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons with moderate and pleasant weather. Vibrant [[wildflowers (such as the [[bluebonnet (plant)|bluebonnet, [[Castilleja|Indian paintbrush and other [[flora (plants)|flora) bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas. Springtime weather can be [[severe weather|quite volatile, but temperatures themselves are mild. The weather in Dallas is also generally pleasant from late September to early December and on many winter days. Autumn often brings more storms and tornado threats, but they are usually fewer and less severe than in spring. Each spring, cold fronts moving south from the North collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the [[Gulf Coast, leading to severe [[thunderstorms with [[lightning, torrents of rain, [[hail, and occasionally, [[tornadoes. Over time, tornadoes have probably been the most significant natural threat to the city, as it is near the heart of [[Tornado Alley. A few times each winter in Dallas, warm and humid air from the south will override cold, dry air, resulting in [[freezing rain or ice and causing disruptions in the city if the roads and highways become slick. Temperatures reaching on average occur on at least four days each winter month. Dallas averages 26 annual nights at or below freezing, with the winter of 1999–2000 holding the record for the fewest freezing nights with 14. During this same span of 15 years, the temperature in the region has only twice dropped below , though it will generally fall below in most (67%) years. The [[USDA|U.S. Department of Agriculture places Dallas in [[USDA plant hardiness zone|Plant Hardiness Zone 8a. However, mild winter temperatures in the past 15 to 20 years have encouraged the horticulture of some cold-sensitive plants such as ''[[Washingtonia filifera'' and ''[[Washingtonia robusta'' [[palm tree|palms. According to the [[American Lung Association, Dallas has the 12th highest air pollution among U.S. cities, ranking it behind Los Angeles and
Houston Houston ( ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth-most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as the sixth-most populous in North America, with an estimated 2019 popu ...
. Much of the air pollution in Dallas and the surrounding area comes from a hazardous materials incineration plant in the small town of [[Midlothian, Texas|Midlothian and from cement plants in neighboring [[Ellis County, Texas|Ellis County. The average daily low in Dallas is , and the average daily high is . Dallas receives approximately of rain per year. The record snowfall for Dallas was on February 11, 2010.


Demographics

Dallas is the [[List of United States cities by population|ninth most-populous city in the United States and [[List of cities in Texas by population|third in Texas after the cities of
Houston Houston ( ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth-most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as the sixth-most populous in North America, with an estimated 2019 popu ...
and
San Antonio ("Cradle of Freedom") | image_map = Bexar SanAntonio.svg | mapsize = 280px | map_caption = Location within Bexar County | pushpin_map = Texas#USA#North America ...
. Its metropolitan area encompasses one-quarter of the population of Texas, and is the largest in the Southern U.S. and [[List of Texas metropolitan areas|Texas followed by the [[Greater Houston|Greater Houston metropolitan area. In July 2018, the population estimate of the city of Dallas was 1,345,076, an increase of 147,260 since the [[2010 United States Census|2010 United States census. There were 521,198 households at the 2018 estimates, up from 2010's 458,057 households, out of which 137,758 had children under the age of 18 living with them. 36.6% of households were headed by married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.9% were classified as non-family households. In 2010, 33.7% of all households had one or more people under 18 years of age, and 17.6% had one or more people who were 65 years of age or older. The average household size in 2018 was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.48. In 2018 the owner-occupied housing rate was 40.2% and the renter-occupied housing rate was 59.8%. At the 2010 census, the city's age distribution of the population showed 26.5% under the age of 18 and 8.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.8 years. In 2010, 50.0% of the population was male and 50.0% was female. In 2018, the median age 33.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. According to the 2018 [[American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $52,210. In 2003-2007's survey, male full-time workers had a median income of $32,265 versus $32,402 for female full-time workers. The per capita income for the city was $25,904. About 18.7% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.6% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those aged 65 or over. Per 2007's survey, the median price for a house was $129,600.


Race and ethnicity

Dallas's population was historically predominantly white (non-Hispanic whites made up 82.8% of the population in 1930), but its population has diversified due to immigration and [[white flight over the 20th century. Today the non-Hispanic white population has declined to less than one-third of the city's population. According to the 2010 census, 50.7% of the population was White (28.8% non-Hispanic white), 24.8% was Black or African American, 0.7% [[Native Americans in the United States|American Indian and [[Alaska Natives|Alaska Native, 2.9% Asian, and 2.6% from [[Multiracial Americans|two or more races. 42.4% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race). In the [[United States Census Bureau's 2018 estimates, 29.3% were [[Non-Hispanic whites|non-Hispanic white, 24.8% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian or Alaska Native, 3.4% Asian, and 1.5% from two or more races. [[Native Hawaiians|Native Hawaiian and [[Pacific Islander|other Pacific Islanders made up a total of 606 residents according to 2017's estimates. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 40.7% of the estimated population in 2018. Among the Hispanic or Latin American population in 2018, 34.0% of Dallas was [[Mexican Americans|Mexican, 0.4% [[Puerto Rican people|Puerto Rican, 0.2% [[Cuban Americans|Cuban and 5.9% other Hispanic or Latino. In 2017's American Community Survey estimates among the demographic 35.5% were Mexican, 0.6% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, and 5.4% other Hispanic or Latino. The Dallas area is a major destination for [[Mexican Americans and Hispanic immigrants. The southwestern portion of the city, particularly [[Oak Cliff is chiefly inhabited by Hispanic and Latin American residents. The southeastern portion of the city [[Pleasant Grove, Dallas, Texas|Pleasant Grove is chiefly inhabited by African American and Hispanic or Latino residents, while the [[South Dallas|southern portion of the city is predominantly black. The west and east sides of the city are predominantly Hispanic or Latino; [[Garland, Texas|Garland also has a large Spanish speaking population. [[North Dallas has many enclaves of predominantly white, black and especially Hispanic or Latino residents. The Dallas area is also a major destination for African Americans. Between 2000 and 2010, the Dallas area gained 223,000 new African American residents only behind the [[Atlanta metropolitan area. The notable influx of African Americans is partly due to the [[New Great Migration. There is a significant number of people from the [[Horn of Africa, immigrants from [[Ethiopian Americans|Ethiopia, [[Eritrean Americans|Eritrea and [[Somali Americans|Somalia. The Dallas–Fort-Worth metroplex had an estimated 70,000 Russian-speakers (as of November 6, 2012) mostly immigrants from the former [[Soviet Bloc. Included in this population are [[Russian Americans|Russians, [[History of the Jews in Russia|Russian Jews, [[Ukrainian Americans|Ukrainians, [[Belarusian Americans|Belarusians, [[Moldovan Americans|Moldavians, [[Uzbek Americans|Uzbek, [[Kyrgyz people|Kirghiz, and others. The Russian-speaking population of Dallas has continued to grow in the sector of "American husbands-Russian wives". Russian DFW has its own newspaper, ''The Dallas Telegraph''. In addition, Dallas and its suburbs are home to a large number of Asian Americans including those of [[Indian Americans|Indian, [[Vietnamese Americans|Vietnamese, [[Chinese Americans|Chinese, [[Korean Americans|Korean, [[Filipino Americans|Filipino, [[Japanese Americans|Japanese, and other heritage. Among large-sized cities in the United States, [[Plano, Texas|Plano, the northern suburb of Dallas, has the [[List of U.S. cities with significant Chinese-American populations#Large-sized cities|6th largest Chinese American population as of 2016. The Plano-Richardson area in particular had an estimated 30,000 [[Iranian Americans in 2012. With so many immigrant groups, there are often multilingual signs in the [[linguistic landscape. According to U.S. Census Bureau data released in December 2013, 23 percent of Dallas County residents were foreign-born, while 16 percent of Tarrant County residents were foreign-born. The 2018 census estimates determined that the city of Dallas's foreign-born population consisted of 25.4% naturalized citizens and 74.6% non-citizens.


Sexual orientation and gender identity

Recognized for having one of the largest [[LGBT|lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the nation, Dallas and the Metroplex are widely noted for being home to a vibrant and diverse [[LGBT community. Throughout the year there are many well-established LGBT events held in the area, most notably the annual Alan Ross Texas Freedom (Pride) Parade and Festival in June which draws approximately 50,000. For decades, the [[Oak Lawn, Dallas|Oak Lawn and [[Bishop Arts District|Bishop Arts districts have been known as the epicenters of [[LGBT culture in Dallas.


Religion

[[Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Dallas and the wider metropolitan area according to a 2014 study by the [[Pew Research Center (78%). There is a large [[Protestantism|Protestant Christian influence in the Dallas community, though the city of Dallas and Dallas County have more Catholic than Protestant residents, while the converse is usually true for the suburban areas of Dallas and the city of Fort Worth. Dallas has been called the "Prison Ministry Capital of the World" by the prison ministry community. It is a home for the [[International Network of Prison Ministries, the Coalition of Prison Evangelists, Bill Glass Champions for Life, Chaplain Ray's International Prison Ministry, and 60 other prison ministries. [[Methodism|Methodist, [[Baptist, and [[Presbyterianism|Presbyterian churches are prominent in many neighborhoods and anchor two of the city's major private universities ([[Southern Methodist University and [[Dallas Baptist University). Dallas is also home to two [[Evangelicalism|evangelical seminaries: the [[Dallas Theological Seminary and [[Criswell College. Many [[Bible college|Bible schools including [[Christ For The Nations Institute are also headquartered in the city. The [[Creationism|Christian creationist apologetics group [[Institute for Creation Research is headquartered in Dallas. According to the Pew Research Center, [[Evangelical Protestantism constituted the largest form of Protestantism in the area as of 2014. The largest single Evangelical Protestant group were Baptists. The largest Baptist denomination was the [[Southern Baptist Convention, followed by the [[Black church|historically black [[National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.|National Baptist Convention USA. [[African-initiated church|African-initiated Protestant churches including [[P'ent'ay|Ethiopian Evangelical churches can be found throughout the metropolitan area. The [[Catholic Church is also a significant religious organization in the Dallas area and operates the [[University of Dallas, a liberal-arts university in the Dallas suburb of Irving. The [[Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe|Cathedral Santuario de la Virgen de Guadalupe in the [[Arts District, Dallas, Texas|Arts District is home to the second-largest Catholic church membership in the United States and overseas, consisting over 70 parishes in the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Dallas|Dallas Diocese. The [[Society of Jesus operates the [[Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas. Dallas is also home to numerous [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodox and [[Oriental Orthodoxy|Oriental Orthodox churches including [[Saint Seraphim (Orthodox) Cathedral|Saint Seraphim Cathedral, see of the [[Orthodox Church in America's [[Orthodox Church in America Diocese of the South|Southern Diocese. The [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America ([[Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate) has one parish in the city of Dallas. The city is home to a sizable [[Latter Day Saint movement|Latter Day Saint community. [[The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has twenty-three [[Stake (Latter Day Saints)|stakes throughout Dallas and surrounding suburbs. The organization built the [[Dallas Texas Temple, the first temple in Texas, in the city in 1984. [[Jehovah's Witnesses also have a large number of members throughout the Dallas metropolitan division. In addition, there are several [[Unitarian Universalist congregations, including First Unitarian Church of Dallas, founded in 1899. A large community of the [[United Church of Christ exists in the city. The most prominent UCC-affiliated church is the [[Cathedral of Hope (Dallas)|Cathedral of Hope, a predominantly [[List of Christian denominations affirming LGBT|LGBT-affirming church. Dallas's [[Judaism|Jewish population of approximately 45,000 is one of the largest of any city in Texas. Since the establishment of the city's first Jewish cemetery in 1854 and its first congregation (which would eventually be known as [[Temple Emanu-El (Dallas, Texas)|Temple Emanu-El) in 1873, Dallasite Jews have been well represented among leaders in commerce, politics, and various professional fields in Dallas and elsewhere. Furthermore, a large [[Muslim community exists in the north and northeastern portions of Dallas, as well as in the [[Islam in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex|northern Dallas suburbs. The oldest mosque in Dallas is Masjid Al-Islam just south of Downtown. Dallas has a large Buddhist community. Immigrants from [[East Asia, [[Southeast Asia, [[Nepal, and [[Sri Lanka have all contributed to the Buddhist population, which is concentrated in the northern suburbs of [[Garland, Texas|Garland, [[Plano, Texas|Plano and [[Richardson, Texas|Richardson. Numerous Buddhist temples dot the Metroplex including The Buddhist Center of Dallas, Lien Hoa Vietnamese Temple of Irving, and Kadampa Meditation Center Texas and Wat Buddhamahamunee of [[Arlington, Texas|Arlington. A large and growing Hindu Community lives in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. Most live in Collin County and the northern portions of Dallas County. Over 28 Hindu Temples exist in the area. Some notable ones include [[North Texas Hindu Mandir, [[Radha Krishna Temple, Dallas and [[Karya Siddhi Hanuman Temple. There are also at least three [[Sikh [[Gurudwaras in this metropolitan area. For irreligious people, the Winter Solstice Celebration is held in the Metroplex although some of its participants are also [[Modern Paganism|neo-pagans and [[New Agers.


Crime

According to the FBI, a city to city comparison of crime rates can be misleading, because recording practices vary from city to city, citizens report different percentages of crimes from one city to the next, and the actual number of people physically present in a city is unknown. With that in mind, Dallas's violent crime rate (12.06 per 1,000 people) is lower than [[St Louis (24.81), [[Detroit (24.22), [[Baltimore (16.96), [[Philadelphia (15.62), [[Cleveland (15.47), [[Miami (15.09), [[Washington, D.C.|Washington, D.C. (14.48), [[Kansas City, Missouri|Kansas City (14.44) and [[Boston (13.39). However,
Houston Houston ( ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, fourth-most populous city in the United States, most populous city in the Southern United States, as well as the sixth-most populous in North America, with an estimated 2019 popu ...
(11.69), [[Los Angeles (7.87), and [[New York City (6.38) have lower violent crime rates than Dallas.


Economy

In its beginnings, Dallas relied on farming, neighboring
Fort Worth Fort Worth is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Texas and the 13th-largest city in the United States. It is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly into three other counties: Denton, Parker, and Wise. According to the 2019 c ...
's [[Fort Worth Stockyards|Stockyards, and its prime location on Native American trade routes to sustain itself. Dallas' key to growth came in 1873 with the construction of multiple [[Rail road|rail lines through the city. As Dallas grew and technology developed, cotton became its boon and by 1900, Dallas was the largest inland cotton market in the world, becoming a leader in [[cotton gin machinery manufacturing. By the early 1900s, Dallas was a hub for economic activity all over the Southern United States and was selected in 1914 as the seat of the [[Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas|Eleventh Federal Reserve District. By 1925, Texas churned out more than ⅓ of the nation's cotton crop, with 31% of Texas cotton produced within a [[radius of Dallas. In the 1930s, petroleum was discovered east of Dallas, near [[Kilgore, Texas|Kilgore. Dallas' proximity to the discovery put it immediately at the center of the nation's petroleum market. Petroleum discoveries in the [[Permian Basin (North America)|Permian Basin, the [[Texas Panhandle|Panhandle, the [[Gulf Coast of the United States|Gulf Coast, and [[Oklahoma in the following years further solidified Dallas' position as the hub of the market. The end of [[World War II left Dallas seeded with a nexus of communications, engineering, and production talent by companies such as Collins Radio Corporation. Decades later, the telecommunications and information revolutions still drive a large portion of the local economy. The city is sometimes referred to as the heart of "[[Silicon Prairie" because of a high concentration of telecommunications companies in the region, the epicenter of which lies along the [[Telecom Corridor in [[Richardson, Texas|Richardson, a northern suburb of Dallas. The Telecom Corridor is home to more than 5,700 companies including [[Texas Instruments (headquartered in Dallas), [[Nortel Networks, [[Alcatel Lucent, [[AT&T Inc.|AT&T, [[Ericsson, [[Fujitsu, [[Nokia, [[Rockwell Collins, [[Cisco Systems, [[T-Mobile US|T-Mobile, [[Verizon Communications, and [[CompUSA (which is now headquartered in [[Miami, [[Florida). Texas Instruments, a major manufacturer, employs 10,400 people at its corporate headquarters and chip plants in Dallas. In the 1980s Dallas was a real estate hotbed, with the increasing metropolitan population bringing with it a demand for new housing and office space. Several of [[Downtown Dallas' largest buildings are the fruit of this boom, but over-speculation, the [[savings and loan crisis and an oil bust brought the 1980s building boom to an end for Dallas as well as its sister city Houston. Between the late 1980s and the early 2000s, central Dallas went through a slow period of growth. However, since the early 2000s the central core of Dallas has been enjoying steady and significant growth encompassing both repurposing of older commercial buildings in Downtown Dallas into residential and hotel uses, as well as the construction of new office and residential towers. The opening of [[Klyde Warren Park, built across [[Texas State Highway Spur 366|Woodall Rodgers Freeway seamlessly connecting the central Dallas CBD to Uptown/Victory Park, has acted synergistically with the highly successful Dallas Arts District, so both have become catalysts for significant new development in central Dallas. The residential real estate market in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex has not only been resilient but has once again returned to a boom status. Dallas and the greater metro area have been leading the nation in apartment construction and net leasing, with rents reaching all-time highs. Single family home sales, whether pre-owned or new construction, along with home price appreciation, were leading the nation since 2015. A sudden drop in the price of oil, starting in mid-2014 and accelerating throughout 2015, has not significantly affected Dallas and its greater metro area due to the highly diversified nature of its economy. Dallas and the metropolitan region continue to see strong demand for housing, apartment and office leasing, shopping center space, warehouse and industrial space with overall job growth remaining very robust. Oil-dependent cities and regions have felt significant effects from the downturn, but Dallas's growth has continued unabated, strengthening in 2015. Significant national headquarters relocations to the area (as exemplified by Toyota's decision to leave [[California and establish its new North American headquarters in the Dallas area) coupled with significant expansions of regional offices for a variety of corporations and along with company relocations to Downtown Dallas helped drive the boom in the Dallas economy. Dallas led Texas's largest cities in ''Forbes'' magazine's 2015 ranking of "The Best Place for Business and Careers". In 2020, Dallas ranked No. 2 in Forbes magazine's ranking of "The Best Place for Business and Careers". The Dallas–Fort Worth area has one of the largest concentrations of corporate headquarters for publicly traded companies in the United States. ''Fortune Magazine'''s 2017 annual list of the Fortune 500 in America indicates the city of Dallas had 9 Fortune 500 companies, and the DFW region as a whole had 22, reflecting the continued strong growth in the metro economy and up from 20 the year before. In 2020, it increased to 10 Fortune 500 companies and 23 for the wider metropolitan area. Dallas–Fort Worth represents the largest concentration of Fortune 500 headquarters in Texas, followed by [[Greater Houston with its count of 22, down from 24. In 2008, [[AT&T Inc.|AT&T relocated their headquarters to Downtown Dallas; AT&T is the largest telecommunications company in the world and was the ninth largest company in the nation by revenue for 2017. Additional
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune'' magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes publicly held companies, along wit ...
companies headquartered in Dallas in order of ranking include [[Energy Transfer Equity, [[Tenet Healthcare, [[Southwest Airlines, Texas Instruments, [[Jacobs Engineering, [[HollyFrontier, [[Dean Foods, and Builders FirstSource. In October 2016, Jacobs Engineering, one of the world's largest engineering companies, relocated from [[Pasadena, California to Downtown Dallas. Nearby Irving is home to six Fortune 500 companies of its own, including
ExxonMobil Exxon Mobil Corporation, stylized as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas. It is the largest direct descendant of John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil, and was formed on November 30, 199 ...
, the largest oil company in the world and the third largest company in the nation by revenue for 2020, [[Fluor Corporation|Fluor (engineering), [[Kimberly-Clark, [[Celanese, [[The Michaels Companies|Michaels Companies, and [[TXU Energy|Vistra Energy. [[Plano, Texas|Plano is home to an additional four Fortune 500 companies, including [[J.C. Penney, [[Alliance Data Systems, [[Yum China, and [[Keurig Dr Pepper|Dr. Pepper Snapple. Fort Worth is home to two
Fortune 500 The ''Fortune'' 500 is an annual list compiled and published by ''Fortune'' magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years. The list includes publicly held companies, along wit ...
companies, including
American Airlines American Airlines, Inc. (AA or AAL) is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, and revenu ...
, the largest airline in the world by revenue, fleet size, profit, passengers carried and revenue passenger mile and [[D.R. Horton, the largest homebuilder in America. One Fortune 500 company, [[Gamestop, is based in [[Grapevine, Texas|Grapevine. Additional major companies headquartered in Dallas and its metro area include [[Comerica, which relocated its national headquarters to Downtown Dallas from [[Detroit in 2007, NTT DATA Services, Regency Energy Partners, [[Atmos Energy, [[Neiman Marcus, [[Think Finance, [[7-Eleven, [[Brinker International, Primoris Services, [[AMS Pictures, [[id Software, [[Mary Kay Cosmetics, [[Chuck E. Cheese's, [[Zale Corporation, and [[Fossil, Inc.|Fossil, Inc. Many of these companies—and others throughout the DFW metroplex—comprise the [[Dallas Regional Chamber. [[Susan G. Komen for the Cure, the world's largest breast cancer organization, was founded and is headquartered in Dallas. In addition to its large number of businesses, Dallas has more shopping centers per capita than any other city in the United States and is also home to the second shopping center ever built in the United States, [[Highland Park Village, which opened in 1931. Dallas is home of the two other major malls in North Texas, the [[Dallas Galleria and [[NorthPark Center, which is the second largest mall in Texas. Both malls feature high-end stores and are major tourist draws for the region. According to ''[[Forbes'' magazine's annual list of "The Richest People in America" published September 21, 2011, the city is home to 17 billionaires, up from 14 in 2009. In 2009 (with 14 billionaires) the city placed sixth worldwide among cities with the most billionaires. Dallas is the third most popular destination for business travel in the United States, and the [[Kay Bailey Hutchison Convention Center is one of the largest and busiest convention centers in the country, at over , and the world's single-largest column-free exhibit hall. [[Visitdallas|VisitDallas is the [[501(c)(6) organization contracted to promote tourism and attract conventions but an audit released in January 2019 cast doubts on its effectiveness in achieving those goals.


Arts and culture


Arts and museums

The [[Arts District, Dallas|Arts District in the northern section of [[Downtown Dallas|Downtown is home to several arts venues and is the largest contiguous arts district in the United States. Notable venues in the district include the [[Dallas Museum of Art; the [[Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, home to the [[Dallas Symphony Orchestra and [[Dallas Wind Symphony; the [[Nasher Sculpture Center; and the [[The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art|Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art. The [[Perot Museum of Nature and Science, also in Downtown Dallas, is a [[Natural history museum|natural history and [[science museum. Designed by 2005 Pritzker Architecture Prize Laureate [[Thom Mayne and his firm Morphosis Architects, the 180,000-square-foot facility has six floors and stands about 14 stories high. Venues that are part of the AT&T [[Dallas Center for the Performing Arts include [[Moody Performance Hall, home to the [[Dallas Chamber Symphony; the [[Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre, home to the [[Dallas Theater Center and the Dallas Black Dance Theater; and the [[Margot and Bill Winspear Opera House|Winspear Opera House, home to the [[Dallas Opera and [[Texas Ballet Theater. Not far north of the area is the [[Meadows Museum at Southern Methodist University. In 2009, it joined up with Madrid's [[Museo del Prado|Prado Museum for a three-year partnership. The Prado focuses on Spanish visual art and has a collection of Spanish art in North America, with works by de Juanes, El Greco, Fortuny, Goya, Murillo, Picasso, Pkensa, Ribera, Rico, Velasquez, Zurbaran, and other Spaniards. These works, as well as non-Spanish highlights like sculptures by Rodin and Moore, have been so successful of a collaboration that the Prado and Meadows have agreed upon an extension of the partnership. The Institute for Creation Research operates the [[ICR Discovery Center for Science & Earth History, a creationism museum, in Dallas. The former [[Texas School Book Depository, from which, according to the [[Warren Commission Report, [[Lee Harvey Oswald [[JFK assassination|shot and killed President [[John F. Kennedy in 1963, has served since the 1980s as a [[Local government|county government office building, except for its sixth and seventh floors, which house [[Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza|the Sixth Floor Museum. [[The American Museum of the Miniature Arts is at the Hall of State in [[Fair Park. The Arts District is also home to [[Dallas Independent School District|DISD's [[Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, a magnet school that was recently expanded. [[City Center District, Dallas, Texas|City Center District, next to the Arts District, is home to [[the Dallas Contemporary. [[Deep Ellum, immediately east of Downtown, originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime [[jazz and [[blues hot spot in the [[Southern United States|South. Artists such as [[Blind Lemon Jefferson, [[Robert Johnson (musician)|Robert Johnson, Huddie "[[Lead Belly" Ledbetter, and [[Bessie Smith played in original Deep Ellum clubs such as the Harlem and the Palace. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues. A major art infusion in the area results from the city's lax stance on [[graffiti, and a number of public spaces, including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets, are covered in murals. One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late 2006 to accommodate the construction of a [[Green Line (Dallas Area Rapid Transit)|light rail line through the site. Like Deep Ellum before it, the [[Cedars, Dallas, Texas|Cedars neighborhood to the south of Downtown has also seen a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, an old Sears Roebuck and Company warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail. Within this building, Southside on Lamar hosts the Janette Kennedy Gallery with rotating gallery exhibitions featuring many local, national, and international artists. Current attractions include Gilley's Dallas and Poor David's Pub. [[Dallas Mavericks owner and local entrepreneur [[Mark Cuban purchased land along Lamar Street near [[Cedars Station in September 2005, and locals speculate he is planning an entertainment complex for the site. South of the Trinity River, the Bishop Arts District in [[Oak Cliff is home to a number of studio artists living in converted warehouses. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals, and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops. Dallas has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The office is responsible for six cultural centers throughout the city, funding for local artists and theaters, initiating public art projects, and running the city-owned [[classical music|classical radio station [[WRR (FM)|WRR. The [[Los Angeles-class submarine [[USS Dallas (SSN-700)|USS ''Dallas'' was planned to become a museum ship near the Trinity River after her decommissioning in September 2014, but this has since been delayed. It will be taken apart into massive sections in Houston and be transported by trucks to the museum site and will be put back together.


Libraries

The city is served by the [[Dallas Public Library system. The system was created by the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs with efforts spearheaded by then president [[May Dickson Exall. Her fundraising efforts led to a grant from philanthropist and steel baron [[Andrew Carnegie, which allowed the library system to build its first branch in 1901. Today, the library operates 29 branch locations throughout the city, including the 8-story [[J. Erik Jonsson Central Library in the [[Government District, Dallas|Government District of [[Downtown Dallas|Downtown.


Places of interest

* [[Adolphus Hotel * [[African American Museum (Dallas)|African American Museum * [[American Airlines Center * [[Arts District, Dallas|Arts District * [[AT&T Performing Arts Center * [[Bishop Arts District * [[Cedars, Dallas|Cedars * [[Cotton Bowl (stadium)|Cotton Bowl * [[Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden * [[Dallas Baptist University * [[Dallas Chamber Symphony * [[Dallas Hilton, the world's first modern [[Hilton Worldwide|Hilton * [[Dallas Holocaust Museum/Center for Education & Tolerance * [[Dallas Municipal Building * [[Dallas Museum of Art * [[Dallas World Aquarium * [[Dallas Zoo * [[Dealey Plaza * [[Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre * [[Design District, Dallas|Design District * [[Fair Park * [[Farmers Market, Dallas|Farmers Market * [[Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas * [[Frontiers of Flight Museum * [[Galleria Dallas * [[George W. Bush Presidential Center * [[Highland Park Village * [[John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial * [[Kalita Humphreys Theater, designed by [[Frank Lloyd Wright * [[Katy Trail (Dallas)|Katy Trail * [[Kirby Building * [[Klyde Warren Park * [[Majestic Theatre (Dallas, Texas)|Majestic Theatre * [[Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge * [[Meadows Museum * [[Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center * [[Munger Place Historic District, Dallas|Munger Place Historic District * [[Museum of Biblical Art (Dallas)|Museum of Biblical Art * [[Nasher Sculpture Center|The Nasher Sculpture Center * [[Neiman Marcus Building * [[NorthPark Center * [[Pioneer Plaza * [[Perot Museum of Nature and Science * [[Reunion Tower * [[Ronald Kirk Bridge * [[Sixth Floor Museum at Dealey Plaza * [[South Boulevard-Park Row Historic District * [[Southern Methodist University * [[Southfork Ranch as seen on [[Dallas (1978 TV series)|''Dallas'' (1978) and [[Dallas (2012 TV series)|''Dallas'' (2012) * [[Swiss Avenue, Dallas|Swiss Avenue historical district * [[Texas School Book Depository * [[Texas Theatre * [[Thanks-Giving Square * [[Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art * [[Trinity River Audubon Center * [[Victory Park, Dallas, Texas|Victory Park * [[White Rock Lake


Cuisine

Dallas is known for its [[barbecue, authentic [[Mexican cuisine|Mexican, and [[Tex-Mex cuisine. Famous products of the Dallas culinary scene include the [[margarita|Frozen margarita machine by restaurateur [[Mariano Martinez (entrepreneur) in 1971.


Events

The most notable event held in Dallas is the [[State Fair of Texas, which has been held annually at [[Fair Park since 1886. The fair brings in an estimated $50 million to the city's economy annually. The [[Red River Shootout, a football game that pits the [[University of Texas at Austin against the [[University of Oklahoma at the [[Cotton Bowl (stadium)|Cotton Bowl, also brings significant crowds to the city. The city also hosts the [[State Fair Classic and [[Heart of Dallas Bowl at the [[Cotton Bowl (stadium)|Cotton Bowl. Other festivals include several [[Cinco de Mayo celebrations hosted by the city's large [[Mexican American population and a [[Saint Patrick's Day parade along [[Lower Greenville, Dallas, Texas|Lower Greenville Avenue, [[Juneteenth festivities, Taste of Dallas, the Deep Ellum Arts Festival, the [[Greek Food Festival of Dallas, the annual Halloween event "The Wake", and two annual events on Halloween, including a Halloween parade on [[Oak Lawn, Dallas, Texas|Cedar Springs Road and a "Zombie Walk" held in [[Downtown Dallas in the [[Arts District. With the opening of [[Victory Park, Dallas, Texas|Victory Park, [[WFAA began hosting an annual New Year's Eve celebration in AT&T Plaza that the television station hoped would reminisce of celebrations in New York's [[Times Square; on New Year's Eve 2011 set a new record of 32,000 people in attendance. After the discontinuance of the "Big D NYE" festivities a few years later, a new end-of-year event was started downtown, with a big fireworks show put on at [[Reunion Tower, which has since aired on [[KXAS and other TV stations around the state and region. Also, several Omni hotels in the Dallas area host large events to welcome in the new year, including murder mystery parties, rave-inspired events, and other events.


Sports

The Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is home to five [[Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada|major league sports teams: the [[Dallas Cowboys (National Football League), [[Dallas Mavericks (National Basketball Association), [[Texas Rangers (baseball)|Texas Rangers (Major League Baseball), [[Dallas Stars (National Hockey League), and [[FC Dallas (Major League Soccer). It also hosts one team in a [[Major women's sport leagues in North America|major women's league: the [[Dallas Wings (Women's National Basketball Association).


Major league

The [[Dallas Cowboys of the [[National Football League play in nearby [[Arlington, Texas|Arlington. Since joining the league as an expansion team in 1960, the Cowboys have enjoyed substantial success, advancing to eight [[Super Bowls and winning five. The Cowboys are financially the most valuable sports franchise in the world, worth approximately $4 billion. In 2009, the Cowboys relocated to their new 80,000-seat [[AT&T Stadium|stadium in Arlington, which was the site of [[Super Bowl XLV. The [[Texas Rangers (baseball)|Texas Rangers of the [[American League play at [[Globe Life Field. The team won the American League pennant in 2010 and 2011. Chris Woodward is the team's manager. The [[Dallas Mavericks play at the [[American Airlines Center. They won their first [[National Basketball Association championship in 2011 led by [[Dirk Nowitzki. The [[Dallas Wings is the first [[Women's National Basketball Association franchise in the Metroplex. All home games are played at the [[College Park Center. The [[Dallas Stars are members of the [[National Hockey League (NHL). The Stars have won eight division titles in Dallas, two [[President's Trophy|President's Trophies as the top regular season team in the NHL, the [[Western Conference (NHL)|Western Conference championship three times, and in [[1998–99 NHL season|1998–99, the [[Stanley Cup. The team plays at the [[American Airlines Center. [[FC Dallas of [[Major League Soccer play in Frisco at [[Toyota Stadium (Texas)|Toyota Stadium (formerly FC Dallas Stadium and Pizza Hut Park), a stadium that opened in 2005. The team was originally called the Dallas Burn and used to play in the [[Cotton Bowl (stadium)|Cotton Bowl. Although FC Dallas has not yet won a MLS Cup, they won the [[Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup in 1997 and 2016 and the [[Supporters' Shield in 2016. Previously, the [[Dallas Tornado played the [[North American Soccer League (1968–84)|North American Soccer League from 1968 to 1981.


Minor league

The [[Dallas Renegades are a professional football team in the relaunched [[XFL (2020)|XFL that plays their home games at [[Globe Life Park in Arlington|Globe Life Park, the former home of the Texas Rangers. The [[Dallas Sidekicks (2012) are an American professional [[indoor soccer team based in [[Allen, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. They play their home games in the [[Allen Event Center. The team is named after the original [[Dallas Sidekicks (1984–2004)|Dallas Sidekicks that operated from 1984 to 2004. The MLS-affiliated [[North Texas SC team is a member of [[USL League One and plays in Frisco at Toyota Stadium. It is the reserve team of FC Dallas. The Dallas Mavericks own a [[NBA G League team, the [[Texas Legends. [[Rugby union|Rugby is a developing sport in Dallas and Texas in general. The multiple clubs, ranging from men's and women's clubs to [[College rugby|collegiate and high school, are part of the [[Western Rugby Football Union|Texas Rugby Football Union. Dallas was one of only 16 cities in the United States included in the [[Rugby Super League (United States)|Rugby Super League, represented by [[Dallas Harlequins. In 2020, [[Major League Rugby announced the [[Dallas Jackals as a new franchise. [[Australian rules football is also growing in Dallas. The [[Dallas Magpies, founded in 1998, compete in the [[United States Australian Football League.


College

The only [[NCAA Division I|Division I sports program within the Dallas political boundary is the [[Dallas Baptist University [[Dallas Baptist Patriots|Patriots baseball team. Although outside the city limits, the [[SMU Mustangs|Mustangs of [[Southern Methodist University are in the enclave of [[University Park, Texas|University Park. Neighboring cities
Fort Worth Fort Worth is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Texas and the 13th-largest city in the United States. It is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly into three other counties: Denton, Parker, and Wise. According to the 2019 c ...
, Arlington, and [[Denton, Texas|Denton are home to the [[Texas Christian University [[TCU Horned Frogs|Horned Frogs, [[University of Texas at Arlington [[UT Arlington Mavericks|Mavericks, and [[University of North Texas [[North Texas Mean Green|Mean Green respectively. The Dallas area hosted the Final Four of the [[2014 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament at AT&T Stadium. The college [[Cotton Bowl Classic football game was played at the [[Cotton Bowl (stadium)|Cotton Bowl through its [[2009 Cotton Bowl Classic|2009 game, but has moved to AT&T Stadium. The [[Red River Showdown, is an American [[college football [[College rivalry|rivalry game played annually at the [[Cotton Bowl (stadium)|Cotton Bowl Stadium during the second weekend of the [[State Fair of Texas in October. The game is played by the [[Oklahoma Sooners football team of the [[University of Oklahoma and the [[Texas Longhorns football team of the [[University of Texas at Austin. The 10,000-capacity Forester Stadium, which is used mainly for football and soccer, is also located in Dallas.


Parks and recreation

Dallas maintains and operates 406 parks on of parkland. The city's parks contain 17 separate lakes, including [[White Rock Lake|White Rock and [[Bachman Lake|Bachman lakes, spanning a total of . In addition, Dallas is traversed by of biking and jogging trails, including the [[Katy Trail of Dallas|Katy Trail, and is home to 47 community and neighborhood recreation centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds, 173 basketball courts, 112 volleyball courts, 126 play slabs, 258 neighborhood tennis courts, 258 picnic areas, six 18-hole golf courses, two driving ranges, and 477 athletic fields as of 2013.


Fair Park

Dallas's flagship park is [[Fair Park. Built in 1936 for the [[Texas Centennial Exposition [[world's fair, Fair Park is the world's largest collection of [[Art Deco exhibit buildings, art, and sculptures; Fair Park is also home to the [[State Fair of Texas, the largest state fair in the United States. In November 2019, consultants presented to the public a master plan to revitalize the area.


Klyde Warren Park

Named after Klyde Warren, the young son of billionaire [[Kelcy Warren, [[Klyde Warren Park was built above [[Texas State Highway Spur 366|Woodall Rodgers Freeway and connects [[Uptown, Dallas|Uptown and Downtown, specifically the Arts District. Klyde Warren Park is home to countless amenities, including an [[Amphitheatre|amphitheater, jogging trails, a children's park, My Best Friend's Park (dog park), a putting green, [[croquet, ping pong, chess, an outdoor library, and two restaurants: Savor and Relish. Food trucks give hungry people another option of dining and are lined along the park's Downtown side. There are also weekly planned events, including [[yoga, [[Zumba, skyline tours, [[Tai Chi, and [[meditation. Klyde Warren Park is home to a free trolley stop on Olive St., which riders can connect to Downtown, McKinney Avenue, and [[West Village, Dallas|West Village.


Turtle Creek Parkway park

Built in 1913, Turtle Creek Parkway park is a 23.7-acre linear park in between Turtle Creek and Turtle Creek Boulevard in the aptly named [[Turtle Creek, Dallas|Turtle Creek neighborhood. Archaeological surveys discovered dart points and flint chips dating 3,000 years to 1,000 BC. This site was later discovered to be home to Native Americans who cherished the trees and natural spring water. The park is across Turtle Creek from [[Kalita Humphreys Theater, designed by [[Frank Lloyd Wright.


Lake Cliff Park

Opened on July 4, 1906, Lake Cliff Park was called "the Southwest's Greatest Playground". The park was home to an amusement park, a large pool, waterslides, the world's largest skating rink, and three theaters, the largest being the 2,500-seat Casino Theater. After the streetcar bridge that brought most of the park visitors collapsed, Lake Cliff Park was sold. The Casino Theater moved and the pool was demolished after a polio scare in 1959. The pool was Dallas's first municipal pool.


Reverchon Park

In 1935, Dallas purchased from John Cole's estate to develop [[Reverchon Park. Reverchon Park was named after botanist Julien Reverchon, who left France to live in the La Reunion colony, which was founded in the mid-1800s and was situated in present-day West Dallas. Reverchon Park was planned to be the crown jewel of the Dallas park system and was even referred to as the "[[Central Park" of Dallas. Improvements were made throughout the years, including the Iris Bowl, picnic settings, a baseball diamond, and tennis courts. The Iris Bowl celebrated many Greek pageants, dances, and other performances. The Gill Well was installed for nearby residents and drew people all across Texas who wanted to experience the water's healing powers. The baseball diamond was host to a 1953 exhibition game for the [[New York Giants (baseball team)|New York Giants and the [[Cleveland Indians season 1936|Cleveland Indians.


Trinity River Project

As part of the ongoing [[Trinity River Project, the Great Trinity Forest, at , is the largest urban hardwood forest in the United States and is part of the largest urban park in the United States. The Trinity River Audubon Center is a new addition to the park. Opened in 2008, it serves as a gateway to many trails and other nature-viewing activities in the area. The Trinity River Audubon Center is the first LEED-certified building built by the City of Dallas Parks and Recreation Department.


Katy Trail

Named after its former railroad name, the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad (or "MKT" Railroad), the 3.5-mile stretch of railroad was purchased by the city of Dallas and transformed into the city's premier trail. Stretching from [[Victory Park, Dallas|Victory Park, the 30-acre [[Katy Trail (Dallas)|Katy Trail passes through the [[Turtle Creek, Dallas|Turtle Creek and Knox Park neighborhoods and runs along the east side of [[Highland Park, Texas|Highland Park. The trail ends at [[Central Expressway (Dallas)|Central Expressway, but extensions are underway to extend the trail to the White Rock Lake Trail in [[Lakewood, Dallas|Lakewood. In 2015, the Katy Trail was awarded "Best Public Place" from the [[Urban Land Institute.


Preserves

Dallas hosts three of the twenty-one preserves of the extensive Dallas County Preserve System. The Joppa Preserve, the McCommas Bluff Preserve, and the Cedar Ridge Preserve are within the Dallas city limits. The Cedar Ridge Preserve was known as the Dallas Nature Center, but the Audubon Dallas group now manages the natural habitat park on behalf of the city of Dallas and Dallas County. The preserve sits at an elevation of above sea level and offers a variety of outdoor activities, including of hiking trails and picnic areas.


Dallas Zoo

The city is also home to Texas's first and largest zoo, the [[Dallas Zoo, which opened at its current location in 1888.


Government


Local representation

The city uses a [[council-manager government, with [[Eric Johnson (Texas politician)|Eric Johnson serving as mayor, T.C. Broadnax serving as city manager, and 14 council members serving as representatives to the 14 council districts in the city.City of Dallas


. Retrieved October 16, 2006.
City of Dallas


. Retrieved January 13, 2007.
This organizational structure was contested by some in favor of a strong-mayor city charter, only to be rejected by Dallas voters. In 1969, Anita N. Martínez become the first Latin American to sit as a councilwoman in Dallas's city council. In the 2017–2018 fiscal year, the city's total [[government budget|budget (the sum of [[operating budget|operating and capital budgets) was $3.3 billion.City of Dallas FY18-19 Adopted Budget Overview
([[Portable Document Format|PDF). Retrieved February 14, 2019.
The city has seen a steady increase in its budget due to sustained growth: the budget was $1.7 billion in 2002–2003,City of Dallas FY03-04 Adopted Budget Overview
. ([[Portable Document Format|PDF). Retrieved May 9, 2006.
$1.9 billion in 2003–2004, $2.0 billion in 2004–2005,City of Dallas FY05-06 Adopted Budget Overview
. ([[Portable Document Format|PDF). Retrieved May 9, 2006.
and $2.2 billion in 2005–2006.


Federal and state representation

National and state legislators representing Dallas: The [[United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, which exercises original jurisdiction over 100 counties in North and West Texas, convenes in the [[Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse in the [[Government District, Dallas, Texas|Government District of [[Downtown Dallas|Downtown. The same building additionally houses [[United States Bankruptcy Court|United States Bankruptcy and Magistrate Courts and a [[United States Attorney office. Dallas also is the seat of the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas.


Politics

The city of Dallas [[City proper|proper has become a [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic stronghold in recent elections, with 67% of voters supporting [[Hillary Clinton in the [[2016 United States presidential election|2016 presidential election (excluding write-ins). [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democratic voters dominate the majority of the city, especially the [[Downtown Dallas|central [[Urban area|urban core and [[South Dallas|southern sectors, with [[Republican Party (United States)|Republicans spreading a sliver of suburban neighborhoods in [[North Dallas. In the 2004 U.S. presidential elections, 57% of Dallas voters voted for [[John Kerry over [[George W. Bush. Dallas County was closely divided, with 50% of voters voting for Bush and 49% voting for Kerry. Results in the 2008 and 2012 elections favored [[Barack Obama, with the 44th President receiving 57% of Dallas County voters in both years, with greater margins in the city of Dallas. In the 2016 U.S. presidential election, approximately 66% of Dallas voters voted for [[Hillary Clinton, with 28% of city voters voting for [[Donald Trump. Dallas County as a whole saw 61% of voters voting for Clinton, with 35% support for Trump. In 2004, [[Lupe Valdez was elected Dallas County [[Sheriff. An open lesbian, Valdez was the only female sheriff in the state of Texas until her resignation. Despite controversies in her handling of county jails, she won re-election in 2008 with a 10-point victory over Republican challenger Lowell Cannaday.


Education

There are 337 public schools, 89 private schools, 38 colleges, and 32 libraries in Dallas. Dallas–Fort Worth is also home to six Nobel Laureates.


Colleges and universities

The Dallas area has a high number of colleges and universities. In addition to those in the city, the surrounding cities also have a number of universities, colleges, trade schools, and other educational institutions. The following describes the universities and their proximity to the city:


Colleges and universities within Dallas city limits

* [[UT Southwestern Medical Center ("UTSW") is a prominent academic medical center north of downtown Dallas in the [[Southwestern Medical District, ranked in the top 30 nationally by [[US News & World Report every year (in both ''Research'' and ''Clinical'' categories). Six Nobel laureates have been among its faculty, and UTSW was ranked #1 in the world among healthcare institutions in biomedical sciences by ''[[Nature (journal)|Nature'' in 2019. The main teaching hospital of the university also ranks among the top 3 hospitals in the state of Texas. UTSW is part of the [[University of Texas System. *[[Texas Woman's University has operated a nursing school in Dallas at [[Parkland Memorial Hospital since 1966. The T. Boone Pickens Institute of Health Sciences-Dallas Center (IHSD) was opened in 2011 and is a purpose-built educational facility that replaced the building TWU had used since 1966. TWU also operated an occupational therapy school at [[Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas from 1977 through 2011 before consolidating those functions into the new IHSD building at Parkland. *[[Paul Quinn College is a private, historically [[Black (people)|black college in southeast Dallas. Originally located in [[Waco, Texas, it moved to Dallas in 1990 and is housed on the campus of the former [[Bishop College, another private, historically black college. Dallas billionaire and entrepreneur [[Comer Cottrell|Comer Cottrell, Jr., founder of ProLine Corporation, bought the campus of Bishop College and bequeathed it to Paul Quinn College in 1990 making it the only historically black college in the Dallas area. * The [[University of North Texas at Dallas is along Houston School Road.University of North Texas Dallas Campus
Retrieved October 4, 2006.
In 2009 UNT at Dallas became the first public university within Dallas city limits.University of North Texas Dallas Campus


Retrieved October 4, 2006.
The [[University of North Texas System requested approval from the Texas Legislature and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board for the state's first new public law school in more than 40 years. The [[University of North Texas at Dallas College of Law was planned to be based at the Old Municipal Building in Downtown Dallas. *[[Dallas Baptist University is a private, coeducational university in the Mountain Creek area of southwest Dallas. Originally in [[Decatur, Texas, the school moved to Dallas in 1965. The school enrolls over 5,600 students, and offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral degrees. Popular subjects include Biblical studies, business, and music degrees. DBU has been recognized by the National Council on Teacher Quality for their high-quality teacher preparatory degrees. The school also maintains an Intensive English Program for international students wishing to enhance their knowledge of the English language. The campus is a [[Arbor Day Foundation|Tree Campus USA and is recognized as one of the most beautiful university campuses in the Southwest U.S. The school has also become nationally recognized for its baseball team which has made several playoff runs. *[[Dallas Theological Seminary, also within the city limits, is recognized as one of the leading seminaries in [[Evangelicalism|Evangelical Protestantism. Situated east of Downtown Dallas, it has over 2,000 graduate students and has graduated over 12,000 alumni. *[[Criswell College is within two blocks of Dallas Theological Seminary. Criswell was started by First Baptist Church of Dallas in the early 1970s. *[[Dallas County Community College District|Dallas College (formerly Dallas County Community College District), the 2-year educational institution of Dallas County, has seven campuses throughout the area with branches in Dallas as well as the surrounding suburbs. DCCCD serves portions of Dallas in Dallas County.


Colleges and universities within Dallas County

*[[Southern Methodist University is a [[private university|private, [[mixed-sex education|coeducational university in [[University Park, Texas|University Park, an independent city that, together with the adjacent town of Highland Park, Dallas surrounds entirely. SMU was founded in 1911 by the [[Methodist Episcopal Church, South|Southern Methodist Church, and is now run by [[R. Gerald Turner. According to sources such as the [[U.S. News & World Report, SMU is the best overall undergraduate college in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex and the third best in the State of Texas. *[[University of Texas at Dallas|The University of Texas at Dallas is a part of the [[University of Texas System. It is in the city of [[Richardson, Texas|Richardson, about 15 miles north of [[Downtown Dallas. It is in the heart of the [[Telecom Corridor. UT Dallas is an [[List of research universities in the United States|R1 or Tier-1 University, classified by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education as a doctoral-granting university with the highest research activity (it is among 115 universities in the US with this classification). UTD was ranked #3 (2013, 2015), #1 (2017), and #2 (2019) in the United States in the [[Times Higher Education "Young University Rankings" of the best universities that are 50 years old or younger. The university has many collaborative research relationships with [[UT Southwestern Medical Center. *[[University of Dallas|The University of Dallas, in the suburb of
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, is an enclave of Roman Catholicism in the majority Protestant religious landscape of Dallas–Fort Worth. St. Albert the Great Dominican Priory and [[Holy Trinity Seminary are on campus, while the [[Cistercian Monastery and Cistercian Preparatory School are just north of the UD campus across [[Texas State Highway 114. [[The Highlands School, a PK–12 [[Legionaries of Christ|Legionary school, is just west of the UD campus and connects to campus by jogging trails. As a center for religious study, the Cistercian Monastery continues to be notable for scholastic developments in theology. * Located in Downtown Dallas, [[El Centro College is the flagship institution of the [[Dallas County Community College District. El Centro first opened its campus doors in 1966 and now enrolls over 10,000 students. El Centro was the first college of the DCCCD to offer a nursing program and has established relationships with several top-notch hospitals in the Dallas area. The college is also the only campus within DCCCD that offers a Food & Hospitality Program as well as renowned programs in fashion design and fashion marketing.


University Research Center

*[[Texas A&M AgriLife|Texas A&M-Dallas Research and Extension Center


Other area colleges and universities

*[[University of Texas at Arlington|The University of Texas at Arlington *[[University of North Texas|The University of North Texas in [[Denton, Texas|Denton *[[Texas Woman's University in Denton *[[Tarleton State University in Fort Worth *[[University of Phoenix in Dallas, Irving, Plano, Arlington, [[Hurst, Texas|Hurst, and [[Cedar Hill, Texas|Cedar Hill *[[Dallas Christian College in [[Farmers Branch, Texas|Farmers Branch *[[Arlington Baptist College *[[Collin College in Collin County *[[Remington College in Garland *[[Remington College in Fort Worth *[[Texas Christian University *[[Texas Wesleyan University *[[University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth *[[Austin College in [[Sherman, Texas|Sherman *[[Texas A&M University–Commerce *[[Southwestern Assemblies of God University in nearby [[Waxahachie, Texas|Waxahachie *[[Navarro College in [[Corsicana, Texas|Corsicana *[[Tarrant County College in [[Tarrant County, Texas|Tarrant County


Primary and secondary schools

Most people in the city of Dallas are within the [[Dallas Independent School District, the 12th-largest school district in the United States and second largest in Texas.DallasISD.org

Inside DISD
. Retrieved May 1, 2006.
The school district operates independently of the city and enrolls over 161,000 students. As of 2003 DISD has the majority of K-12 students in the city of Dallas, and a proportionately larger number of students who are not [[non-Hispanic White|non-Hispanic white.Hanson, Royce. ''Civic Culture and Urban Change: Governing Dallas''. [[Wayne State University Press, April 1, 2003. , 9780814337479. p
82
One of the district's [[magnet schools, the [[School for the Talented and Gifted in Oak Cliff, is consistently named the best public school in the United States by ''[[Newsweek'', retaining the title for five consecutive years (2012–2016). Another one of DISD's schools, the [[Science and Engineering Magnet, consistently ranks in the top 10 in the same publication. Other Dallas high schools named to the list were [[Hillcrest High School (Dallas)|Hillcrest, [[W. T. White High School|W. T. White, Williams Preparatory, and [[Woodrow Wilson High School (Dallas)|Woodrow Wilson high schools. In 2015, Woodrow Wilson was also named the top comprehensive high school in Dallas by local publication ''[[D Magazine''. A few areas of Dallas also extend into other school districts, including [[Carrollton-Farmers Branch Independent School District|Carrollton-Farmers Branch, [[Coppell Independent School District|Coppell, [[Duncanville Independent School District|Duncanville, [[Garland Independent School District|Garland, [[Highland Park Independent School District|Highland Park, [[Mesquite Independent School District|Mesquite, [[Plano Independent School District|Plano, and [[Richardson Independent School District|Richardson. The Plano and Richardson school districts have the largest numbers of public school students in Dallas who are not in Dallas ISD. The [[Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District once served portions of southern Dallas, but it was shut down for the 2005–2006 year. WHISD students started attending other Dallas ISD schools during that time. Following the close, the [[Texas Education Agency consolidated WHISD into Dallas ISD. Many school districts in Dallas County, including Dallas ISD, are served by a governmental agency called Dallas County Schools. The system provides busing and other transportation services, access to a massive media library, technology services, strong ties to local organizations for education/community integration, and staff development programs.


Private schools

There are many private schools in Dallas, such as [[Bishop Dunne Catholic School, [[Bishop Lynch High School, [[Burton Adventist Academy, Calvary Lutheran School, Dallas Christian Adventist Academy, Dallas Lutheran School, The da Vinci School, [[Greenhill School, Addison|Greenhill School, [[Episcopal School of Dallas, [[First Baptist Academy of Dallas, [[The Hockaday School, [[Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas, [[June Shelton School, [[Lakehill Preparatory School, [[The Lamplighter School, [[Parish Episcopal School, [[St. Mark's School of Texas, [[Ursuline Academy of Dallas, [[The Winston School, and Yavneh Academy of Dallas and [[Dallas Christian School (on the borders of [[Mesquite, Texas|Mesquite and [[Garland, Texas|Garland) and Tyler Street Christian Academy in Oak Cliff. Some Dallas residents attend [[Cistercian Preparatory School in adjacent Irving, [[The Highlands School in Irving, [[Trinity Christian Academy (Addison, Texas)|Trinity Christian Academy in [[Addison, Texas|Addison, and [[John Paul II High School (Plano, Texas)|John Paul II High School in Plano.


Media

Dallas has several local newspapers, magazines, television stations and radio stations that serve the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, which is the 5th-largest [[media market in the United States. Dallas has one major daily newspaper, ''[[The Dallas Morning News'', which was founded in 1885 by [[A. H. Belo and is A. H. Belo's flagship newspaper. The ''[[Dallas Times Herald'', started in 1888, was the ''Morning News major competitor until Belo purchased it on December 8, 1991 and closed the paper down the next day. Other daily newspapers are ''[[Al Día (Dallas)|Al Día'', a Spanish-language paper published by Belo, and a number of ethnic newspapers printed in languages such as [[Chinese language|Chinese, [[Korean language|Korean, and [[Vietnamese language|Vietnamese. Other publications include the ''Dallas Weekly'' and the ''Elite News'', all weekly news publications. The ''[[Dallas Observer'' and the ''North Texas Journal'' are also alternative weekly newspapers. ''The Dallas Morning News'' formerly had a weekly publication, ''[[Neighborsgo'', which came out every Friday and focused on community news. Readers could post stories and contribute content to the website. ''[[D Magazine'' is a notable monthly magazine about business, life, and entertainment in Dallas-Fort Worth. Local visitor magazines include "WHERE Magazine" and "Travelhost"–available at hotel desks or in guest rooms. In addition, the park cities and suburbs such as Plano also have their own community newspapers. Also, ''THE Magazine'' covers the contemporary arts scene. In terms of the larger metro area, the ''[[Fort Worth Star-Telegram'' is another major daily newspaper, covering
Fort Worth Fort Worth is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Texas and the 13th-largest city in the United States. It is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly into three other counties: Denton, Parker, and Wise. According to the 2019 c ...
's metropolitan division. It also publishes a major Spanish-language newspaper for the entire metro area known as ''La Estrella''. To the north of Dallas and Fort Worth, the ''[[Denton Record-Chronicle'' primarily covers news for the [[Denton, Texas|city of Denton and [[Denton County. Area television stations affiliated with the major broadcasting networks (network [[Owned-and-operated station|O&O's highlighted in bold) include [[KDFW|KDFW 4 ([[Fox Broadcasting Company|Fox), [[KXAS-TV|KXAS 5 ([[NBC), [[WFAA-TV|WFAA 8 ([[American Broadcasting Company|ABC) (which for many years was owned by [[Belo alongside the ''Morning News''), [[KTVT|KTVT 11 ([[CBS), [[KERA-TV|KERA 13 ([[Public Broadcasting Service|PBS), [[KUVN-TV|KUVN 23 ([[Univisión|UNI), [[KDFI|KDFI 27 ([[My Network TV|MNTV), [[KDAF|KDAF 33 ([[The CW), and [[KXTX-TV|KXTX 39 ([[Telemundo|TMD). [[KTXA|KTXA-21 is an [[independent station formerly affiliated with the now-defunct [[UPN network. Over 101 radio stations operate within range of Dallas. The city of Dallas operates [[WRR (FM)|WRR 101.1 FM, the area's main classical music station, from city offices in [[Fair Park. Its original sister station, licensed as [[WRR (AM)|WRR-AM in 1921, is the oldest commercially operated radio station in Texas and the second-oldest in the United States, after [[KDKA (AM) in Pittsburgh. Because of the city's central geographical position and lack of nearby mountainous terrain, high-power [[List of broadcast station classes#AM|class A [[medium-wave stations [[KRLD (AM)|KRLD and [[WBAP (AM)|WBAP can broadcast as far as southern Canada at night and can be used for emergency messages when broadcasting is down in other major metropolitan areas in the United States. [[Slavic Voice of America media group serves Russian-speaking Americans out of Dallas. Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation (HBC), the largest company in the Spanish-language radio station business, is based in Dallas. In 2003, HBC was acquired by Univision and became Univision Radio Inc., but the radio company remains headquartered in the city.


Infrastructure


Public safety

The [[Dallas Police Department provides most policing in Dallas. The Dallas chief of police is Eddie Garcia. The police headquarters are in the Cedars neighborhood of southern Dallas. Fire protection and [[emergency medical services in the city are provided by the [[Dallas Fire-Rescue Department. The Dallas Fire & Rescue chief is Dominique Artis. The department operates the Dallas Firefighter's Museum built in 1907 along Parry Avenue near Fair Park. Dallas's oldest remaining fire station building still stands at the corner of McKinney Ave. and Leonard and was built in 1892. It was the home of Engine Co. Number 1, and is now a picture framing shop.


Health care

Dallas has many hospitals and several medical research facilities within its city limits. One major research center is the Dallas Medical District with the [[University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center|UT Southwestern Medical Center in the [[Stemmons Corridor, along with the affiliated [[University of Texas Southwestern Medical School|UT Southwestern Medical School. The health care complex includes within its bounds [[Parkland Memorial Hospital, [[Children's Medical Center (Dallas)|Children's Medical Center, [[William P. Clements Jr. University Hospital (formerly St. Paul University Hospital), and the [[William P. Clements Jr. University Hospital. Dallas also has a [[United States Department of Veterans Affairs|VA hospital in the southern portion of the city, the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The center is home to a [[Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy (CMOP), part of an initiative by the Department of Veterans Affairs to provide mail-order prescriptions to veterans using computerization at strategic locations throughout the United States. Other hospitals in the city include [[Baylor University Medical Center in [[East Dallas, Methodist Dallas Medical Center in Oak Cliff, Methodist Charlton Medical Center near [[Duncanville, Texas|Duncanville, [[Medical City Dallas Hospital and [[Presbyterian Hospital (Dallas)|Presbyterian Hospital in [[North Dallas, and the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children in Oak Lawn.


Utilities

Dallas is served by [[Dallas Water Utilities, which operates several waste treatment plants and pulls water from several area reservoirs. Several companies maintain the city's electric system, including [[Stream Energy, Cirro Energy and [[Oncor Electric Delivery, whose parent company, [[Energy Future Holdings Corporation, has headquarters in the city. The city offers garbage pickup and recycling service weekly through its Sanitation Services department. Telephone networks, broadband internet, and cable television service are available from several companies, including [[AT&T Inc.|AT&T, [[Time Warner Cable, and [[Verizon FiOS.


Transportation

Like many other major cities in the United States, the automobile is the primary mode of local transportation, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines, biking and walking paths, wide sidewalks, a trolley system, and buses. [[Walk Score ranked Dallas the twenty-third most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States in 2011. In 2009, 78.5% of Dallas (city) commuters drive to work alone. The 2009 [[modal share|mode share for Dallas (city) commuters are 10.7% for carpooling, 3.9% for transit, 1.9% for walking, and .1% for cycling. In 2015, the American Community Survey estimated modal shares for Dallas (city) commuters of 75.4% for driving alone, 12.8% for carpooling, 3.5% for riding transit, 1.9% for walking, and .2% for cycling. The city of Dallas has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 10.2 percent of Dallas households lacked a car, and decreased to 9.1 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Dallas averaged 1.59 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.


Highways

Dallas is at the confluence of four major [[interstate highway system|interstate highways—Interstates [[Interstate 20 (Texas)|20, [[Interstate 30 (Texas)|30, [[Interstate 35E (Texas)|35E, and [[Interstate 45 (Texas)|45. The Dallas area freeway system is set up in the popular [[Spoke-hub distribution paradigm|hub-and-spoke system, shaped much like a wagon wheel. Starting from the center of the city, a small freeway loop surrounds Downtown, followed by the [[Interstate 635 (Texas)|Interstate 635 loop about outside Downtown, and ultimately the tolled [[President George Bush Turnpike. Inside these freeway loops are other [[boulevard- and [[parkway-style loops, including [[Texas State Highway Loop 12|Loop 12 and [[Belt Line Road (Texas)|Belt Line Road. Another beltway around the city upwards of from Downtown is under plan in Collin County. Radiating out of Downtown Dallas's freeway loop are the spokes of the area's highway system—Interstates 30, 35E, and 45, [[U.S. Highway 75 (Texas)|U.S. Highway 75, [[U.S. Highway 175 (Texas)|U.S. Highway 175, [[Texas State Highway Spur 366|State Spur 366, the [[Dallas North Tollway, [[Texas State Highway 114|State Highway 114, [[U.S. Route 80 in Texas|U.S. Highway 80, and [[U.S. Highway 67 (Texas)|U.S. Highway 67. Other major highways around the city include [[Texas State Highway 183|State Highway 183 and [[Texas State Highway Spur 408|State Spur 408. The recently completed interchange at the intersection of Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway ([[Interstate 635 (Texas)|Interstate 635) and [[Central Expressway (Dallas)|Central Expressway (U.S. Highway 75) has five stacks and is aptly called the [[High Five Interchange. It is one of the few five-level interchanges in Dallas and is one of the largest freeway interchanges in the United States. The following is a list of the freeways and tollways in the Dallas and Fort Worth area: * [[Interstate 20 (Texas)|Interstate 20 * [[Interstate 30 (Texas)|Interstate 30 * [[Interstate 35E (Texas)|Interstate 35E * [[Interstate 35W (Texas)|Interstate 35W * [[Interstate 45 * [[Interstate 635 (Texas)|Interstate 635 * [[Interstate 820 (Texas)|Interstate 820 * [[U.S. Route 67 (Texas)|U.S. Highway 67 * [[U.S. Route 75 (Texas)|U.S. Highway 75 * [[U.S. Route 80 (Texas)|U.S. Highway 80 * [[U.S. Route 175|U.S. Highway 175 * [[U.S. Route 287 (Texas)|U.S. Highway 287 * [[Texas State Highway 114|State Highway 114 * [[Texas State Highway 121|State Highway 121 * [[Texas State Highway 161|State Highway 161 * [[Texas State Highway 183|State Highway 183 * [[Texas State Highway 190|State Highway 190 * [[Texas State Highway 360|State Highway 360 * [[Texas State Highway Loop 12|Loop 12 * [[State Highway Spur 366 (Texas)|Spur 366 * [[Texas State Highway Spur 408|Spur 408 * [[Texas State Highway Spur 482|Spur 482 * [[Dallas North Tollway * [[President George Bush Turnpike * [[Sam Rayburn Tollway


Airports

Two commercial airports serve Dallas:
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport , also known as DFW Airport, is the primary international airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex area in the U.S. state of Texas. It is the largest hub for American Airlines, which is headqua ...
and [[Dallas Love Field. In addition, [[Dallas Executive Airport (formerly Redbird Airport), serves as a [[general aviation airport for the city, and [[Addison Airport functions similarly just outside the city limits in the suburb of Addison. Two more general aviation airports are about north of Dallas in [[McKinney, Texas|McKinney, and another two are in
Fort Worth Fort Worth is the fifth-largest city in the U.S. state of Texas and the 13th-largest city in the United States. It is the county seat of Tarrant County, covering nearly into three other counties: Denton, Parker, and Wise. According to the 2019 c ...
, on the west side of the Metroplex. [[Fort Worth Alliance Airport|Alliance Airport, in far North Fort Worth, is a cargo reliever airport to DFW and general aviation facility. DFW International Airport is in the suburbs slightly north of and equidistant to Downtown Fort Worth and Downtown Dallas. In terms of size, DFW International is the largest airport in the state, the 2nd largest in the United States, and 9th largest in the world; DFW International Airport is larger than the island of [[Manhattan. In terms of traffic, DFW International is the busiest airport in the state, 4th busiest in the United States, and 11th busiest in the world. The headquarters of
American Airlines American Airlines, Inc. (AA or AAL) is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, and revenu ...
, the largest air carrier in the world ahead of [[United Airlines and [[Delta Air Lines, is less than a mile from DFW International within Fort Worth's city limits. Similarly, Love Field is within Dallas's city limits, about northwest of Downtown, and is headquarters to [[Southwest Airlines, the largest domestic airline in the United States.


Transit systems

Dallas Area Rapid Transit Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is a transit agency serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex of Texas. It operates buses, light rail, commuter rail, and high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Dallas and twelve of its suburbs. DART was created in 1983 t ...
(DART) is the Dallas-area public transportation authority that provides rail, buses and [[HOV lanes to commuters. DART began operating the first [[light rail system in Texas in 1996, and it is now the largest operator of light rail in the US. Today, the system is the [[List of United States light rail systems by ridership|seventh-busiest light rail system in the country with approximately 55 stations on 72 miles of light rail, and 10 stations on 35 miles of commuter rail. It includes four light rail lines and a commuter line: the , the , the , the , and the . The travels through [[Oak Cliff, [[South Dallas, [[downtown Dallas|Downtown, [[Uptown Dallas|Uptown, [[North Dallas, [[Richardson, Texas|Richardson and [[Plano, Texas|Plano, while the goes through Oak Cliff, Downtown, Uptown, [[East Dallas, [[Lake Highlands, and [[Garland, Texas|Garland. The and lines are conjoined between [[8th & Corinth Station in Oak Cliff through [[Mockingbird Station in [[North Dallas. The two lines service [[Cityplace Station. The Green Line serves [[Carrollton, Texas|Carrollton, [[Farmers Branch, Texas|Farmers Branch, [[Dallas Love Field|Love Field Airport, [[Stemmons Corridor, Dallas, Texas|Stemmons Corridor, [[Victory Park, Dallas, Texas|Victory Park, Downtown, [[Deep Ellum, Dallas, Texas|Deep Ellum, [[Fair Park, South Dallas, and [[Pleasant Grove, Dallas|Pleasant Grove. The Orange Line initially operated as a peak-service line providing extra capacity on portions of the Green and Red Lines ([[Bachman Station on the Green Line, through the Downtown transit mall, to [[Parker Road Station on the Red Line making a "U"-shape). However, the first stage of the Orange Line opened on December 6, 2010, extending its west end from Bachman to [[Belt Line Station in Irving. The second and final phase opened in August 2014 and provided [[Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport|DFW Airport with rail service. [[Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Station|DFW Airport Station is the terminus for the Orange Line and connects [[DFW Skylink|Skylink. This provides passengers the convenience of disembarking the DART rail, proceeding to security check-in and immediately boarding [[DFW Skylink|Skylink to be quickly transported to their desired terminal. The Blue Line has also been extended by 4.5 miles to serve [[Rowlett, Texas|Rowlett at the [[Rowlett Park & Ride facility. In August 2009, the Regional Transportation Council agreed to seek $96 million in federal stimulus dollars for a trolley project in Dallas and Fort Worth. The Oak Cliff Transit Authority took the lead with leaders envisioning a streetcar line that would link [[Dallas Union Station|Union Station and the [[Dallas Convention Center in Downtown to Oak Cliff, Methodist Medical Center, and the [[Bishop Arts District via the Houston Street Viaduct. Dallas was awarded a $23 million TIGER grant towards the $58 million Dallas Streetcar Project in February 2010. In addition to light rail, [[Amtrak's ''[[Texas Eagle'' also serves Union Station, providing daily service east to [[Chicago and west to [[San Antonio station (Texas)|San Antonio, and thrice-weekly service west to [[Los Angeles. The Trinity Rail Express terminates at Union Station and [[T&P Station.


International relations


Sister cities

Dallas's [[Sister city|sister cities are: * [[Brno, Czech Republic * [[Dijon, France * [[Monterrey, Mexico * [[Riga, Latvia * [[Saratov, Russia * [[Sendai, Japan * [[Taipei, Taiwan * [[Tianjin, China * [[Valencia, Spain


Friendship cities

Dallas has friendly relations with: * [[Dalian, China * [[Nanjing, China * [[Qingdao, China


See also

*[[List of museums in North Texas *[[List of people from Dallas *[[National Register of Historic Places listings in Dallas County, Texas *[[Texas Triangle *[[2015 attack on Dallas police


Notes


References


Further reading

* [[Herbert E. Bolton, ''Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768–1780'', Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark Company, 1914. * Patricia Evridge Hill, ''Dallas: The Making of a Modern City'', Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1996. * Maxine Holmes, ''The WPA Dallas Guide and History'', Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 1992. * Darwin Payne, ''Big D: Triumphs and Troubles of an American Supercity in the 20th Century'', Dallas: Three Forks Press, 2000. * John William Rogers, ''The Lusty Texans of Dallas'', E. P. Dutton, 1951. * Jim Schutze, ''The Accommodation: The Politics of Race in an American City'', New York: Citadel Press, 1987. * Nancy Smith, ''Dallas International with J.R. Ewing: History of Real Dallasites in the Spotlight of "Dallas," Southfork and the 1980s Gold Rush'', Outskirts Press, 2012. * Nancy Smith, ''Dallas Celebrity in the Glamorous 1980s Era of Ronald and Nancy Reagan'', Denver: Outskirts, 2016. * Roy H. Williams and Kevin James Shay, ''And Justice for All! The Untold History of Dallas'', Fort Worth: CGS, 1999.


External links


Official websiteOfficial City News BlogDallas Convention & Visitors Bureau
*
Dallas Public Library Search Results for Dallas County
{{Authority control [[Category:Dallas| [[Category:Cities in Collin County, Texas [[Category:Cities in Dallas County, Texas [[Category:Cities in Denton County, Texas [[Category:Cities in Kaufman County, Texas [[Category:Cities in Rockwall County, Texas [[Category:Cities in Texas [[Category:County seats in Texas [[Category:Cities in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex [[Category:Populated places established in 1841 [[Category:1841 establishments in the Republic of Texas