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Colonization, or colonisation refers to large-scale population movements where the migrants maintain strong links with their or their ancestors' former country, gaining significant privileges over other inhabitants of the territory by such links. When colonization takes place under the protection of colonial structures, it may be termed
settler colonialism Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism that seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers. As with all forms of colonialism, it is based on exogenous domination, typically organized or su ...
. This often involves the
settler A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. A settler who migrates to an area previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited may be described as a pioneer. Settlers ...
s dispossessing indigenous inhabitants, or instituting legal and other structures which systematically disadvantage them. In its basic sense, colonization can be defined as the process of establishing foreign control over target
territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state. In most countries, a ''territory'' is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally developed ...
or
people A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group, nation or the public of a polity. In politics Various states govern or claim to govern in the name of ''the people''. Both the Roman Republic a ...

people
for the purpose of
cultivation Cultivation may refer to: * The state of having or expressing a good education (bildung), refinement, culture, or high culture * Gardening * Agriculture, the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants and fungi * Fungiculture, the process of produ ...
, often through establishing
colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropolitan state (or ...
and possibly by settling them. In colonies established by Western European countries in the Americas, Australia and New Zealand, settlers (supplemented by Central European, Eastern European, Asian and African people) eventually formed a large majority of the population after killing, assimilating or driving away indigenous peoples. In other places, Western European settlers formed minority groups, often dominating the non-Western European majority. During the European colonization of Australia,
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi|Aotearoa ) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island () and the South Island ()—and more than 700 smaller islands, covering a total area of . New Zealand ...
and other place in
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Spanning the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, Oceania has a land area of and a population of over 41 million. When compared to continents, ...
, explorers and colonists often regarded the landmasses as ''
terra nullius ''Terra nullius'' (, plural ''terrae nullius'') is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land". It was a principle sometimes used in international law to justify claims that territory may be acquired by a state's occupation of it. History Ma ...
'', meaning "empty land" in Latin. Owing to the absence of Western farming techniques, Europeans deemed the land unaltered by mankind and therefore treated it as uninhabited, despite the presence of indigenous populations. In the 19th century, laws and ideas such as
Mexico Mexico ( es|México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to ...
's
General Colonization LawThe Colonization Law of August 18, 1824 was a Mexican statute allowing foreigners to immigrate to the country. Background Under Spanish rule, New Spain was populated almost solely with native peoples or Spanish settlers. Foreign immigration was for ...
and the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
'
manifest destiny Manifest destiny was a widely held cultural belief in the 19th-century United States that American settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny: * The special virtues of the American pe ...
doctrine encouraged further
colonization of the Americas Although the Norse had explored and colonized northeastern North America c. 1000 CE, a later and more well known wave of European colonization of the Americas took place in the Americas between about 1500 CE and 1800 CE, during the Age of Explo ...
, already started in the 15th century.


Lexicology

The term ''colonization'' is derived from the Latin words ''colere'' ("to cultivate, to till"), ''colonia'' ("a landed estate", "a farm") and ''colonus'' ("a tiller of the soil", "a farmer"), then by extension "to inhabit". Someone who engages in colonization, i.e. the agent noun, is referred to as a ''colonizer'', while the person who gets colonized, i.e. the object of the agent noun or absolutive, is referred to as a ''colonizee'', ''colonisee'' or the ''colonised''.


Pre-modern colonizations


Classical period

In ancient times, maritime nations such as the city-states of
Greece Greece ( el|Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on th ...
and
Phoenicia Phoenicia (; from grc|Φοινίκη, ') was an ancient Semitic-speaking thalassocratic civilization that originated in the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean, primarily modern Syria and Lebanon. It was concentrated along the coast of ...
often established colonies to farm what they believed was uninhabited land. Land suitable for farming was often occupied by migratory '
barbarian A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is usually applied as a generalization based on a popular stereotype; barbarians can be members of any nation judged by some to be less civilized or o ...
tribes' who lived by hunting and gathering. To ancient Greeks and Phoenicians, these lands were regarded as simply vacant. However, this did not mean that conflict did not exist between the colonizers and local/native peoples. Greeks and Phoenicians also established colonies with the intent of regulating and expanding trade throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East. Another period of colonization in ancient times was during the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire
. The Roman Empire conquered large parts of
Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe farthest from Asia, with the countries and territories included varying depending on context. After the beginning of foreign exploration in the Age of Discovery, roughly from the 15th century, the concept ...
,
North Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Su ...
and
West Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle East. It includes Anatolia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Mesopotamia, the Levant region, the island of Cyprus, the Sinai Peninsula, and ...
. In North Africa and West Asia, the Romans often conquered what they regarded as 'civilized' peoples. As they moved north into Europe, they mostly encountered rural peoples/tribes with very little in the way of cities. In these areas, waves of Roman colonization often followed the conquest of the areas. Many of the current cities throughout Europe began as Roman colonies, such as
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh|Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany's most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the fourth-most populous city in Germany. With 3.6 million people in the urban region and 1.1 million inhabitants ...
, Germany, originally called ''
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium ''Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium'' was the Roman colony in the Rhineland from which the German city of Cologne developed. It was usually called ''Colonia'' and was the capital of the Roman province of ''Germania Inferior'' and the headquarter ...
'' by the Romans, and the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, t ...
capital city of
London London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millen ...
, which the Romans founded as ''
Londinium Londinium, also known as Roman London, was the capital of Roman Britain during most of the period of Roman rule. It was originally a settlement established on the current site of the City of London around AD 47–50. It sat at a key crossin ...
''.


Middle Ages

The decline and collapse of the Roman Empire saw (and was partly caused by) the large-scale movement of people in
Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, ethnic, cultural, and s ...
and Asia. This is largely seen as beginning with nomadic horsemen from Asia (specifically the
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part o ...
) moving into the richer pasture land to the west, thus forcing the local people there to move further west and so on until eventually the
Goths The Goths ( got|𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰|translit=''Gutþiuda''; la|Gothi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe. In his book ''Getica'' (c. 551), the ...
were forced to cross into the Roman Empire, resulting in continuous war with Rome which played a major role in the fall of the Roman Empire. During this period there were large-scale movements of peoples establishing new colonies all over western Europe. The events of this time saw the development of many of the modern-day nations of Europe like the
Franks The Franks ( la|Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and the Ems River, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term was a ...
in France and Germany and the
Anglo-Saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited England. They traced their origins to the 5th century settlement of incomers to Britain, who migrated to the island from the North Sea coastlands of mainland Europe. However, the ethnogenesis ...
in England. In West Asia, during
Sassanid Empire The Sasanian () or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 ''Ērānshahr''), and called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians, was the last Persian imperial dynasty before ...
, some Persians established colonies in
Yemen ) | image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg | map_caption = | image_map2 = | capital = Sana'a (''De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital in exile) | coordinates = |capital_exile = Riyadh (presidential administration) | largest_city ...
and
Oman Oman ( ; ar|عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar|سلْطنةُ عُمان ), is a country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia and the oldest independent state in the Arab world. Located in a s ...

Oman
. The
Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar|عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar|عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers to th ...
also established colonies in
Northern Africa North Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Su ...
,
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( ar|بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن '; grc|Μεσοποταμία; Classical Syriac: ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ Ārām''-Nahrīn'' or ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ ''Bēṯ Nahrīn'') is a historical region of Western Asia situated withi ...
, and the
Levant The Levant () is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria, which included present-day ...

Levant
, and remain the dominant majority to this day. The
Vikings Vikings—"pirate", non|víkingr were the seafaring Norse people from southern Scandinavia (present-day Denmark, Norway and Sweden) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * who from the late 8th to late 11th centuries raided, pirated, tr ...
of
Scandinavia Scandinavia, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl'' ( ) is a subregion in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In English usage, ''Scandinavia'' can refer to Denmark, Norway and Sweden, sometimes more narr ...

Scandinavia
also carried out a large-scale colonization. The Vikings are best known as raiders, setting out from their original homelands in
Denmark Denmark ( da|Danmark, ), officially the Kingdom of Denmark, da|Kongeriget Danmark, . See also: The unity of the Realm is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. Denmark proper, which is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, consists o ...
, southern
Norway Norway ( nb| ; nn| ; se|Norga; smj|Vuodna; sma|Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. T ...
and southern
Sweden Sweden (; sv|Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv|links=no|Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingd ...
, to pillage the coastlines of northern Europe. In time, the Vikings began trading and established colonies. The Vikings discovered
Iceland Iceland ( is|Ísland; ) is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, with a population of 356,991 and an area of , making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. The capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and t ...
and established colonies before moving onto
Greenland Greenland ( kl|Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da|Grønland, ) is the world's largest island, located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Greenland is an autonomous territory* * * within the Kingdom of Denmar ...
, where they briefly held some colonies. The Vikings launched an unsuccessful attempt at colonizing an area they called
Vinland Vinland, Vineland or Winland ( non|Vínland) was an area of coastal North America explored by Vikings. Leif Erikson first landed there around 1000 CE, nearly five centuries before the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot. The name ap ...
, which is probably at a site now known as [[L'Anse aux Meadows, [[Newfoundland and Labrador, on the eastern coastline of [[Canada.


Modern colonialism

In the Colonial Era, colonialism in this context refers mostly to Western European countries' colonization of lands mainly in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania. The main European countries active in this form of colonization included [[Spain, [[Portugal, [[France, the [[Kingdom of England (later [[Kingdom of Great Britain|Great Britain), the [[Netherlands, and the [[Kingdom of Prussia (now mostly Germany), and, beginning in the 18th century, the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
. Most of these countries had a period of almost complete power in world trade at some stage in the period from roughly 1500 to 1900. Beginning in the late 19th century, [[Imperial Japan also engaged in settler colonization, most notably in [[Hokkaido and [[Korea. Some reports characterize [[China|Chinese activities in [[Tibet as colonization. While many European colonization schemes focused on shorter-term exploitation of economic opportunities ([[Newfoundland Colony|Newfoundland, for example, or [[Siberia) or addressed specific goals ([[Massachusetts or [[New South Wales), a tradition developed of careful long-term social and economic planning for both parties, but more on the colonizing countries themselves, based on elaborate theory-building (note [[James Oglethorpe's [[Colony of Georgia in the 1730s and [[Edward Gibbon Wakefield's [[New Zealand Company in the 1840s). Colonization may be used as a method of absorbing and assimilating foreign people into the culture of the imperial country, and thus destroying any remnant of the cultures that might threaten the imperial territory over the long term by inspiring reform. The main instrument to this end is [[linguistic imperialism, or the imposition of non-indigenous imperial (colonial) languages on the colonized populations to the exclusion of any indigenous languages from administrative (and often, any public) use.


Post-colonial variants


Russia

The Soviet regime in the 1920s tried to win the trust of non-Russians by promoting their ethnic cultures and establishing for them many of the characteristic institutional forms of the nation-state. The early Soviet regime was hostile to even voluntary assimilation, and tried to derussify assimilated non-Russians. Parents and students not interested in the promotion of their national languages were labeled as displaying "abnormal attitudes". The authorities concluded that minorities unaware of their ethnicities had to be subjected to Belarusization, Yiddishization, Polonization etc. By the early 1930s this extreme multiculturalist policy proved unworkable and the Soviet regime introduced a limited russification for practical reasons; voluntary assimilation, which was often a popular demand, was allowed. The list of nationalities was reduced from 172 in 1927 to 98 in 1939 by revoking support for small nations in order to merge them into bigger ones. For example, [[Abkhazia was merged into Georgia and thousands of ethnic Georgians were sent to Abkhazia. The Abkhaz alphabet was changed to a Georgian base, Abkhazian schools were closed and replaced with Georgian schools, the Abkhaz language was banned. The ruling elite was purged of ethnic Abkhaz and by 1952 over 80% of the 228 top party and government officials and enterprise managers in Abkhazia were ethnic Georgians (there remained 34 Abkhaz, 7 Russians and 3 Armenians in these positions). For [[Königsberg area of [[East Prussia (modern [[Kaliningrad Oblast) given to the Soviet Union at the 1945 [[Potsdam Conference Soviet control meant a [[Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950)#Poland, including former German territories|forcible expulsion of the remaining German population and mostly involuntary resettlement of the area with Soviet civilians. Russians were now presented as the most advanced and least chauvinist people of the Soviet Union.


Baltic states

Large numbers of ethnic Russians and other [[Russian speakers were sent to colonize the [[Baltic states after their [[Occupation of the Baltic states|reoccupation in 1944, while local languages, religions and customs were banned or suppressed. David Chioni Moore classified it as a "reverse-cultural colonization", where the colonized perceive the colonizers as culturally inferior. Colonization of the Baltic states was closely tied to mass executions, [[Population transfer in the Soviet Union#Post-war expulsion and deportation|deportations and [[repression in the Soviet Union|repression of the native population. During both Soviet occupations ([[Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940)|1940–1941; 1944–1952) a combined 605,000 people in the Baltic states were either killed or deported (135,000 Estonians, 170,000 Latvians and 320,000 Lithuanians), while their properties and personal belongings, along with ones who fled the country, were confiscated and given to the arriving colonists – Soviet military, [[NKVD personnel, Communist functionaries and economic refugees from [[kolkhozs. The most dramatic case was Latvia, where the amount of ethnic Russians swelled from 168,300 (8.8%) in 1935 to 905,500 (34%) in 1989, whereas the proportion of Latvians fell from 77% in 1935 to 52% in 1989. Baltic states also faced intense economic exploitation, with Latvian SSR, for example, transferring 15.961 billion rubles (or 18.8% percent of its total revenue of 85 billion rubles) more to the USSR budget from 1946 to 1990 than it received back. And of the money transferred back, a disproportionate amount was spent on the region's militarization and funding repressive institutions, especially in the early years of the occupation. It has been calculated by a Latvian state-funded commission that the Soviet occupation cost the [[economy of Latvia a total of 185 billion euros. Conversely, political economist and world-systems and analyst [[Samir Amin asserts that, in contrast to colonialism, capital transfer in the USSR was used not to enrich a metropole but to develop poorer regions in the South and East. The wealthiest regions like Western Russia, Ukraine, and the Baltic Republics were the main source of capital.


Jewish oblast

In 1934, the Soviet government established the [[Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Soviet Far East to create a homeland for the Jewish people. Another motive was to strengthen Soviet presence along the vulnerable eastern border. The region was often infiltrated by the Chinese; in 1927, [[Chiang Kai-shek had ended [[First United Front|cooperation with the Chinese Communist Party, which further increased the threat. Fascist Japan also seemed willing and ready to detach the Far Eastern provinces from the USSR. To make settlement of the inhospitable and undeveloped region more enticing, the Soviet government allowed private ownership of land. This led to many non-Jews to settle in the oblast to get a free farm. By the 1930s, a massive propaganda campaign developed to induce more Jewish settlers to move there. In one instance, a government-produced Yiddish film called ''[[Seekers of Happiness'' told the story of a Jewish family that fled the [[Great Depression in the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, 326 India ...
to make a new life for itself in Birobidzhan. Some 1,200 non-Soviet Jews chose to settle in Birobidzhan.Arthur Rosen, [www./75mag/birobidzhan/birobidzhan.htm], February 2004 The Jewish population peaked in 1948 at around 30,000, about one-quarter of the region's population. By 2010, according to data provided by the Russian Census Bureau, there were only 1,628 people of Jewish descent remaining in the JAO (1% of the total population), while ethnic Russians made up 92.7% of the JAO population. The JAO is Russia's only [[autonomous oblast and, aside of Israel, the world's only Jewish territory with an official status.


Israel

From the Palestinian perspective, the modern [[State of Israel is considered a form of colonization by Jewish peoples from all over the world. Further, Israeli settlements in the [[West Bank may be considered an additional form of colonization. This view is part of a key debate in the [[Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.


Indonesia

The transmigration program is an initiative of the [[government of Indonesia|Indonesian government to move landless people from densely populated areas of [[Java (island)|Java, but also to a lesser extent from [[Bali and [[Madura Island|Madura, to less populous areas of the country including [[West Papua (region)|Papua, [[Kalimantan, [[Sumatra, and [[Sulawesi.


Papua New Guinea

In 1884 Britain declared a protective order over South East New Guinea, establishing an official colony in 1888. Germany however, annexed parts of the North. This annexation separated the entire region into the South, known as "British New Guinea" and North, known as "Papua".


Philippines

Due to marginalisation produced by continuous Resettlement Policy, by 1969, political tensions and open hostilities developed between the [[Government of the Philippines and [[Moro people|Moro [[Islam|Muslim rebel groups in [[Mindanao.


Myanmar


Subject peoples

Many colonists came to colonies for [[Slavery|slaves to their colonizing countries, so the legal power to leave or remain may not be the issue so much as the actual presence of the people in the new country. This left the indigenous natives of their lands slaves in their own countries. The [[Canadian Indian residential school system was identified by the [[Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Canada) as colonization through depriving the youth of First Nations in Canada of their languages and cultures. During the mid 20th century, there was the most dramatic and devastating attempt at colonization, and that was pursued with Nazism. Hitler and Heinrich Himmler and their supporters schemed for a mass migration of Germans to Eastern Europe, where some of the Germans were to become colonists, having control over the native people. These indigenous people were planned to be reduced to slaves or wholly annihilated. Many advanced nations currently have large numbers of [[guest workers/[[temporary work visa holders who are brought in to do seasonal work such as harvesting or to do low-paid manual labor. Guest workers or contractors have a lower status than workers with visas, because guest workers can be removed at any time for any reason.


Endo-colonization

Colonization may be a domestic strategy when there is a widespread security threat within a nation and weapons are turned inward, as noted by [[Paul Virilio: :Obsession with security results in the ''endo-colonization'' of society: endo-colonization is the use of increasingly powerful and ubiquitous technologies of security turned ''inward'', to attempt to secure the fast and messy circulations of our globalizing, networked society…it is the increasing domination of public life with stories of dangerous otherness and suspicion… Some instances of the burden of endo-colonization have been noted: :The acute difficulties of the Latin American and southern European military-bureaucratic dictatorships in the seventies and early eighties and the Soviet Union in the late eighties can in large part be attributed to the economic, political and social contradictions induced by endo-colonizing militarism.


Space colonization

There has been a continued interest and [[space advocacy|advocation for [[space colonization. Space colonization has been criticized as unreflected continuation of
settler colonialism Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism that seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers. As with all forms of colonialism, it is based on exogenous domination, typically organized or su ...
and
manifest destiny Manifest destiny was a widely held cultural belief in the 19th-century United States that American settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny: * The special virtues of the American pe ...
, continuing the narrative of colonial exploration as fundamental to the assumed [[human nature.


See also

; Colonization * [[Colonialism * [[Coloniality of gender * [[Colonization of Antarctica * [[Cocacolonization * [[Ocean colonization * [[Space colonization * [[Colonial empire#List of colonial empires|List of colonial empires ; Other related * [[Human settlement * [[Colonisation (biology) * [[Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact


Notes and references


Bibliography

* [[Jared Diamond, ''[[Guns, Germs, and Steel|Guns, germs and steel. A short history of everybody for the last 13'000 years'', 1997. * Ankerl Guy, ''Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western'', INUPress, Geneva, 2000. . * Cotterell, Arthur. ''Western Power in Asia: Its Slow Rise and Swift Fall, 1415 - 1999'' (2009) popular history
excerpt
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