Charlotte Harbor Estuary, the second largest bay in Florida
, is located on the Gulf of Mexico
coast of west Florida
, mostly (2/3) in Charlotte County, Florida
with the remaining 1/3 in Lee County
. The harbor's mouth is located behind Gasparilla Island
, one of the many coastal barrier islands on the southwest coast of Florida, with access from the Gulf of Mexico through the Boca Grande Pass between Gasparilla Island on the north and Lacosta Island
on the south. Charlotte Harbor covers about 270 sq mi (700 km2
Charlotte Harbor Estuary is a natural estuary
spanning the west coast of Florida
to Bonita Springs
on the Gulf of Mexico
and is one of the most productive wetlands
. The estuary has a large watershed
, and includes Charlotte Harbor
itself as well as the Peace River
, Caloosahatchee River
(via Pine Island Sound
) and Myakka River
basins. It covers , the second largest open water estuary in the state.
It is classified as a bar-built estuary, formed when sandbars build up along the coastline. The sand bars block the waters behind them from the sea. Such estuaries tend to be shallow with minimal tidal action.
This is a threatened ecosystem because of the rapid increase of growth and development, poor land-use policies, and the overuse of natural resources. The Charlotte Harbor Aquatic Preserves, established by the state of Florida in 1975, are five contiguous aquatic preserves within the greater Charlotte Harbor estuary. It includes salt marsh
and tidal flats
. It is the preserve of many species, including the American alligator
, West Indian manatee
, bald eagle
, wood stork
, piping plover
and loggerhead sea turtle
s, smalltooth sawfish ''(Pristis pectinata)','' royal false pawpaw (''Deeringothamnus pulchellus
''), Florida perforate cladonia (''Cladonia
perforata''), and many more.
The harbor is fed with fresh water from the Myakka River
on its northwest corner and the Peace River
on its northeastern corner. Charlotte Harbor is bordered by the communities of Boca Grande
, Port Charlotte
, Charlotte Harbor
, Punta Gorda
. Charlotte Harbor connects to San Carlos Bay
to the south by way of Pine Island Sound
and Matlacha Pass.
The name of Charlotte Harbor is a corruption of the name Calusa
into the Spanish name Carlos. At the time of Spanish contact in the 1560s, the leader of the Calusa was known as Carlos
. The bay was first known as Bahia Carlos, or Carlos Bay, by the Spaniards. The English changed it from Carlos to Charlotte in honor of King George III's wife.
Prior to the first Europeans, Charlotte Harbor was home to settlements of Native Americans
who were part of the Calusa
paramount chiefdom that occupied southwest Florida, extending from Tampa Bay in the north to the Ten Thousand Islands. The Calusa capital of Calos was located on Mound Key
, just south of Charlotte Harbor.
Early European visits
Ponce de Leon
was likely the first European who visited Charlotte Harbor in 1513 and again in 1521. He and his soldiers encountered hostile Calusa, and de Leon is believed to have died from a poisoned arrow
wound received there. The site of the conflict is now Ponce de Leon Historical Park in eastern Punta Gorda.
Charlotte Harbor might have been next visited by Juan de Anasco, Comptroller to the King of Spain, in 1538, one year before Hernando de Soto
's exploration. In 1539, Hernando de Soto began his journey across the Southeast by landing on the west coast of the Florida peninsula, near the chiefdom of Uzita
, where he encountered Juan Ortiz, a survivor of the Narváez expedition who had been captured by the Tocobaga at Tampa Bay. Traditional reconstructions locate Uzita at the mouth of the Manatee River in Tampa Bay, now the site of the De Soto National Memorial
. However, other historians believe de Soto may have entered via Charlotte Harbor as he began his exploration of North America. Another suggested landing site for de Soto was directly below Charlotte Harbor up within the Caloosahatchee River
. This is unlikely because Mound Key
in Estero Bay
south of the Caloosahatchee is generally agreed to have been the location of the Calusa capital, not the Uzita chiefdom.
The pirates and shipwrecks of Charlotte Harbor
The mythical pirate José Gaspar
(also known as "Gasparilla") was said to have roamed from the Gulf of Mexico to the Spanish Main
from his secret base (sometimes referred to as his "pirate kingdom") in Charlotte Harbor from the late 1700s until his death in battle with the US Navy in 1821. Though no archival or physical evidence of Gaspar's existence has ever been found, he is a popular figure in Florida folklore, and the tale of the dashing pirate and his lost treasure has been used to promote tourism in Charlotte Harbor and along Florida's Gulf coast for many years, most notably in Tampa
's Gasparilla Pirate Festival
. The practice began in 1900, when the Charlotte Harbor and Northern Railway
published the first written account of Jose Gaspar in a promotional brochure for its Boca Grande Hotel on Gasparilla Island.
Charlotte Harbor is also said to have been the refuge of the pirate Brewster Baker and the site of several shipwrecks of vessels containing untold millions of Spanish gold.
However, despite many professional and amateur searches over the years, no treasure or evidence of a historical pirate stronghold has ever been found in the area.
The Charlotte Harbor of the present day is a harbor mainly for privately owned pleasure craft and fishing boats. The area thrives partly due to tourism for those seeking beautiful beaches and an escape from winter's bite. There are also numerous retirement communities in the Charlotte Harbor area.
245px|Charley making landfall
on August 13, 2004
Charlotte Harbor has been hit by several tropical cyclones since records began to be kept in 1851. Listed below are the tropical cyclones whose paths have crossed Charlotte Harbor.
* 1894 Hurricane No. 4
* 1910 Hurricane No. 5
* 1925 Tropical Storm No. 4
* 1944 Hurricane No. 13
* 2004 Hurricane Charley
made landfall just south of Charlotte Harbor on Friday, August 13, 2004 at 3:54 PM EDT. Charley had reached a maximum sustained wind speed of
By the time Charley reached Orlando, its winds had dropped to , with gusts as high as . Due to the rapid forward movement of Charley the amount of measured rainfall was between .
Image:Floridian seagrass bed.jpg|Florida seagrass
File:Caretta caretta01.jpg|Loggerhead turtle (closeup)
File:Johnsons seagrass bed.jpg|Florida seagrass bed
*Rookery Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve
*Charlotte Harbor Preserve State Park
External linksEstuaries Classified by Geologic FeaturesCharlotte Harbor Environmental CenterCharlotte Harbor Watershed – Florida DEP Charlotte Harbor State Park Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program
*ttp://www.chnep.wateratlas.usf.edu/ Charlotte Harbor Water Atlas
Category:Bodies of water of Charlotte County, Florida
Category:Estuaries of Florida
Category:Gulf of Mexico
Category:Bodies of water of Lee County, Florida