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California is a state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the most populous and the List of U.S. states and territories by area, third-largest U.S. state by area. It is also the List of country subdivisions by population, most populated Administrative division, subnational entity in North America and the List of country subdivisions by population, 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous Statistical area (United States), urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7million residents and the latter having over 9.6million. Sacramento, California, Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the List of largest California cities by population, most populous city in the state and the List of United States cities by population, second most populous city in the country (after New York City). Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles County is the country's List of the most populous counties in the United States, most populous, while San Bernardino County, California, San Bernardino County is the List of the largest counties in the United States by area, largest county by area in the country. San Francisco, which is both a city and county, is the List of United States cities by population density, second most densely populated major city in the country (after New York City) and the County statistics of the United States, fifth most densely populated county in the country, behind four of New York City's boroughs of New York City, five boroughs. The economy of California, with a gross state product of $3.2trillion as of 2019, is the List of country subdivisions by GDP over 200 billion USD, largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, it would be the 37th most populous country and the List of countries by GDP (nominal), fifth largest economy . The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies ($1.0trillion and $0.5trillion respectively ), after the New York metropolitan area ($1.8trillion). The San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area had the nation's highest gross domestic product per capita ($106,757) among large primary statistical areas in 2018, and is home to four of the world's 10 largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's 10 richest people. What is now California was first settled by various Indigenous peoples of California, Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of Europeans during the 16th and 17th centuries. The Spanish Empire then claimed and colonized it. In 1804, it was included in Alta California province within the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821, following its successful Mexican War of Independence, war for independence, but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The western portion of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850, following the Compromise of 1850. The California Gold Rush started in 1848 and led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from other parts of the United States and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. Notable contributions to Culture of California, popular culture, for example in Media in Los Angeles, entertainment, and Sports in California, sports, have their origins in California. The state also has made noteworthy contributions in the fields of communication, information, innovation, environmentalism, economics, and politics. It is the home of Cinema of the United States, Hollywood, the oldest and largest film industry in the world, which has had a profound effect on global entertainment. It is considered the origin of the hippie counterculture, Surf culture, beach and car culture, and the personal computer, among other innovations. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as centers of the global technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California's economy is very diverse: 58% of it is based on finance, government, real estate, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific, and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. California's ports and harbors handle about a third of all U.S. imports, most originating in Pacific Rim international trade. California shares a border with Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south. The state's diverse geography ranges from the Coastal California, Pacific Coast and metropolitan areas in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east, and from the Sequoia sempervirens, redwood and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley (California), Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate and monsoon seasonal weather, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid Desert climate, desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine climate, alpine in the mountains. All these factors lead to an enormous demand for water; in total numbers, California is the largest consumer of water on the entire continent of North America. Over time, Droughts in California, droughts and List of California wildfires, wildfires have increased in frequency, become less seasonal and more year-round, further straining California's water security.


Etymology

The Spaniards gave the name to the peninsula of Baja California and to Alta California, the region that became the present-day state of California. The name likely derived from the mythical island of California in the fictional story of Calafia, Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work ''Las sergas de Esplandián, The Adventures of Esplandián'' by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. This work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with ''Amadis de Gaula''. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It is possible the name California was meant to imply the island was a Caliphate. Shortened forms of the state's name include List of U.S. state abbreviations, CA, Cal, Cali, Calif, Califas, and ISO 3166, US-CA.


History


First inhabitants

Settled by successive waves of arrivals during at least the last 13,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The indigenous peoples of California included more than Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas#California, 70 distinct ethnic groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash people, Chumash, Pomo people, Pomo and Salinan. Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups.


Spanish rule

The first Europeans to explore the California coast were the members of a Spanish Empire, Spanish sailing expedition led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo; they entered San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542, and reached at least as far north as San Miguel Island. Privateer and explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in 1579, landing north of the future city of San Francisco. The first Asians to set foot on what would be the United States occurred in 1587, when Overseas Filipino, Filipino sailors arrived in Spanish ships at Morro Bay, California, Morro Bay. Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the coast of California in 1602 for New Spain, sailing as far north as Cape Mendocino. Despite the on-the-ground explorations of California in the 16th century, Rodríguez's idea of California as an island persisted. Such depictions appeared on many European maps well into the 18th century. After the Portolà expedition of 1769–70, Spanish missionary, missionaries led by Junipero Serra began setting up 21 Spanish missions in California, California Missions on or near the coast of Alta California, Alta (Upper) California, beginning in San Diego. During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts (''presidios'') and three small towns (''pueblos''). The Mission San Francisco de Asís, San Francisco Mission grew into the city of San Francisco, and two of the pueblos grew into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose, California, San Jose. Several other smaller cities and towns also sprang up surrounding the various Spanish missions and pueblos, which remain to this day. The Spanish colonization began decimating the natives through epidemics of various diseases for which the indigenous peoples had no natural immunity, such as measles and diphtheria. The establishment of the Spanish systems of government and social structure, which the Spanish settlers had brought with them, also technologically and culturally overwhelmed the societies of the earlier indigenous peoples. During this same period, Russian Empire, Russian ships also explored along the California coast and in 1812 established a trading post at Fort Ross. Russia's early 19th-century coastal settlements in California were positioned just north of the northernmost edge of the area of Spanish settlement in San Francisco Bay, and were the southernmost Russian settlements in North America. The Russian settlements associated with Fort Ross were spread from Point Arena, California, Point Arena to Tomales Bay.Historical Atlas of California


Mexican rule

In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence gave Mexico (including California) independence from Spain. For the next 25 years, Alta California remained as a remote, sparsely populated, northwestern administrative district of the newly independent country of Mexico. The Missions of California, missions, which controlled most of the best land in the state, were secularized by 1834 and became the property of the Mexican government. The governor granted many square leagues of land to others with political influence. These huge ''Ranchos of California, ranchos'' or cattle ranches emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios (Hispanics native of California) who traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants. Beef did not become a commodity until the 1849 California Gold Rush. From the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States and the future Canada arrived in Northern California. These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail and Old Spanish Trail (trade route), Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts in and surrounding California. The early government of the newly independent Mexico was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from 1831 onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both internal and with the central Mexican government. During this tumultuous political period Juan Bautista Alvarado was able to secure the governorship during 1836–1842. The military action which first brought Alvarado to power had momentarily declared California to be an independent state, and had been aided by Anglo-Americans, Anglo-American residents of California, including Isaac Graham. In 1840, one hundred of those residents who did not have passports were arrested, leading to the Isaac Graham, Graham Affair, which was resolved in part with the intercession of Royal Navy officials. One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh (pioneer), John Marsh. After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States. Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, the soil, and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route". His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California. He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their obtaining passports. After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh became involved in a military battle between the much-hated Mexican general, Manuel Micheltorena and the California governor he had replaced, Juan Bautista Alvarado. The armies of each met at the Battle of Providencia near Los Angeles. Marsh had been forced against his will to join Micheltorena's army. Ignoring his superiors, during the battle, he signaled the other side for a parley. There were many settlers from the United States fighting on both sides. He convinced these men that they had no reason to be fighting each other. As a result of Marsh's actions, they abandoned the fight, Micheltorena was defeated, and California-born Pio Pico was returned to the governorship. This paved the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States.


California Republic and conquest

In 1846, a group of American settlers in and around Sonoma, California, Sonoma rebelled against Mexican rule during the Bear Flag Revolt. Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag (featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic") at Sonoma. The Republic's only president was William B. Ide, who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders. The California Republic was short lived; the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican–American War (1846–48). When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces. After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing American control in California.


Early American period

Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (February 2, 1848) that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the annexed Mexican territory of Alta California soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah. The even more lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico. In 1846, the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,000, plus about 100,000 Native Americans, down from about 300,000 before Hispanic settlement in 1769. In 1848, only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances. Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands. The population burgeoned with United States citizens, Europeans, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. By the time of California's application for statehood in 1850, the settler population of California had multiplied to 100,000. By 1854, more than 300,000 settlers had come. Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000. California was suddenly no longer a sparsely populated backwater, but seemingly overnight it had grown into a major population center. The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey, California, Monterey from 1777 until 1845. Pio Pico, the last Mexican governor of Alta California, had briefly moved the capital to Los Angeles in 1845. The United States consulate had also been located in Monterey, under consul Thomas O. Larkin. In 1849, a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey. Among the first tasks of the Convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital. The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose (1850–1851). Subsequent locations included Vallejo, California, Vallejo (1852–1853), and nearby Benicia, California, Benicia (1853–1854); these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well. The capital has been located in Sacramento, California, Sacramento since 1854 with only a short break in 1862 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to Great Flood of 1862, flooding in Sacramento. Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the U.S. Congress for Admission to the Union, admission to statehood. On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California became a Slave states and free states, free state and September9 a California Admission Day, state holiday. During the American Civil War (1861–1865), California sent gold shipments eastwards to Washington California in the American Civil War, in support of the Union. However, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort. Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the 2nd Regiment of Cavalry, Massachusetts Volunteers, "California 100 Company", due to a majority of their members being from California. At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat. Nineteen years later, and seven years after it was greenlighted by President Lincoln, the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869. California was then reachable from the eastern States in a week's time. Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown (including oranges in Southern California), and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere. In the nineteenth century, a large number of migrants from China traveled to the state as part of the Gold Rush or to seek work. Even though the Chinese proved indispensable in building the transcontinental railroad from California to Utah, perceived job competition with the Chinese led to anti-Chinese riots in the state, and eventually the US ended migration from China partially as a response to pressure from California with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.


Indigenous peoples

Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity. Under its new American administration, California's harsh governmental policies towards its own indigenous people did not improve. As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers. Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the 1853 ''Act for the Government and Protection of Indians''. There were also massacres in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed. Between 1850 and 1860, the California state government paid around 1.5million dollars (some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the federal government) to hire militias whose purpose was to protect settlers from the indigenous populations. In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them. As a result, the rise of California was a calamity for the native inhabitants. Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California government California Genocide, as a genocide.


1900–present

In the twentieth century, thousands of Japanese persons migrated to the US and California specifically to attempt to purchase and own land in the state. However, the state in 1913 passed the Alien Land Act, excluding Asian immigrants from owning land. During World War II, Japanese Americans in California were interned in concentration camps such as at Tule Lake National Monument, Tule Lake and Manzanar. In 2020, California officially apologized for this internment. Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and U.S. Route 66 (California), Route 66. In the period from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6.0% Hispanic, 2.4% Asian, and 89.5% non-Hispanic white. To meet the population's needs, major engineering feats like the California Aqueduct, California and Los Angeles Aqueducts; the Oroville Dam, Oroville and Shasta Dams; and the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, Bay and Golden Gate Bridge, Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in 1960 to develop a highly efficient system of public education. Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s. California manufactured 8.7 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking third (behind New York (state), New York and Michigan) among the 48 states. California however easily ranked first in production of military ships during the war (transport, cargo, [merchant ships] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships) at drydock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. After World War II, California's economy greatly expanded due to strong Aerospace manufacturer, aerospace and Defense industry, defense industries, whose size decreased following the end of the Cold War. Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging faculty and graduates to stay in California instead of leaving the state, and develop a high-tech region in the area now known as Silicon Valley. As a result of these efforts, California is regarded as a world center of the entertainment and music industries, of technology, engineering, and the aerospace industry, and as the United States center of agricultural production. Just before the Dot-com bubble, Dot Com Bust, California had the fifth-largest economy in the world among nations. Yet since 1991, and starting in the late 1980s in Southern California, California has seen a net loss of domestic migrants in most years. This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. In the mid and late twentieth century, a number of race-related incidents occurred in the state. Tensions between police and African Americans, combined with unemployment and poverty in inner cities, led to violent riots, such as the 1965 Watts riots and 1992 1992 Los Angeles riots, Rodney King riots. California was also the hub of the Black Panther Party, a group known for arming African Americans to combat perceived racial injustice. Additionally, Mexican, Filipino, and other migrant farm workers rallied in the state around Cesar Chavez for better pay in the 1960s and 1970s. During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U.S history. Although air pollution problems have been reduced, health problems associated with pollution have continued. The brown haze known as "smog" has been substantially abated after the passage of federal and state restrictions on automobile exhaust. An 2000–01 California electricity crisis, energy crisis in 2001 led to rolling blackouts, soaring power rates, and the importation of electricity from neighboring states. Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company came under heavy criticism. Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase; a modest home which in the 1960s cost $25,000 would cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005. More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a matter of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties. Mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising. The subprime mortgage crisis, bubble burst in 2007-8 as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended. Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many financial institutions and investors were badly hurt. In the twenty-first century, droughts and frequent wildfires attributed to climate change have occurred in the state. From 2011 to 2017, a 2011–2017 California drought, persistent drought was the worst in its recorded history. The 2018 wildfire season was the state's deadliest and most destructive.


Geography

California is the List of U.S. states by area, third-largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. California is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the 10 southernmost counties, and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties. It is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east and northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and it shares an international border with the Mexico, Mexican state of Baja California to the south (with which it makes up part of The Californias region of North America, alongside Baja California Sur). In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the Pacific Coast Ranges, coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland. Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern portion, the Sacramento Valley serves as the watershed of the Sacramento River, while the southern portion, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the state. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pump (Water), pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs. Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. Suisun Bay lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The water is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which flows into San Pablo Bay, a northern extension of San Francisco Bay, which then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. The Channel Islands of California, Channel Islands are located off the South Coast (California), Southern coast, while the Farallon Islands lie west of San Francisco. The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy range") includes the highest peak in the contiguous United States, contiguous 48 states, Mount Whitney, at .Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The range embraces Yosemite Valley, famous for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the Sequoiadendron giganteum, giant sequoia trees, the largest living organisms on Earth, and the deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume. To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential bird migration, migratory bird habitat. In the western part of the state is Clear Lake (California), Clear Lake, the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. Although Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada border. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States. The Tulare Lake was the largest freshwater lake west of the Mississippi River. A remnant of Pleistocene-era Lake Corcoran, Tulare Lake dried up by the early 20th century after its tributary rivers were diverted for agricultural irrigation and municipal water uses. About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state. California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the White Mountains (California), California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5,000 years old. In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south-central desert is called the Mojave Desert, Mojave; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin at . The horizontal distance from the bottom of Death Valley to the top of Mount Whitney is less than . Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water. A majority of California's cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan area in Northern California; or the Los Angeles metropolitan area, Los Angeles area, the Riverside-San Bernardino-Inland Empire, or the San Diego metropolitan area in Southern California. The Los Angeles Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California coast. As part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes. It has many List of earthquakes in California, earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, the largest being the San Andreas Fault. About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt.


Climate

Although most of the state has a Mediterranean climate, due to the state's large size the climate ranges from Polar climate, polar to subtropical climate, subtropical. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers. The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent. Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees Climate of the Los Angeles Basin, warmer than at the coast. The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the San Francisco Bay Area#Climate, climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas closer to the ocean. Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes. Northwestern California has a temperate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer. California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest location in the world; the highest temperature in the world, (The 136.4°F (58°C), claimed by 'Aziziya, Libya, on September 13, 1922, has been officially deemed invalid by the World Meteorological Organization.) , was recorded there on July 10, 1913. The lowest temperature in California was on January 20, 1937 in Boca, California, Boca. The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not. This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka, California, Eureka, the extreme heat of Death Valley, and the mountain climate of Mammoth Lakes, California, Mammoth in the Sierra Nevada.


Ecology

California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is part of the Nearctic realm and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions. California's large number of endemic (ecology), endemic species includes Relict (biology), relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood (''Lyonothamnus floribundus''). Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac (''Ceanothus''). Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.


Flora and fauna

California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: the giant sequoia, largest trees, the coast redwood, tallest trees, and the pinus longaeva, oldest trees. California's native grasses are perennial plants. After European contact, these were generally replaced by invasive species of European annual grasses; and, in modern times, California's hills turn a characteristic golden-brown in summer. Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert; upper Sonoran (foothill regions and some coastal lands), transition (coastal areas and moist northeastern counties); and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations. Image:JoshuaTree 20140907.jpg, upA Joshua Tree (''Yucca brevifolia'') in Joshua Tree, California, Joshua Tree Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Yucca brevifolia, Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of aster (genus), asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. ''Nemophila'', Lamiaceae, mint, ''Phacelia'', ''viola (plant), Viola'', and the California poppy (''Eschscholzia californica'', the state flower) also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world. The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood (''Sequoia sempervirens'') and the "big tree" or giant sequoia (''Sequoiadendron giganteum''), among the oldest living things on earth (some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years). Tanbark oak, California laurel, sugar pine, Arbutus, madrona, Acer macrophyllum, broad-leaved maple, and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with Polystichum, swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and wild currant. Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and Lilium columbianum, tiger and Lilium pardalinum, leopard lilies. The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine, red fir, and lodgepole pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus; the unique Calvatia sculpta, Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about , begins the Arctic zone, a treeless region whose flora include a number of wildflowers, including Primula suffrutescens, Sierra primrose, Aquilegia flavescens, yellow columbine, Ranunculus, alpine buttercup, and Dodecatheon alpinum, alpine shooting star. Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus, acacia, Schinus, pepper tree, geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Erysimum capitatum, Contra Costa wallflower, Oenothera deltoides subsp. howellii, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Tuctoria mucronata, Solano grass, Delphinium variegatum, San Clemente Island larkspur, Cordylanthus maritimus, salt marsh bird's beak, Arabis blepharophylla, McDonald's rock-cress, and Dudleya traskiae, Santa Barbara Island liveforever. , 85 plant species were listed as threatened or endangered. In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the Crotalus cerastes, sidewinder viper, desert tortoise, and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the Pronghorn, antelope, Dusky-footed woodrat, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher, Psaltriparus minimus, bushtit, and California condor. In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer, American black bear, black bears, gray foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the Proteidae, water puppy and Batrachoseps attenuatus, redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird thrive here as well. The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel, snowshoe hare, and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the Steller's jay, blue-fronted jay, Poecile, Sierra chickadee, Sierra hermit thrush, water ouzel, and Townsend's solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer. While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker. Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. , the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, mountain lion, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow. Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them Rainbow trout, rainbow, Golden trout, golden, and Cutthroat trout, cutthroat. Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include White seabass, sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of whale. Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species. , 118 California animals were on the federal endangered list; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the Vulpes macrotis, San Joaquin kitfox, Aplodontia rufa nigra, Point Arena mountain beaver, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat (and five other species of kangaroo rat), California vole#Subspecies, Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, loggerhead shrike, Bell's sparrow, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. Eleven butterflies are also endangered and two that are threatened are on the federal list. Among threatened animals are the coastal California gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, Sea otter#Subspecies, southern sea otter, and northern spotted owl. California has a total of of National Wildlife Refuges. , 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the US Fish & Wildlife Service, federal list. Also, , 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this federal list.


Rivers

The most prominent river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed mostly by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley. The two rivers join in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, flowing into the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. Many major tributaries feed into the Sacramento–San Joaquin system, including the Pit River, Feather River and Tuolumne River. The Klamath River, Klamath and Trinity River (California), Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. The Eel River (California), Eel River and Salinas River (California), Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects Southern California. The Colorado River forms the state's southeast border with Arizona. Most of California's major rivers are dammed as part of two massive water projects: the Central Valley Project, providing water for agriculture in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southern California. The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.


Regions


Demographics


Population

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of California was 39,368,078 on July 1, 2020, a 5.67% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The population is projected to reach forty million by 2020 and fifty million by 2060. Between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 (5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths). During this time period, Immigration to the United States, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a net decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net in-migration of 306,925 people. The state of California's own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009. However, according to the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, since 1990 almost 3.4million Californians have moved to other states, with most leaving to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona. Within the Western hemisphere California is the second most populous sub-national administrative entity (behind the state of São Paulo (state), São Paulo in Brazil) and third most populous sub-national entity of any kind outside Asia (in which wider category it also ranks behind England in the United Kingdom, which has no administrative functions). California's population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the world. The Greater Los Angeles Area is the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area, while Los Angeles, with nearly half the population of New York City, is the second-largest city in the United States. Conversely, San Francisco, with nearly one-quarter the population density of Manhattan, is the most densely populated city in California and one of the most densely populated cities in the United States. Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states. Including Los Angeles, four of the List of United States cities by population, top 15 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California: Los Angeles (2nd), San Diego (8th), San Jose (10th), and San Francisco (13th). The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow, California, Buttonwillow, Kern County, California, Kern County. As of 2018 the average life expectancy in California was 80.8 years, above the national average of 78.7 and is the second highest in the country.


Cities and towns

The state has 482 Municipal corporation, incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of (Name)" or "Town of (Name)". Sacramento, California, Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, 1850. San Jose, California, San Jose, San Diego, and Benicia, California, Benicia tied for California's second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850. Jurupa Valley, California, Jurupa Valley became the state's most recent and 482nd incorporated municipality, on July 1, 2011. The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area.


Migration

Starting in the year 2010, for the first time since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population. Along with the rest of the United States, California's immigration pattern has also shifted over the course of the late 2000s to early 2010s. Immigration from Latin American countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants now coming from Asia. In total for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants. Fifty-seven percent came from Asian countries versus 22% from Latin American countries. Net immigration from Mexico, previously the most common country of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more Mexican nationals are departing for their home country than immigrating. As a result, it is projected that Hispanic citizens will constitute 49% of the population by 2060, instead of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births. The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers. The number of migrants arrested attempting to cross the Mexican border in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011.California's Illegal Immigrant Shortage
''Bloomberg BusinessWeek'', May 3, 2012.
Despite these recent trends, Illegal immigration to the United States, illegal Alien (law), aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percent of the state's population, the third highest percentage of any state in the Illegal immigrant population of the United States, country,Behind Nevada and Arizona. totaling nearly 2.6million. In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles, Monterey County, California, Monterey, San Benito County, California, San Benito, Imperial County, California, Imperial, and Napa County, California, Napa Counties—the latter four of which have significant agricultural industries that depend on manual labor. More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico. The state of California and some California cities, including Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco, have adopted Sanctuary city, sanctuary policies.


Race and ethnicity

According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identifies as (alone or in combination):2018 U.S. Census QuickFacts
United States Census Bureau, 2018.
* 72.1% White American, White (including Hispanic White Americans, Hispanic White Americans, Whites) ** 36.8% Non-Hispanic whites * 15.3% Asian American, Asian * 6.5% Black or African American * 1.6% Native Americans in the United States, Native American and Alaska Native * 0.5% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander American, Pacific Islander * 3.9% Multiracial American, Two or more races By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7% non-Hispanic (of any race) and 39.3% Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino (of any race). Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California. Non-Hispanic whites constituted 36.8% of the state's population. ''Californios'' are the Hispanic residents native to California, who make up the Spanish language, Spanish-speaking community that has existed in California since 1542, of varying Mexican American/Chicano, Criollo people, Criollo Spaniard, and Mestizos in the United States, Mestizo origin. , 75.1% of California's population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white (white Hispanics are counted as minorities). In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents. The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.4million, constituting a third of the nation's total. California's Native American population of 285,000 is the most of any state. According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest Majority-minority state, minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60% of the state population. Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while Hispanic and Latino American, Hispanic and Asian American, Asian populations have grown. Between 1970 and 2011, non-Hispanic whites declined from 80% of the state's population to 40%, while Hispanic and Latino American, Hispanics grew from 32% in 2000 to 38% in 2011. It is currently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49% of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration. With the decline of immigration from Latin America, Asian Americans now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India and the Philippines, respectively.


Languages

American English, English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language. In 2010, the Modern Language Association of America estimated that 57.02% (19,429,309) of California residents age5 and older spoke only English language, English at home, while 42.98% spoke another language at home. According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 73% of people who speak a language other than English at home are able to speak English "well" or "very well," while 9.8% of them could not speak English at all. Like most U.S. states (32 out of 50), California law enshrines English as its official language, and has done so since the passage of List of California ballot propositions 1980–1989#November 4, 1986, Proposition 63 by California voters. Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences. In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other state in the nation. New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than 100,000 persons. The most common language spoken besides English was Spanish language, Spanish, spoken by 28.46% (9,696,638) of the population. With Asia contributing most of California's new immigrants, California had the highest concentration nationwide of Vietnamese language, Vietnamese and Chinese language, Chinese speakers, the second highest concentration of Korean language, Korean, and the third highest concentration of Tagalog language, Tagalog speakers. California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in six language families. A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different indigenous languages among California farmworkers. All of California's indigenous languages are endangered language, endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization.The following are a list of the indigenous languages: Root languages of California: Athabaskan Family: Hupa, Mattole, Lassik, Wailaki, Sinkyone, Cahto, Tolowa, Nongatl, Wiyot, Chilula; Hokan Family: Pomo, Shasta, Karok, Chimiriko; Algonquian Family: Whilkut, Yurok; Yukian Family: Wappo; Penutian Family: Modok, Wintu, Nomlaki, Konkow, Maidu, Patwin, Nisenan, Miwok, Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Ohlone, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts, Foothill Yokuts; Hokan Family: Esselen, Salinan, Chumash, Ipai, Tipai, Yuma, Halchichoma, Mohave; Uto-Aztecan Family: Mono Paiute, Monache, Owens Valley Paiute, Tubatulabal, Panamint Shoshone, Kawaisu, Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Gabrielino, Juaneno, Luiseno, Cuipeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Chemehuevi As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century. This variety, known as California English, has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.


Culture

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Culture of Mexico, Mexican influences. As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia. California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers. The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.


Mass media and entertainment

Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major global center for entertainment, with the cinema in the United States, U.S. film industry's Major film studio, "Big Five" major film studios (Columbia Pictures, Columbia, Walt Disney Pictures, Disney, Paramount Pictures, Paramount, Universal Pictures, Universal, and Warner Bros.) being based in or around the area. The four major American television broadcast networks (American Broadcasting Company, ABC, CBS, Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox and NBC) all have production facilities and offices in the state. All four, plus the two major Spanish-language networks (Telemundo and Univision) each have at least two Owned-and-operated television stations in the United States, owned-and-operated TV stations in California, one in Los Angeles and one in the San Francisco Bay Area. The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several prominent internet media and social media companies, including three of the Big Tech, "Big Five" technology companies (Apple Inc., Apple, Facebook, and Google) as well as other services such as Netflix, Pandora Radio, Twitter, Yahoo!, and YouTube. One of the oldest radio stations in the United States still in existence, KCBS (AM) in the Bay Area, was founded in 1909. Universal Music Group, one of the "Music market, Big Four" record labels, is based in Santa Monica, California, Santa Monica. California is also the birthplace of several international music genres, including the Bakersfield sound, Bay Area thrash metal, g-funk, nu metal, stoner rock, surf music, West Coast hip hop, and West Coast jazz.


Religion

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent. Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 1% Muslim, 2% Hindu and 2% Buddhist. This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church with 31 percent; Evangelical Protestants with 18 percent; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percent. In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in 2008 was 0.5% Muslim, 1% Hindu and 2% Buddhist. The ''American Jewish Year Book'' placed the total American Jews, Jewish population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 10,233,334; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 763,818; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953. The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded California missions, 21 missions along the California coast, as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders. California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States. A Pew Research Center survey revealed that California is somewhat less religious than the rest of the states: 62 percent of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of their belief in God, while in the nation 71 percent say so. The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally.


Sports

California has nineteen major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises. San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 11 times at four different stadiums: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego's Qualcomm Stadium. A twelfth, Super Bowl 50, was held at Levi's Stadium in Santa Clara, California, Santa Clara on February 7, 2016. California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl Game, Rose Bowl, among others. California is the only U.S. state to have hosted both the Summer Olympic Games, Summer and Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics. The 1932 Summer Olympics, 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics, 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe region hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourth time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games. Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup took place in California, with the Rose Bowl Stadium, Rose Bowl hosting eight matches (including the 1994 FIFA World Cup Final, final), while Stanford Stadium hosted six matches.


Education

Public Secondary education in the United States, secondary education consists of High school (North America), high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California's public educational system is supported by a California Proposition 98 (1988), unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K–12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures. In 2016, California's K–12 public school per-pupil spending was ranked 22nd in the nation ($11,500 per student vs. $11,800 for the U.S. average). For 2012, California's K–12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0.102 (the U.S. average was 0.137), while paying the 7th most per employee, $49,000 (the U.S. average was $39,000). A 2007 study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation. California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems: * The research university system in the state is the University of California (UC), a public university system. As of fall 2011, the University of California had a combined student body of 234,464 students. There are ten general UC campuses, and a number of specialized campuses in the UC system, as the UC San Francisco, which is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health care, and is home to the UCSF Medical Center, the highest ranked hospital in California. The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of California high school students, but several of the schools have become even more selective.Powell, Farran. "California Students Face Competition for College Options". ''U.S. News & World Report''. N.p., February 6, 2017. Web. May 7, 2017. The UC system was originally given exclusive authority in awarding PhDs, but this has since changed and the CSU is also able to award several Doctoral degrees. * The California State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000 students. The CSU was originally intended to accept the top one-third of California high school students, but several of the schools have become much more selective. The CSU was originally set up to award only bachelor's and master's degrees, but has since been granted the authority to award several Doctoral degrees. * The California Community Colleges System provides lower division coursework as well as basic skills and workforce training. It is the largest network of higher education in the U.S., composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6million. California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.


Twinned regions

California has City twinning, twinning arrangements with the region of Catalonia in Spain and with the Province of Alberta in Canada.


Economy

California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. , the gross state product (GSP) was $3.21000000000000 (number), trillion ($80,600 per capita), the largest in the United States. California is responsible for one seventh of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP). , California's nominal GDP is larger than all but four countries (the Economy of the United States, United States, Economy of China, China, Economy of Japan, Japan, and Economy of Germany, Germany). In terms of Purchasing power parity (PPP), it is larger than all but eight countries (the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia). California's economy is larger than Africa and Australia and is almost as large as South America. * Total Non farm Employment (2016): 14,600,349 * Total employer establishments (2016): 922,477 The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality. In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing. , California has an California unemployment statistics, unemployment rate of 16.3%. California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy. In 2008, California exported $144billion worth of goods, up from $134billion in 2007 and $127billion in 2006. Computers and electronic products are California's top export, accounting for 42 percent of all the state's exports in 2008. Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $7.3billion in 1974 to nearly $31billion in 2004. This increase has occurred despite a 15 percent decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water supply suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production. In 2008, California's 81,500 farms and ranches generated $36.2billion products revenue. In 2011, that number grew to $43.5billion products revenue. The Agriculture sector accounts for two percent of the state's GDP and employs around three percent of its total workforce. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes. List of U.S. states by GDP per capita, Per capita GDP in 2007 was $38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation. California locations by per capita income, Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant worker, migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia. Using the supplemental poverty measure, California has a Poverty in the United States, poverty rate of 23.5%, the highest of any state in the country. However, using the official measure the poverty rate was only 13.3% as of 2017. Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara County, California, Santa Clara and San Mateo County, California, San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bubble, dot-com bust. In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation. In 2010, California residents were ranked first among the states with the best average credit score of 754. File:California GDP by sector 2017.png, California GDP by sector in 2017 File:USA-World Nominal GDP.PNG, Had California been an independent country in 2018 its gross domestic product would have been ranked Comparison between U.S. states and countries by GDP (nominal), fifth in the world.


State finances

State spending increased from $56billion in 1998 to $127billion in 2011. California, with 12% of the United States population, has one-third of the nation's Social programs in the United States, welfare recipients. California has the third highest per capita spending on welfare among the states, as well as the highest spending on welfare at $6.67billion. In January 2011, California's total debt was at least $265billion. On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balanced budget (no deficit) for the state, its first in decades; however the state's debt remains at $132billion. With the passage of California Proposition 30 (2012), Proposition 30 in 2012 and 2016 California Proposition 55, Proposition 55 in 2016, California now levies a 13.3% maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1% at the bottom tax bracket of $0 annual individual income to 13.3% for annual individual income over $1,000,000 (though the top brackets are only temporary until Proposition 55 expires at the end of 2030). While Proposition 30 also enacted a minimum sales taxes in the United States#California, state sales tax of 7.5%, this sales tax increase was not extended by Proposition 55 and reverted to a previous minimum state sales tax rate of 7.25% in 2017. Local governments can and do levy additional sales taxes in addition to this minimum rate. All real property is taxable annually; the ad valorem tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or the value of new construction. Property tax increases are capped at 2% annually or the rate of inflation (whichever is lower), per California Proposition 13 (1978), Proposition 13.


Infrastructure


Energy

Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. However because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its ''per capita'' energy use is one of the smallest of any state in the United States. Due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any other state, primarily hydroelectric power from states in the Pacific Northwest (via Path 15 and Path 66) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the desert Southwest via Path 46. As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020. Currently, several solar power plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems facility are located in the Mojave Desert. Wind power in California, California's wind farms include Altamont Pass Wind Farm, Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm, Tehachapi Pass. The Tehachapi area is also where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located. Several dams across the state provide Hydroelectricity, hydro-electric power. It would be possible to convert the total supply to 100% renewable energy, including heating, cooling and mobility, by 2050. The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation. California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Diablo Canyon and San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Onofre, the latter having been shut down in 2013. More than 1,700tons of radioactive waste are stored at San Onofre, which sits in an area where there is a record of past tsunamis. Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over High-level radioactive waste management, radioactive waste disposal. In addition, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley, California, Berkeley and Davis, California, Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones.


Transportation

California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ('freeways'), limited-access roads ('expressways'), and highways. California is known for its car culture, giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion. Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed "Caltrans". The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States. The Reason Foundation's 19th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems ranked California's highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first. The state has been a pioneer in road construction. One of the state's more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was the List of longest suspension bridge spans, longest suspension bridge main span in the world at between 1937 (when it opened) and 1964. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge (often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge"), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the world's largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at wide by high. The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, California, Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first freeway in the Western United States. It was later extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the first stack interchange ever built. Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), World's busiest airports by passenger traffic, the 4th busiest airport in the world in 2018, and San Francisco International Airport (SFO), World's busiest airports by passenger traffic, the 25th busiest airport in the world in 2018, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation List of airports in California, airports throughout the state. California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. The Port of Stockton is the farthest inland port on the west coast of the United States. The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide police agency in the United States in employment with more than 10,000 employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California's state-maintained highways and on state property. The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver's licenses and ID cards on file. In 2010, there were 1.17million new vehicle registrations in force. Inter-city rail travel is provided by Amtrak California; the three routes, the ''Capitol Corridor'', ''Pacific Surfliner'', and ''San Joaquin (train), San Joaquin'', are funded by Caltrans. These services are the busiest intercity rail lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records. The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, especially on the LAX-SFO route. Integrated Rapid transit, subway and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles (LACMTA, Metro Rail) and San Francisco (San Francisco Municipal Railway, MUNI Metro). Light rail systems are also found in San Jose (Santa Clara VTA Light-rail, VTA), San Diego (San Diego Trolley), Sacramento (Sacramento RT Light Rail, RT Light Rail), and Northern San Diego County (Sprinter (San Diego), Sprinter). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area (Altamont Corridor Express, ACE, Bay Area Rapid Transit, BART, Caltrain, Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit, SMART), Greater Los Angeles (Metrolink (Southern California), Metrolink), and San Diego County (Coaster (San Diego), Coaster). The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive rail system. Construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, with the first phase of construction estimated to cost $64.2billion. Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus lines as well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound Lines, Greyhound, Megabus (North America), Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach.


Water

California's interconnected water system is the world's largest, managing over of water per year, centered on six main systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects. Water use and conservation in California is a politically divisive issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its large agricultural and urban sectors, especially in the arid southern portion of the state. The state's widespread redistribution of water also invites the frequent scorn of environmentalists. The California Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most well-known examples of the struggle to secure adequate water supplies. Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said: "We've been in crisis for quite some time because we're now 38million people and not anymore 18million people like we were in the late 60s. So it developed into a battle between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the last four decades about water."


Government and politics


State government

The capital of California is located within Sacramento, California, Sacramento. The state is organized into three separation of powers, branches of government—the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California, governor and the other independently elected constitutional officers; the legislative branch consisting of the California State Assembly, Assembly and California State Senate, Senate; and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. The state also allows California ballot proposition, ballot propositions: direct participation of the electorate by initiative, referendum, recall election, recall, and ratification. Before the passage of California Proposition 14 (2010), California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a closed primary or a primary where only party members and independent (politics), independents vote. After June 8, 2010, when Proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county central committee offices, all candidates in the primary elections are listed on the ballot with their preferred party affiliation, but they are not the official nominee of that party. At the primary election, the two candidates with the top votes will advance to the general election regardless of party affiliation. If at a special primary election, one candidate receives more than 50% of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the vacancy and no special general election will be held.


Executive branch

The California executive branch consists of the governor and seven other elected constitutional officers: Lieutenant Governor of California, lieutenant governor, California Attorney General, attorney general, Secretary of State of California, secretary of state, California State Controller, state controller, California State Treasurer, state treasurer, California Insurance Commissioner, insurance commissioner, and California State Superintendent of Public Instruction, state superintendent of public instruction. They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once.


Legislative branch

The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are subject to term limits of three terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of two terms.


Judicial branch

California's legal system is explicitly based upon English common law (as is the case with all other states except Louisiana law, Louisiana) but carries a few features from Spanish Civil law (legal system), civil law, such as community property. California's prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007. Capital punishment in California, Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the state has the largest "Death Row" population in the country (though Oklahoma and Texas are far more active in carrying out executions). California's judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a total of 1,600 judges (the federal system has only about 840). At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. The administration of the state's court system is controlled by the Judicial Council of California, Judicial Council, composed of the chief justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 judicial officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one member from each house of the state legislature.


Local government


Counties

California is divided into 58 County (United States), counties. Per Article 11, Section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government provides countywide services such as law enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services, libraries, flood control, fire protection, animal control, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in charge of maintaining statewide standards. In addition, the county serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas. Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors.


City and town governments

Incorporated cities and towns in California are either Charter city, charter or general-law municipalities. General-law municipalities owe their existence to state law and are consequently governed by it; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters. Municipalities incorporated in the 19th century tend to be charter municipalities. All ten of the state's most populous cities are charter cities. Most small cities have a Council–manager government, council–manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city manager to supervise the operations of the city. Some larger cities have a directly-elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremonial. The Government of San Francisco is the only consolidated city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unified jurisdiction.


School districts and special districts

About 1,102 school districts, independent of cities and counties, handle California's public education. California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unified school districts combining elementary and high school grades, or community college districts. There are about 3,400 special-purpose district, special districts in California. A Special-purpose district, special district, defined by California Government Code § 16271(d) as "any agency of the state for the local performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries", provides a limited range of services within a defined geographic area. The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a portion of one. Most of California's special districts are ''single-purpose districts'', and provide one service.


Federal representation

The state of California sends California's congressional districts, 53 members to the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, the nation's largest congressional state delegation. Consequently California also has the largest number of Electoral College (United States), electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 55. The current Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California's 12th district, Nancy Pelosi; Kevin McCarthy (California politician), Kevin McCarthy, representing the state's 23rd district, is the Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives, House Minority Leader. California is represented by U.S. senators Dianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Alex Padilla, a native and former secretary of state of California. Former U.S. senator Kamala Harris, a native, former district attorney from San Francisco, former attorney general of California, resigned on January 18, 2021 to assume her role as the current Vice President of the United States. In the 1992 United States Senate election in California, 1992 U.S. Senate election, California became the first state to elect a Senate delegation entirely composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer. Set to follow the Vice President-Elect, Gov. Gavin Newsom, Newsom appointed Secretary of State of California, Secretary of State Alex Padilla to finish the rest of Harris's term which ends in 2022 United States Senate election in California, 2022, Padilla has vowed to run for the full term in that election cycle. Padilla was sworn-in on January 20, 2021, the same day as the Inauguration of President-Elect Joe Biden as well as Harris.


Armed forces

In California, , the U.S. Department of Defense had a total of 117,806 active duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were United States Navy, Sailors or United States Marine Corps, Marines, 18,339 were United States Air Force, Airmen, and 11,097 were United States Army, Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees. Additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, Reservists and Guardsman in California. In 2010, Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military. However, , Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population. In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States military service: 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 (including the Persian Gulf War). , there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and just over four thousand served Interwar period, before World WarII (the largest population of this group of any state). California's military forces consist of the California National Guard, Army and Air National Guard, the California State Military Reserve, naval and state military reserve (militia), and the California Cadet Corps. On August 5, 1950, a Silverplate, nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber carrying a Mark 4 nuclear bomb, nuclear bomb crashed shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. Brigadier General Robert F. Travis, command pilot of the bomber, was among the dead.


Ideology

California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the rest of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter. In socio-cultural mores and national politics, Californians are perceived as more Modern liberalism in the United States, liberal than other Americans, especially those who live in the inland states. In the 2016 United States presidential election, California had the third highest percentage of Democratic votes behind Washington, D.C., the District of Columbia and Hawaii. In the 2020_United_States_presidential_election#Results_by_state, 2020 United States presidential election, it had the 6th highest behind Washington, D.C., the District of Columbia, Vermont, Massachusetts, Maryland, and Hawaii. According to the Cook Political Report, California contains five of the 15 most Democratic congressional districts in the United States. Among the political idiosyncrasies, California was the second state California gubernatorial recall election, 2003, to recall their state governor, the second state to legalize abortion, and the only state to ban marriage for gay couples twice by vote (including California Proposition 8, Proposition8 in 2008). Voters also passed California Proposition 71 (2004), Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund stem cell research, making California the Stem_cell_laws_and_policy_in_the_United_States#Legalization_and_funding, second state to legalize stem cell research after New Jersey, and California Proposition 14 (2010), Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state's primary election process. California has also experienced California Water Wars, disputes over water rights; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of California Proposition 13 (1978), Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. California voters have rejected affirmative action on multiple occasions, most recently in November 2020. The state's trend towards the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party and away from the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party can be seen in state elections. From 1899 to 1939, California had Republican governors. Since 1990, California has generally elected Democratic candidates to federal, state and local offices, including current Governor Gavin Newsom; however, the state has elected Republican Governors, though many of its Republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered moderate Republicans and more Centrism, centrist than the national party. Several political movements have advocated for Partition and secession in California, Californian independence. The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both advocate for Californian independence along the lines of Progressivism in the United States, progressivism and civic nationalism. The Yes California movement attempted to organize an independence referendum via ballot initiative for 2019, which was then postponed. The Democrats also now hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate. The trend towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. From 1952 United States presidential election, 1952 through 1988 United States presidential election, 1988, California was a Republican leaning state, with the party carrying the state's electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with 1964 United States presidential election, 1964 as the exception. Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.S. Presidents, respectively. However, Democrats have won all of California's electoral votes for the last eight elections, starting in 1992 United States presidential election, 1992. In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegation of the 110th United States Congress in 2007. As the result of gerrymandering, the districts in California were usually dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive. In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member independent citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. After the 2012 elections, when the new system took effect, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38–15 majority in the delegation. Following the 2018 United States House of Representatives elections, 2018 midterm House elections, Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven. In general, Democratic strength is centered in the populous Coastal California, coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. Republican strength is still greatest in eastern parts of the state. Orange County, California, Orange County had remained largely Republican until the 2016 and 2018 elections, in which a majority of the county's votes were cast for Democratic candidates. One study ranked Berkeley California, Berkeley, Oakland, California, Oakland, Inglewood, California, Inglewood and San Francisco in the top 20 most liberal American cities; and Bakersfield, California, Bakersfield, Orange, California, Orange, Escondido, California, Escondido, Garden Grove, California, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley, California, Simi Valley in the top 20 most conservative cities. In October 2012, out of the 23,802,577 people eligible to vote, 18,245,970 people were registered to vote. Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats (7,966,422), Republicans (5,356,608), and Decline to State (3,820,545). Los Angeles County had the largest number of registered Democrats (2,430,612) and Republicans (1,037,031) of any county in the state.


See also

* Index of California-related articles * Outline of California


Notes


References


Citations


Works cited

* * *


Further reading

* * * * Matthews, Glenna. ''The Golden State in the Civil War: Thomas Starr King, the Republican Party, and the Birth of Modern California''. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. * *


External links


State of California


*
data.ca.gov: open data portal from California state agencies

California State Facts from USDA

California Drought: Farm and Food Impacts from USDA, Economic Research Service
*
1973 documentary featuring aerial views of the California coastline from Mt. Shasta to Los Angeles

Time-Lapse Tilt-Shift Portrait of California by Ryan and Sheri Killackey
* https://jupiter.ai/books/d8Wv/#Page_289/

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