EtymologyThe city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo River (New York), Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "''Buffalo Creek''" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name.You asked us: The 868–3900 line to your desk at the Star: How Buffalo got its name
Prehistory and European explorationThe first inhabitants of the New York (state), New York State are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Quaternary glaciation, Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois, Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French colonization of the Americas, French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied simultaneously by the Agrarian society, agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, and the Wenrohronon, Wenro people or ''Wenrohronon'', an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, using animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state. These paths were later paved, and now function as major roads. Later, during the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Iroquois, Five Nations of the Iroquois conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Seneca people, Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c. 1651–1653. Soon after, the Iroquois destroyed Erie nation and territory over their assistance to Wyandot people, Huron people during the Beaver Wars. Louis Hennepin and René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, Sieur de La Salle made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes before it disappeared in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the Province of New York—now a U.S. state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, and Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile (1600-meter) wide portion of land. The rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris (financier), Robert Morris in 1791, and two years later to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army during the American Revolutionary War, British Army, Iroquois territory was gradually reduced in the mid-to-late-1700s by European settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784), the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek (1788), and the Treaty of Geneseo (1797). The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek Reservation, Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only of reservation territory remained.
Founding, Erie Canal, and railroadsThe first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the American Revolutionary War, Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was William Johnson (Royal Navy officer), Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter who had been in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and who the Senecas granted creekside land as a gift of appreciation. His house stood at present-day Washington and Seneca streets. Former enslaved man Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, and Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany, New York, Albany who arrived in 1789, were early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland. The Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lands west of the Genesee River in 1797. In the fall of 1797, Joseph Ellicott, the architect who helped survey Washington, D.C. with brother Andrew Ellicott, Andrew, was appointed as the Chief of Survey for the Holland Land Company. Over the next year, he began to survey the tract of land at the mouth of Buffalo Creek. This was completed in 1803, and the new village boundaries extended from the creekside in the south to present-day Chippewa Street in the north and Carolina Street to the west, which is where most settlers remained for the first decade of the 19th century. Although the company named the settlement "New Amsterdam," the name did not catch on, reverting to ''Buffalo'' within ten years. Buffalo had the first road to Pennsylvania built in 1802 for migrants passing through to the Connecticut Western Reserve in Ohio. In 1804, Ellicott designed a radial grid plan that would branch out from the village forming bicycle-like spokes, interrupted by diagonals, like the system used in the nation's capital. In the middle of the village was the intersection of eight streets, in what would become Niagara Square. Several blocks to the southeast he designed a semicircle fronting Main Street with an elongated park green, formerly his estate. This would be known as Shelton Square, at that time the center of the city (which would be dramatically altered in the mid-20th century), with the intersecting streets bearing the names of Dutch Holland Land Company members, today Erie, Church and Niagara streets. Lafayette Square (Buffalo), Lafayette Square also lies one block to the north, which was then bounded by streets bearing Iroquois names. According to an early resident, the village had sixteen residences, a schoolhouse and two stores in 1806, primarily near Main, Swan and Seneca streets. There were also blacksmith shops, a tavern and a drugstore. The streets were small at 40 feet wide, and the village was still surrounded by woods. The first lot sold by the Holland Land Company was on September 11, 1806, to Zerah Phelps. By 1808, lots would sell from $25 to $50. In 1804, Buffalo's population was estimated at 400, similar to Batavia, New York, Batavia, but Erie County's growth was behind Chautauqua County, New York, Chautauqua, Genesee County, New York, Genesee and Wyoming County, New York, Wyoming counties. Neighboring village Black Rock, New York, Black Rock to the northwest (today a Buffalo neighborhood) was also an important center. Horatio J. Spafford noted in ''A Gazetteer of the State of New York'' that in fact, despite the growth the village of Buffalo had, Black Rock "is deemed a better trading site for a great trading town than that of Buffalo," especially when considering the regional profile of mundane roads extending eastward. Before the east-to-west turnpike was completed, travelling from Albany to Buffalo would take a week, while even a trip from nearby Williamsville, New York, Williamsville to Batavia could take upwards of three days. Although History of slavery in New York, slavery was rare in the state, limited instances of slavery had taken place in Buffalo during the early part of the 19th century. General Peter Buell Porter is said to have had five slaves during his time in Black Rock, and several news ads also advertised slaves for sale. In 1810, a courthouse was built. By 1811, the population was 500, with many people farming or doing manual labor. The first newspaper to be published was the ''Buffalo Gazette'' in October that same year. On December 31, 1813, the British burned Buffalo and the village of Black Rock after the Battle of Buffalo. The battle and subsequent fire was in response to the unprovoked destruction of Niagara-on-the-Lake, then known as "Newark," by American forces. On August 4, 1814, British forces under Lt. Colonel John Tucker and Lt. Colonel William Drummond, General Gordon Drummond's nephew, attempted to raid Black Rock and Buffalo as part of a diversion to force an early surrender Siege of Fort Erie, at Fort Erie the next day, but were defeated by a small force of American riflemen under Major Lodwick Morgan at the Battle of Conjocta Creek, and withdrew back into Canada. Consequently, Fort Erie's siege under Gordon Drummond later failed, and British forces withdrew. Though only three buildings remained in the village, rebuilding was swift, finishing in 1815. The population in 1840 was 18,213. The village of Buffalo was part of and the seat of Niagara County until the legislature passed an act separating them on April 2, 1861. On October 26, 1825, the Erie Canal was completed, formed from part of Buffalo Creek, with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward. At the time, the population was about 2,400. By 1826, the 130 sq. mile Buffalo Creek Reservation at the western border of the village was transferred to Buffalo. The Erie Canal brought a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832. The canal area was mature by 1847, with passenger and cargo ship activity leading to congestion in the harbor. The mid-1800s saw a population boom, with the city doubling in size from 1845 to 1855. In 1855, almost two-thirds of the city's population were foreign-born immigrants, largely a mix of unskilled or educated Irish Americans, Irish and German Americans, German Catholic Church, Catholics, who began self-segregating in different parts of the city. The Irish immigrants planted their roots along the railroad-heavy Buffalo River and Erie Canal to the southeast, to which there is still a heavy presence today; German immigrants found their way to the East Side, living a more laid-back, residential life. Some immigrants were apprehensive about the change of environment and left the city for the western region, while others tried to stay behind in the hopes of expanding their native cultures. Fugitive slaves in the United States, Fugitive black slaves began to make their way northward to Buffalo in the 1840s, and many settled on the city's East Side. In 1845, construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church (Buffalo, New York), Macedonia Baptist Church, a meeting spot in the Michigan and William Street neighborhood where blacks first settled. Political activity surrounding the anti-slavery movement took place in Buffalo during this time, including conventions held by the National Convention of Colored Citizens and the Liberty Party (United States, 1840), Liberty Party and its offshoots. Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many Fugitive slaves in the United States, fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom. During the 1840s, Buffalo's port continued to develop. Both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo. Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor. In 1843, the world's first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar. "Dart's Elevator" enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, and rail cars. By 1850, the city's population was 81,000. In 1860, many railway companies and lines crossed through and terminated in Buffalo. Major ones were the Buffalo, Bradford and Pittsburgh Railroad (1859), Buffalo and Erie Railroad and the New York Central Railroad (1853). During this time, Buffalonians controlled a quarter of all shipping traffic on Lake Erie, and shipbuilding was a thriving industry for the city. Later, the Lehigh Valley Railroad would have its line terminate at Buffalo in 1867.
Rise of heavy industry, decline, urban renewalAt the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River. The city got the nickname ''The City of Light'' at this time due to the widespread electric lighting. It was also part of the automobile revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow and the Seven Little Buffaloes early in the century. At the same time, an exit of local entrepreneurs and industrial titans brought about a nascent stage that would see the city lose its competitiveness against Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Detroit. President William McKinley was William McKinley assassination, shot and mortally wounded by an anarchist at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6, 1901. McKinley died eight days later and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in at the Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site, Wilcox Mansion. The Great Depression, Great Depression of 1929–39 saw severe unemployment, especially among working-class men. The New Deal relief programs operated full force. The city became a stronghold of labor unions and the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party. During World War II, Buffalo saw the return of prosperity and full employment due to its position as a manufacturing center. As one of the 1950 United States Census#city rankings, most populous cities of the 1950s, Buffalo's economy revolved almost entirely on its manufacturing base. Major companies such as Republic Steel and Lackawanna Steel Company, Lackawanna Steel employed tens of thousands of Buffalonians. Integrated national shipping routes would use the Soo Locks near Lake Superior and a vast network of railroads and yards that crossed the city. Lobbying by local businesses and interest groups against the St. Lawrence Seaway began in the 1920s, long before its construction in 1957, which cut the city off from valuable trade routes. Its approval was reinforced by legislation shortly before its construction. Shipbuilding in Buffalo, such as the American Ship Building Company, shut down in 1962, ending an industry that had been a sector of the city's economy since 1812, and a direct result of reduced waterfront activity. With deindustrialization, and the nationwide trend of suburbanization; the city's economy began to deteriorate. Like much of the Rust Belt, Buffalo, home to more than half a million people in the 1950s, has seen its population decline as heavy industries shut down and people left for the suburbs or other cities.
GeographyBuffalo is on Lake Erie's eastern end, opposite Fort Erie, Ontario, Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada. It is at the origin of the Niagara River, which flows northward over Niagara Falls and into Lake Ontario. The city is south-southeast from Toronto. Buffalo is from Rochester, New York, Rochester, from Syracuse, New York, Syracuse, from the New York (state), New York State capital of Albany, New York, Albany, and from New York City. Interstate 90 connects Buffalo to Erie, Pennsylvania, Cleveland, Ohio, and Detroit, Michigan. Cleveland and Detroit are the largest populated areas in the United States closer than the New York metropolitan area or Albany, New York, Albany. Relative to downtown, the city is generally flat with the exception of areas surrounding North and High streets, where a hill of gradually develops approaching from the south and north. The Southtowns include the Boston Hills, while the Appalachian Mountains sit in the Southern Tier below them. To the north and east, the region maintains a flatter profile descending to Lake Ontario. Various types of shale, limestone and lagerstätten are prevalent in the geographic makeup of Buffalo and surrounding areas, which line the waterbeds within and bordering the city. Although there have not been any recent or significant earthquakes, Buffalo sits atop of the Southern Great Lakes Seismic Zone, which is part of the Great Lakes tectonic zone. Buffalo has four Channel (geography), channels that flow through its boundaries: the Niagara River, Buffalo River (New York), Buffalo River and Creek, Scajaquada Creek, and the Black Rock Canal, which is adjacent to the Niagara River. Buffalo was once known as the "City of Trees". In 1939, there were avenues of elms, and over 300,000 urban forest, street and park trees, maintained by the city's forestry division, which had 30 full-time foresters. The elms, which made up 60 per cent of the trees, were nearly all wiped out by Dutch elm disease in the 1950s. From 1974 onwards, efforts were made to increase the tree cover, and since 2001 the city has maintained an inventory of its urban forest. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of , of which is land and the rest water. The total area is 22.66% water. In 2010, the city of Buffalo had a population of 6,470.6 per square mile.
NeighborhoodsThe city consists of 31 different neighborhoods. Buffalo's most prominent neighborhoods (J. N. Adam–AM&A Historic District, Canalside, Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus, University Heights, Buffalo, University Heights) are in or near the downtown area. The J. N. Adam–AM&A Historic District is a national historic district. Its main department store was designed by Starrett & van Vleck and built in 1935. Canalside originally began as an Italian-dominated area, and the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus was established in 2001. Canalside and University Heights are predominantly mix-used districts. Buffalo and its suburbs have been redeveloping neighborhoods and districts since the early 2000s in efforts to mitigate a declining population and attract businesses. In June 2020, the Buffalo-based Green Organization acquired an apartment complex with the intent to remodel it and bring new residents.
ArchitectureBuffalo's architecture is diverse, with a collection of buildings from the 19th and 20th centuries. Most structures and works are still standing, such as the country's largest intact parks system designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. At the end of the 19th century, the Prudential (Guaranty) Building (Buffalo, New York), Guaranty Building—constructed by Louis Sullivan—was a prominent example of an early high-rise skyscraper. The Darwin D. Martin House designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and built between 1903 and 1905, is considered to be one of the most important projects from Wright's Prairie School era. The Larkin Administration Building, now demolished, was Frank Lloyd Wright's first commercial commission. The 20th century saw works such as the Art Deco-style Buffalo City Hall and Buffalo Central Terminal, Electric Tower, the H. H. Richardson Complex, Richardson Olmsted Complex, and the Rand Building. Urban renewal from the 1950s–1970s gave way to the construction of the Brutalist architecture, Brutalist-style Buffalo City Court Building and One Seneca Tower—formerly the HSBC Center, the city's tallest building.
ClimateBuffalo has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Dfb'' bordering on ''Dfa''), which is common in the Great Lakes region. Buffalo has snowy winters, but it is rarely the Golden Snowball Award, snowiest city in New York state. The Blizzard of 1977 resulted from a combination of high winds and snow accumulated on land and on frozen Lake Erie. Snow does not typically impair the city's operation, but can cause significant damage during the autumn as with the Lake Storm "Aphid", October 2006 storm. In November 2014, the region had a November 13–21, 2014 North American winter storm, record-breaking storm, producing over of snow; this storm was named "November 13–21, 2014 North American winter storm, Snowvember". Buffalo has the sunniest and driest summers of any major city in the Northeastern United States, Northeast, but still has enough rain to keep vegetation green and lush. Summers are marked by plentiful sunshine and moderate humidity and temperature. Obscured by the notoriety of Buffalo's winter snow is the fact Buffalo benefits from other lake effects such as the cooling southwest breezes off Lake Erie in summer that gently temper the warmest days. As a result, temperatures only rise above three times in the average year, and the Buffalo station of the National Weather Service has never recorded an official temperature of or more, with a maximum of 99 °F on August 27, 1948. Rainfall is moderate, but typically occurs at night. Lake Erie's stabilizing effect continues to inhibit thunderstorms and enhance sunshine in the immediate Buffalo area through most of July. August usually has more showers and is hotter and more humid as the warmer lake loses its temperature-stabilizing influence. The highest recorded temperature in Buffalo was on August 27, 1948 and the lowest recorded temperature was , which occurred twice, on February 9, 1934 and February 2, 1961. In his 2019 State of the City address, Byron Brown, Mayor Byron Brown dubbed Buffalo a "Climate Refuge City" because the city is unusually Climate resilience, well-insulated against climate change. Experts say the region's cool climate and ample fresh water could make it an attractive destination as the planet heats up.
DemographicsLike most former industrial cities of the Great Lakes region in the United States, Buffalo is recovering from an economic depression from suburbanization and the loss of its industrial base. The city's population peaked in 1950 when it was the 15th largest city in the United States, down from the 8th largest city in America in 1900, and its population has been spreading out to the suburbs every census since then. In 2010, Buffalo had a population of 261,310 and an estimated 255,284 inhabitants in 2019. The city's median household income was $24,536 and the median family income was $30,614 in 2010. Males had a median income of $30,938 versus $23,982 for females. The city's per capita income was $14,991. Of the population, 26.6% of individuals and 23% of families, were below the Poverty in the United States, poverty line. Of the total population, 38.4% of those under 18 and 14% of those over 65 were living below the poverty line. The United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau determined the median household income in 2018 was $35,893 and the per capita income was $23,297. Of the population, 30.3% lived at or below the poverty line in 2018.
Race and ethnicityCommon to many U.S. cities from the 1950s to the 1990s, Buffalo has become a diverse city. The city's diversification is due in part to white flight, the Great Migration (African American), Great Migration, and Immigration to the United States, immigration. Since 2015, Buffalo has become a Majority minority, majority-minority city primarily dominated by African Americans and Hispanic or Latin Americans. At the American Community Survey's 2018 estimates, 42.5% of the population was non-Hispanic white, 34.3% African American, 0.3% American Indian or Alaska Native, 6.5% Asian, 0.1% from some other race and 3.3% from two or more races. Approximately 13% of Buffalonians were of Hispanic or Latin American origin. The largest Latin American groups in 2018 were Stateside Puerto Ricans, Puerto Ricans (9.7%), Mexicans (0.7%), and Cuban Americans, Cubans (0.3%). Since 2003, there has been an ever-growing number of Myanmar, Burmese refugees, mostly of the Karen people, Karen ethnicity, with an estimated 4,665 residing in Buffalo as of 2016. In 2018, 10% of the population were foreign-born. At the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the city's population was 50.4% white (45.8% Non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic white), 38.6% African Americans, black or African-American, 0.8% Native Americans in the United States, American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.2% Asian Americans, Asian, 3.9% from some other race and 3.1% from Multiracial Americans, two or more races, while 10.5% of the population was Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino of any race.
ReligionPer ''Sperling's BestPlaces'' in 2020, nearly 60% of Buffalonians identify with a religion. Overall, Buffalo and Upstate New York are more religious than Downstate New York. Largely a result of British and French colonialism and Missionary, missionary work, Christianity is the largest religion in Buffalo and Western New York. The largest Christian groups in Buffalo and the surrounding area are the Catholic Church (38.8%) and Baptists (2.9%). Buffalo's Catholic population primarily make up the Latin Church's Roman Catholic Diocese of Buffalo, Diocese of Buffalo. The Catholic Diocese of Buffalo covers Western New York except for the nearby Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester, Diocese of Rochester. Its episcopal see is St. Joseph Cathedral (Buffalo, New York), St. Joseph Cathedral. Baptists in the city mainly affiliate with the American Baptist Churches USA, National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc., National Baptist Convention, USA and the National Baptist Convention of America International, Inc., National Baptist Convention of America. There is one Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, Cooperative Baptist church within the metropolitan area as of 2020. The third largest Christian group in the city are Lutheranism, Lutherans (2.7%), primarily served by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Methodism, Methodists (2.0%), Presbyterianism, Presbyterians (1.9%) and Pentecostalism, Pentecostals (1.2%) were the following largest Christian groups. The Methodist and Presbyterian Buffalonian communities are dominated by the United Methodist Church and Presbyterian Church (USA). Pentecostals are generally affiliated with the Assemblies of God USA and Church of God in Christ. Nearly 1% of local Christians identified as Anglicanism, Anglican or Episcopalian. Most align themselves with the Episcopal Diocese of Western New York, Diocese of Western New York of the Episcopal Church (United States), Episcopal Church in the U.S. Its cathedral is St. Paul's Cathedral (Buffalo, New York), St. Paul's Cathedral. The remainder are affiliated with Continuing Anglican movement, Continuing Anglican or Evangelical Anglicanism, Evangelical Episcopal denominations. There are two Anglican Church in North America-affiliated churches further east in the Rochester metropolitan area, New York, Rochester metropolitan area. Approximately 0.3% professed Mormonism and 3.3% were of List of Christian denominations, another Christian faith including the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodox churches, Nondenominational Christianity, non-denominational Protestants, and others. The largest Eastern Orthodox jurisdictions are the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Ecumenical Patriarchate) and Orthodox Church in America Diocese of New York and New Jersey, Diocese of New York and New Jersey (Orthodox Church in America). Islam is Buffalo's second largest religion (1.8%). Sunni Islam is the predominant branch practiced. Most Sunni mosques are members of the Islamic Society of North America. The Nation of Islam has one mosque in Buffalo. Judaism made up the third largest religion in the area (0.9%). As of 2020, Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox, Conservative Judaism, Conservative, and Reform Judaism were the most prevalent groups affiliated with throughout Buffalo and the surrounding area. A little over 0.5% professed an Eastern religions, eastern faith including Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sikhism. The remainder of Buffalo and the surrounding area was spiritual but not religious, Agnosticism, agnostic, Deism, deistic or Atheism, atheist, though some Buffalonians identified with Modern Paganism, contemporary pagan religions including Wicca, Nature religion and other smaller new religious movements. Many contemporary pagans, spiritual but not religious and New Age residents attend the city's Winter Solstice celebrations annually. They are also participants of the Western New York Pagan Pride celebrations.
EconomyBuffalo's economic sectors include industrial, light manufacturing, high technology and services. The New York (state), State of New York, with over 15,000 employees, is the city's largest employer. Other major employers include the Federal government of the United States, United States government, Kaleida Health, M&T Bank (which is headquartered in Buffalo), the University at Buffalo, Tonawanda Engine, General Motors, Time Warner Cable and Tops Friendly Markets. Buffalo is home to Rich Products, Canadian brewer Labatt, cheese company Sorrento Lactalis, Delaware North Companies and New Era Cap Company. The law firm Goldberg Segalla is also headquartered in the city. More recently, the Tesla Inc., Tesla Gigafactory 2 opened in South Buffalo in summer 2017. Buffalo's economy has begun to see significant improvements since the early 2010s. Money from New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo through a program known locally as "Buffalo Billion" has brought new construction, increased economic development, and hundreds of new jobs to the area. As of March 2015, Buffalo's unemployment rate was 5.9%, slightly above the national average of 5.5%. In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis valued the Buffalo area's economy at $54.9 billion.
Arts and culture
CuisineBuffalo's cuisine encompasses a variety of cultural contributions, including Sicilian cuisine, Sicilian, Italian cuisine, Italian, Irish cuisine, Irish, Jewish cuisine, Jewish, German cuisine, German, Polish cuisine, Polish, soul food, African-American, Greek cuisine, Greek and Cuisine of the United States, American influences. In 2015, the National Geographic Society ranked Buffalo third on their list of "The World's Top Ten Food Cities". Locally owned restaurants offer Chinese cuisine, Chinese, German, Japanese cuisine, Japanese, Korean cuisine, Korean, Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamese, Thai cuisine, Thai, Mexican cuisine, Mexican, Sicilian cuisine, Sicilian, Italian cuisine, Italian, Arab cuisine, Arab, Indian cuisine, Indian, Burmese cuisine, Burmese, Caribbean cuisine, Caribbean, soul food and French cuisine. The Beef on weck, Beef on weck sandwich, kielbasa, sponge candy, pastry hearts, pierogi, pizza logs, chicken finger subs and haddock Fish and chips, fish fries are local favorites, as is a loganberry#Uses, loganberry-flavored beverage that remains relatively obscure outside of Western New York and Southern Ontario. Teressa Bellissimo first prepared the now widespread Buffalo wing, Chicken Wings at the Anchor Bar in October 1964. Buffalo has several well-known food companies. Non-dairy whipped topping was invented in Buffalo in 1945 by Robert E. Rich, Sr. His company, Rich Products, is one of the city's largest private employers. General Mills was organized in Buffalo and Gold Medal brand flour, Wheaties, Cheerios and other General Mills brand cereals are manufactured here. Archer Daniels Midland operates its largest flour mill in the city. Buffalo is home to one of the world's largest privately held food companies, Delaware North Companies, which operates concessions in sports arenas, stadiums, resorts and many state and federal parks. The Taste of Buffalo and National Buffalo Wing Festival showcase food from the Buffalo area. These are two of the many festivals that take place in Buffalo during the summer.
Fine and performing artsBuffalo is home to over 50 private and public art gallery, art galleries, most notably the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, home to a collection of Modern art, modern and contemporary art, and the Burchfield-Penney Art Center. In 2012, ''AmericanStyle'' ranked Buffalo twenty-fifth in its list of top mid-sized cities for art. It is also home to many independent media and literary arts organizations like Squeaky Wheel Buffalo Media Arts Center, Squeaky Wheel Film and Media Arts Center. The Buffalo area's largest theater is Shea's Performing Arts Center, designed to accommodate 4,000 people with interiors by Louis Comfort Tiffany. Built in 1926, the theater presents Broadway musicals and concerts. The theater community in the Buffalo Theater District includes over 20 professional companies. The Allentown Art Festival showcases local and national artists every June, in Buffalo's Allentown, Buffalo, Allentown district. Buffalo is also home to the Freedom Wall, which is at the corner of Michigan Avenue and East Ferry Street. The Albright-Knox Art Gallery Public Art Initiative commissioned the Freedom Wall with support from the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority.https://www.albrightknox.org/community/ak-public-art/freedom-wall The Freedom Wall, 2017. Famous artists from Buffalo include Fernando Lions and Ian Debeer. Both are well-known multi-disciplined, contemporary artists. Fernando credits his mother in an interview by ''Urban Outfitters,'' "She was a teacher, and was very open to the idea of me being an artist. She saw that I was driven by creating art and she encouraged me to continue in that direction." Fernando Lions currently resides in Brooklyn, New York.
MusicThe Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, which performs at Kleinhans Music Hall, is one of the city's most prominent performing arts institutions. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the musical leadership of Lukas Foss and Michael Tilson Thomas, the Philharmonic collaborated with Grateful Dead and toured with the Boston Pops Orchestra. Buffalo has the roots of many jazz and classical music, classical musicians, and it is also the founding city for several mainstream bands and musicians, including Rick James, Billy Sheehan, Cannibal Corpse, Malevolent Creation, Aqueous, The Quakes, Brian McKnight, Every Time I Die, Joe Public (band), Joe Public and The Goo Goo Dolls. Vincent Gallo, a Buffalo-born filmmaker and musician, played in several local bands. Jazz fusion band Spyro Gyra and jazz saxophonist Grover Washington Jr. also got their starts in Buffalo. Composer Harold Arlen, who wrote "Somewhere over the Rainbow," was born and started his career in Buffalo. Pianist and composer Leonard Pennario was born in Buffalo in 1924 and made his debut concert at Carnegie Hall in 1943. Buffalo's Colored Musicians Club, an extension of what was long ago a separate musicians' union local, is thriving today and maintains a significant jazz history within its walls. Well-known indie artist Ani DiFranco hails from Buffalo. Buffalo has also become known for its underground hip-hop scene producing rappers such as Westside Gunn, Benny the Butcher, Conway the Machine, Elcamino, Armani Caesar, Che Noir, and producer Daringer.
TourismAlthough the region's primary tourism destination is Niagara Falls to the north, Buffalo's tourism relies on historical attractions and outdoor recreation. The city's points of interest include the Edward M. Cotter (fireboat), Edward M. Cotter fireboat, considered the world's oldest active fireboat and is a United States National Historic Landmark, Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens, the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Buffalo Museum of Science, the Buffalo Zoo—the third oldest in the United States-- Forest Lawn Cemetery (Buffalo), Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park, the Anchor Bar and Darwin D. Martin House. Redeveloped historical neighborhoods have also attracted tourism. The site of the former Erie Canal Harbor, Canalside has become a popular destination for tourists and residents since 2007 when Buffalo and the New York Power Authority began to redevelop the former site of the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium into historically accurate canals. Canalside has several tour operators taking visitors to various neighborhoods includin
SportsBuffalo and the surrounding region is home to three major professional sports teams. The National Hockey League, NHL's Buffalo Sabres and the National Lacrosse League, NLL's Buffalo Bandits both play in KeyBank Center, while the National Football League, NFL's Buffalo Bills play in suburban Orchard Park, New York. The Bills, established in 1960, played in War Memorial Stadium (Buffalo), War Memorial Stadium, now Johnnie B. Wiley Sports Pavilion, until 1973, when Rich Stadium, now Highmark Stadium (New York), Highmark Stadium, opened. The city of Buffalo brought home its two major league sports titles when the Bills won the American Football League Championship in both 1964 and 1965. The team competes in the AFC East division. The Bills have 10 Division Titles to their name. Since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970, the Bills have won the American Football Conference, AFC Championship four times (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993), resulting in four consecutive lost Super Bowls (Super Bowl XXV, Super Bowl XXVI, Super Bowl XXVII and Super Bowl XXVIII). The Sabres, established in 1970, played in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium until 1996, when Marine Midland Arena, now KeyBank Center, opened. The team plays in the Atlantic Division (NHL), Atlantic Division of the NHL. The team has won one Presidents' Trophy (2006–2007) and three Prince of Wales Trophies (conference championships) (1974–1975, 1979–1980 and 1998–1999). However, unlike the Bills, the Sabres don't have a league championship, having lost the 1975 Stanley Cup to the Philadelphia Flyers and the 1999 Stanley Cup to the Dallas Stars. Since 2014, both the Bills and Sabres have been owned by Terrence Pegula, a key investor in Buffalo's revitalization efforts. The Buffalo Bulls are a NCAA Division I, Division I college team that represents the University at Buffalo. The Buffalo Bulls football team were champions of the 2008 Buffalo Bulls football team, 2008 Mid-American Conference Football Championship, as well as three MAC East championships (2007 Buffalo Bulls football team, 2007, 2008 Buffalo Bulls football team, 2008, 2018 Buffalo Bulls football team, 2018) and the 2019 Buffalo Bulls football team, 2019 team were champions of the 2019 Bahamas Bowl, Bahamas Bowl. The Buffalo Bulls men's basketball, Bulls Men's Basketball Team has won four MAC Championships in a span of 5 years (2014-15 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2015, 2015-16 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2016, 2017-18 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2018, 2018-19 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2019) as well as 4 Regular Season Championships (2008-09 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2009, 2014-15 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2015, 2017-18 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2018, 2018-19 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2019) and five Divisions Titles (2008-09 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2009, 2013-14 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2014, 2014-15 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2015, 2017-18 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2018, 2018-19 Buffalo Bulls men's basketball team, 2019). The Buffalo Bulls women's basketball, Bulls women's team has won two MAC Championships (2015-16 Buffalo Bulls women's basketball team, 2016, 2018-19 Buffalo Bulls women's basketball team, 2019) and has advanced to the round of 32 twice (2017-18 Buffalo Bulls women's basketball team, 2018, 2018-19 Buffalo Bulls women's basketball team, 2019) as well as the Sweet 16 in 2018. The Buffalo Bandits were established in 1992 and played their home games in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium until 1996 when they followed the Sabres to Marine Midland Arena. They have won eight division championships and four league championships (1991–1992, 1992–1993, 1995–1996 and 2007–2008) The Buffalo Braves played in the National Basketball Association from 1970 to 1978, with their home games held at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium. After the team struggled financially, it relocated to California and became the San Diego Clippers and then the Los Angeles Clippers. Buffalo is also home to several minor sports teams, including the Buffalo Bisons (baseball; an affiliate of the MLB's Toronto Blue Jays since 2014), FC Buffalo (Association football, soccer) as well as a professional women's team, the Buffalo Beauts (ice hockey). The Buffalo Beauts were the NWHL Champions in 2016-2017 and have appeared in all four NWHL finals. In 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Toronto Blue Jays played in Buffalo's Sahlen Field, as the Bisons' season was cancelled.
Parks and recreationThe Buffalo parks system has over 20 parks with several parks accessible from any part of the city. The Olmsted Park and Parkway System is the hallmark of Buffalo's many green spaces. Three-fourths of city parkland is part of the system, which comprises six major parks, eight connecting parkways, nine circles and seven smaller spaces. Constructed in 1868 by Frederick Law Olmsted and his partner Calvert Vaux, the system was integrated into the city and marks the first attempt in America to lay out a coordinated system of public parks and parkways. The Olmsted-designed portions of the Buffalo park system are listed on the National Register of Historic Places and are maintained by the Buffalo Olmsted Parks Conservancy (BOPC), a non-profit, for public benefit corporation which serves as the city's parks department. It is the first non-governmental organization of its kind to serve in such a capacity in the United States. Situated at the confluence of Lake Erie and the Buffalo and Niagara rivers, Buffalo is a waterfront city. Its rise to economic power came through its waterways in the form of transshipment, manufacturing and an endless source of energy. Buffalo's waterfront remains, though to a lesser degree, a hub of commerce, trade and industry. Beginning in 2009, a significant portion of Buffalo's waterfront began to be transformed into a focal point for social and recreational activity. To this end, Buffalo Harbor State Park, nicknamed "Outer Harbor," was opened in 2014. Buffalo's intent was to stress its architectural and historical heritage to create a tourism destination, and early data indicates they were successful.
Law and governmentAt the City (New York), municipal level, the city of Buffalo has a mayor and a council of nine city council, council members. Buffalo also serves as the seat of Erie County, New York, Erie County with some of the 11 members of county legislature representing at least a portion of Buffalo. At the state level, there are three states New York State Assembly, assembly members and two state New York State Senate, senators representing parts of the city proper. At the federal level, Buffalo is the heart of in the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, represented by Democrat Brian Higgins. In a trend common to northern "Rust Belt" regions, the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party has dominated Buffalo's political life for the last half-century. The last time anyone other than a Democrat held the position of Mayor in Buffalo was Chester A. Kowal in 1965. In 1977, Democratic Mayor James D. Griffin was elected as the nominee of two minor parties, the Conservative Party (New York), Conservative Party and the Right to Life Party, after he lost the Democratic primary for Mayor to then Deputy State Assembly Speaker Arthur Eve. Griffin switched political allegiances several times during his 15 years as Mayor, generally hewing to socially conservative platforms. Griffin's successor, Democrat Anthony M. Masiello (elected in 1993), continued to campaign on social conservatism, often crossing party lines in his endorsements and alliances. However, in 2005, Democrat Byron Brown was elected the city's first-ever African-American mayor in a landslide (64%–27%) over Republican Party (United States), Republican Kevin Helfer, who ran on a conservative platform. In 2013, the Conservative Party endorsed Brown for a rare third term because of his pledge to cut taxes. This change in local politics was preceded by a fiscal crisis in 2003 when years of economic decline, a diminishing tax-base and civic mismanagement left the city deep in debt and on the edge of bankruptcy. At New York State Comptroller Alan Hevesi's urging, the state took over the management of Buffalo's finances, appointing the Buffalo Fiscal Stability Authority, a New York state public-benefit corporations, New York State public-benefit corporation. Masiello began conversations about merging the city with the larger Erie County government the following year, but they came to nought. The offices of the Buffalo District, US Army Corps of Engineers are next to the Black Rock Lock in the Erie Canal's Black Rock channel. In addition to maintaining and operating the lock, the District plans, designs, constructs and maintains water resources projects from Toledo, Ohio to Massena (town), New York, Massena, New York. These include the Mount Morris Dam, flood-control dam at Mount Morris (town), New York, Mount Morris, New York, oversight of the lower Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario), review and permitting of wetlands construction, and remedial action for hazardous waste sites. Buffalo is also the home of a major office of the National Weather Service (NOAA), which serves all of western and much of central New York State. Buffalo is home to one of the 56 national List of FBI field offices, FBI field offices. The field office covers Western New York and parts of the Southern Tier and Central New York. The field office operates several task forces in conjunction with local agencies to combat issues such as gang violence, terrorism threats and health care fraud. Buffalo is also the location of the chief judge, United States Attorney and administrative offices for the United States District Court for the Western District of New York.
CrimeBuffalo's crime rate in 2015 was higher than the national average; during that year, 41 murders, 1,033 robberies and 1,640 assaults were reported. In 2016, bizjournals.com published an article including an FBI report that ranked Buffalo's violent crime rate as the 15th-worst in the nation.
MediaBuffalo's major newspaper is ''The Buffalo News.'' Established in 1880 as the ''Buffalo Evening News,'' the newspaper has 181,540 in daily circulation and 266,123 on Sundays. With the radio stations WBEN (later WBEN-AM), WBEN-FM and television station WBEN-TV, Buffalo's first and for several years only television station, the Buffalo Evening News dominated the local media market until 1977, when the newspaper and the stations were separated. The stations showed their affiliation with the newspaper in their call sign: WIVB-TV, WBEN. Other newspapers in the Buffalo area include ''The Public,'' ''The Challenger Community News'' and ''Buffalo Business First.'' According to Nielsen Media Research, the Buffalo television market is the 52nd largest in the United States . Movies shot with significant footage of Buffalo include: ''Hide in Plain Sight'' (1980), Tuck Everlasting (1981 film), ''Tuck Everlasting'' (1981), Best Friends (1982 film), ''Best Friends'' (1982), The Natural (film), ''The Natural'' (1984), ''Vamping'' (1984), ''Lady in White'' (1988), ''Canadian Bacon'' (1995), ''Buffalo '66'' (1998), Manna from Heaven (film), ''Manna from Heaven'' (2002), ''Bruce Almighty ''(2003), The Savages (film), ''The Savages'' (2007), ''Henry's Crime'' (2011), ''Sharknado 2: The Second One'' (2014), ''Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of The Shadows'' (2016), ''Marshall (film), Marshall'' (2016), ''Accidental Switch'' (2016), ''The American Side'' (2017), ''The First Purge'' (2018), ''A Quiet Place Part II'' (2020), ''Cold Brook'' (2018), and ''The True Adventures of Wolfboy'' (2019). Although additional movies, such as ''Promised Land (2012 film), Promised Land'' (2012), have used Buffalo as a setting, filming often takes place in other locations such as Pittsburgh or Canada. High production costs are blamed for filmmakers shooting all or most of their Buffalo-based scenes elsewhere. The Buffalo History Museum has compiled a lengthy and comprehensive filmography of feature films, documentary films, and television productions filmed or set in the Buffalo area.
EducationBuffalo Public Schools serve most of the city of Buffalo. The city has 78 Public school (government funded), public schools, including a growing number of charter schools. , the total enrollment was 41,089 students with a student-teacher ratio of 13.5 to 1. The graduation rate is up to 52% in 2008, up from 45% in 2007, and 50% in 2006. More than 27% of teachers have a master's degree or higher and the median amount of experience in the field is 15 years. The metropolitan area has 292 schools with 172,854 students. Buffalo's magnet school system attracts students with special interests, such as science, bilingual studies, and Native American studies. Specialized facilities include the Buffalo Elementary School of Technology; the Dr Martin Luther King Jr., Multicultural Institute; the International School; the Dr. Charles R. Drew Science Magnet; BUILD Academy; Leonardo da Vinci High School (Buffalo, New York), Leonardo da Vinci High School; PS 32 Bennett Park Montessori; the Buffalo Academy for Visual and Performing Arts, BAVPA; the Riverside Institute of Technology; Lafayette High School (Buffalo), Lafayette High School/Buffalo Academy of Finance; Hutchinson Central Technical High School; Burgard Vocational High School; South Park High School (Buffalo, New York), South Park High School; and the Emerson School of Hospitality. The city is home to 47 private schools and the metropolitan region has 150 institutions. Most private schools, such as Bishop Timon – St. Jude High School, Canisius High School (the city's only Jesuit school), Mount Mercy Academy (Buffalo, New York), Mount Mercy Academy, and Nardin Academy have a Catholic affiliation. In addition, there are two Islamic schools, Darul Uloom Al-Madania and Universal School of Buffalo. There are also nonsectarian options including The Buffalo Seminary (the only private, nonsectarian, all-girls school in Western New York state), Nichols School and numerous Charter Schools. Complementing its standard function, the Buffalo Public Schools Adult and Continuing Education Division provides education and services to adults throughout the community. In addition, the Career and Technical Education Department offers more than 20 academic programs, and is attended by about 6,000 students each year. State University of New York, The State University of New York (SUNY) operates three institutions within the city of Buffalo. The State University of New York at Buffalo, known as "Buffalo" or "UB", is the largest public university in New York. The University at Buffalo is the only university in Buffalo and is a nationally ranked tier 1 research university. Buffalo State College and Erie Community College are a college and a community college, respectively. Additionally, the private institutions Canisius College, Medaille College and D'Youville College are within the city.
HealthcareThe city is home to two private healthcare systems, which combined operate eight hospitals and countless clinics in the greater metropolitan area, as well as three public hospitals operated by Erie County, New York, Erie County and the State of New York. John R. Oishei Children’s Hospital, Oishei Children's Hospital opened in November 2017 and is the one of the only free-standing children's hospital in New York. Kaleida Health, Buffalo General Medical Center and the Gates Vascular Institute have earned top rankings in the US for their cutting-edge research and treatment into the stroke and neurological care. Erie County Medical Center has been accredited as a Level One Trauma Center and serves as the trauma and burn care center for Western New York, much of the Southern Tier, and portions of Northwestern Pennsylvania and Ontario, Canada. Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Roswell Park has also become recognized as one of the United States' leading cancer treatment and research centers, and it recruits physicians and researchers from around the world to come live and work in the Buffalo area.
TransportationFile:20150827 61 NFTA Light Rail at Fountain Plaza (21990211710).jpg, Buffalo Metro Rail in downtown Buffalo The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) operates Buffalo Niagara International Airport, reconstructed in 1997, in the suburb of Cheektowaga. The airport serves Western New York and much of the Finger Lakes and Southern Tier Regions. The Buffalo Metro Rail, also operated by the NFTA, is a long, single line light rail system that extends from Erie Canal Harbor in downtown Buffalo to the University Heights district (specifically, the South Campus of University at Buffalo) in the city's northeastern part. The line's downtown section runs above ground and is free of charge to passengers. North of Fountain Plaza (Metro Rail), Fountain Plaza Station, at the northern end of downtown, the line moves underground until it reaches its northern terminus at University Heights. Passengers pay a fare to ride this section of the rail. Two train stations, Buffalo-Depew (Amtrak station), Buffalo-Depew and Buffalo-Exchange Street Station, Buffalo-Exchange Street, serve the city and are operated by Amtrak. Historically, the city was a major stop on through routes between Chicago and New York City through the lower Ontario peninsula, where the trains stopped at Buffalo Central Terminal. Buffalo is at the Lake Erie's eastern end and serves as a playground for many personal yachts, sailboats, power boats and watercraft. The city's extensive breakwall system protects its inner and outer harbors, which are maintained at commercial navigation depths for Great Lakes freighters. A Lake Erie tributary that flows through south Buffalo is the Buffalo River and Buffalo Creek. Eight New York State Routes, New York State highways, one three-digit Interstate Highway System, Interstate Highway, and one U.S. Highway traverse the city of Buffalo. New York State Route 5 (Main Street) enters through Lackawanna, New York, Lackawanna as a limited-access highway and intersects with Interstate 190 (New York), Interstate 190, a north–south highway connecting Interstate 90 in New York, Interstate 90 in the southeastern suburb of Cheektowaga (town), New York, Cheektowaga with Niagara Falls. NY 354 (Clinton Street) and NY 130 (Broadway) are east to west highways connecting south and downtown Buffalo to the eastern suburbs of West Seneca, New York, West Seneca and Depew, New York, Depew. NY 265 (Delaware Avenue) and NY 266 (Niagara Street and River Road) both start in downtown Buffalo and end in the city of Tonawanda (city), New York, Tonawanda. One of three U.S. highways in Erie County, the other two being U.S. 20 (Transit Road) and U.S. 219 (Southern Expressway), U.S. 62 (Bailey Avenue) is a north to south trunk road that enters the city through Lackawanna and exits at the Amherst, NY, Amherst town border at a junction with NY 5. Within the city, the route passes by light industrial developments and high-density areas of the city. Bailey Avenue has major intersections with Interstate 190 and the Kensington Expressway. Three major expressways serve Buffalo. The Scajaquada Expressway (NY 198) is primarily a limited access highway connecting Interstate 190 near Unity Island to New York State Route 33, which starts at the edge of downtown and the city's East Side, Buffalo, New York, East Side, continues through heavily populated areas of the city, intersects with Interstate 90 in Cheektowaga and ends at the airport. The Peace Bridge is a major international crossing near the city's Black Rock, Buffalo, New York, Black Rock district that connects Buffalo with Fort Erie and Toronto via the Queen Elizabeth Way. The city of Buffalo has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 30 percent of Buffalo households lacked a car, and decreased slightly to 28.2 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Buffalo averaged 1.03 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.
UtilitiesBuffalo's water system is operated by Veolia Water. To reduce large-scale ice blockage in the Niagara River—with resultant flooding, ice damage to docks and other waterfront structures, as well as blockage of the water intakes for the hydro-electric power plants at Niagara Falls—the New York Power Authority and Ontario Power Generation have jointly operated the Lake Erie-Niagara River Ice Boom since 1964. The boom is installed on December 16, or when the water temperature reaches , whichever happens first. The boom is opened on April 1 unless there is more than of ice remaining in Eastern Lake Erie. When in place, the boom stretches from the outer breakwall at Buffalo Harbor almost to the Canadian shore near the ruins of the pier at Erie Beach in Fort Erie. The boom was originally made of wooden timbers, but these have been replaced by steel pontoons.
Sister citiesBuffalo has 15 sister cities: * Aboadze, Ghana * Bursa, Turkey (2010) * Cape Coast, Ghana (1976) * Changzhou, China * Dortmund, Germany (1972) * Drohobych, Ukraine (2000) * Horlivka, Ukraine (2007) * Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Kanazawa, Japan (1962) * Kiryat Gat, Israel (1977) * Lille, France (2000) * Rzeszów, Poland (1975) * Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica (2007) * Siena, Italy (1961) * Torremaggiore, Italy (2004) * Tver, Russia (1989)
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External links* * NYPL Digital Gallery