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Global South
The Global South is a term often used to identify lower income countries on one side of the so-called global North–South divide, the other side being the countries of the Global North. As such the term does not inherently refer to a geographical south; for example, most of the Global South is actually within the Northern Hemisphere. The term, as used by governmental and development organizations, was first introduced as a more open and value free alternative to "Third World" and similar potentially "valuing" terms like developing countries. Countries of the Global South have been described as newly industrialized or in the process of industrializing and frequently have a history of colonialism by Northern, often European states. The countries of Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and Mexico have the largest populations and economies among Southern states. The overwhelming majority of these countries are located in or near the tropics. Origins 250px, Classifications by the ...
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North South Divide
North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to east and west. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. Etymology The word ''north'' is related to the Old High German ''nord'', both descending from the Proto-Indo-European unit *''ner-'', meaning "left; below" as north is to left when facing the rising sun. Similarly, the other cardinal directions are also related to the sun's position. The Latin word ''borealis'' comes from the Greek ''boreas'' "north wind, north", which, according to Ovid, was personified as the wind-god Boreas, the father of Calais and Zetes. ''Septentrionalis'' is from ''septentriones'', "the seven plow oxen", a name of ''Ursa Major''. The Greek ἀρκτικός (''arktikós'') is named for the same constellation, and is the source of the English word ''Arctic''. Other languages have other derivations. For example, in Lezgian, ''kefer'' can mean both "d ...
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Countries By Human Development Index Category (2020)
A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign state or part of a larger state, as a non-sovereign or formerly sovereign political division, a physical territory with a government, or a geographic region associated with sets of previously independent or differently associated people with distinct political characteristics. It is not inherently sovereign. ''Countries'' can refer both to sovereign states and to other political entities, while other times it can refer only to states. For example, the ''CIA World Factbook'' uses the word in its "Country name" field to refer to "a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states". The largest country in the world by geographical area is Russia, while the most populous is China ...
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Domestic Policy
Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a state's borders. It differs from foreign policy, which refers to the ways a government advances its interests in external politics. Domestic policy covers a wide range of areas, including business, education, energy, healthcare, law enforcement, money and taxes, natural resources, social welfare, and personal rights and freedoms. Shaping and implementing domestic policy The form of government of any particular state largely determines how its domestic policy is formed and implemented. Under authoritarian governments, a ruling group may pursue its domestic policy goals without the input or consent of the people being governed. But in parliamentary democratic societies, the will of citizens has a much greater influence. In a democracy, the formal design of domestic policy is chiefly the responsibility of elected leaders, lawmaking bodies, and specialized government agencies. B ...
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National Sovereignty
Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is a principle in international law that each state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory. The principle underlies the modern international system of sovereign states and is enshrined in the United Nations Charter, which states that "nothing ... shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state". According to the idea, every state, no matter how large or small, has an equal right to sovereignty. Political scientists have traced the concept to the Peace of Westphalia (1648), which ended the Thirty Years' War. The principle of non-interference was further developed in the 18th century. The Westphalian system reached its peak in the 19th and 20th centuries, but it has faced recent challenges from advocates of humanitarian intervention. Principles and criticism A series of treaties make up the Peace of Westphalia, which is considered by political scientists ...
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South–South Cooperation
South–South cooperation is a term historically used by policymakers and academics to describe the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries, also known as countries of the Global South. The Global South is making increasingly significant contributions to global development. The economic and geopolitical relevance of many countries has grown. In the past, south-south cooperation focused on sharing knowledge and building capacities, but the countries of the Global South and new financial institutions have recently also become increasingly active in development finance. History The formation of SSC can be traced to the Asian–African Conference that took place in Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955 which is also known as the Bandung Conference. The conference has been largely regarded as a milestone for SSC cooperation. Indonesia's president at that time, Sukarno, referred to it as "the first intercontinental conference of coloured peoples in the histor ...
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Blanket Term
In linguistics, hyponymy (from Greek ὑπό, ''hupó'', "under", and ὄνυμα, ''ónuma'', "name") is a semantic relation between a hyponym denoting a subtype and a hypernym or hyperonym denoting a supertype. In other words, the semantic field of the hyponym is included within that of the hypernym. In simpler terms, a hyponym is in a ''type-of'' relationship with its hypernym. For example: ''pigeon'', ''crow'', ''eagle'', and ''seagull'' are all hyponyms of ''bird'', their hypernym; which itself is a hyponym of ''animal'', its hypernym. Hypernymy or hyperonymy (from Greek ὑπέρ, ''hupér'', "over", and ὄνυμα, ''ónuma'', "name") is the converse of hyponymy. Other names for hypernym include umbrella term and blanket term. A synonym of co-hyponym based on same tier (and not hyponymic) relation is allonym (which means "different name"). A hyponym refers to a ''type''. A meronym refers to a ''part''. For example, a hyponym of ''tree'' is ''pine tree'' or ''oak tree'' ( ...
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Middle-class
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy. Its usage has often been vague whether defined in terms of occupation, income, education or social status. The definition by any author is often chosen for political connotations. Modern social theorists—and especially economists—have defined and re-defined the term "middle class" in order to serve their particular social or political ends. Within capitalism, ''middle-class'' initially referred to the ''bourgeoisie''; as distinct from the nobility, then with the further differentiation of classes as capitalist societies developed to the degree where the 'capitalist' became the new ruling class, the term came instead to be synonymous with ''petite bourgeoisie''. The common measures of what constitutes middle class vary significantly among cultures. On the one hand, the term can be viewed primarily in terms of socioeconomic status. One of the narrowest definitions limits it to those in the middle fifth of ...
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London School Of Economics And Political Science
, mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public research university , endowment = £198.4 million , budget = £415.1 million , chairman = Dame Shirley Pearce , chancellor = The Princess Royal , director = The Baroness Shafik , head_label = Visitor , head = Jacob Rees-Mogg , students = () , undergrad = () , postgrad = () , city = London , country = United Kingdom , coor = , campus = Urban , free_label = Newspaper , free = ''The Beaver'' , free_label2 = Printing house , free2 = LSE Press , colours = Purple, black and gold , mascot = Beaver , website = , logo = , academic_staff = 1,725 (2018/19) , administrative_staff = 2,515 (2018/19) , affiliations = ACUCEMSEUAG5Russell GroupUniversity of LondonUniversities UKGolden Triangle The London School of Economics (officially the London School of Economics and Political Scienc ...
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Global South Development Magazine
''Global South Development Magazine'' (''GSDM'') is an online magazine dedicated to international development issues. The magazine is inspired by the idea of citizen journalism and primarily covers developmental issues of developing countries. From 2010 to 2015, ''GSDM'' was a quarterly magazine published by a Finnish non-profit development media organisation Silver Lining Creation. As of 2018, the magazine is published by Helsinki-based media organization, Global South Media Action, which also runs the online education platformUniDevv History The first issue of the quarterly magazine was published in March 2010 dedicating its first cover issue to the Copenhagen Climate Change Summit. Since then subsequent issues were published and were made available online. On 11 September 2011, the magazine team was expanded with an Assistant Editor and a number of other special correspondents The magazine team claimed that within a relatively short period of its inception, their publication had ...
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Humboldt University Of Berlin
Humboldt University of Berlin (german: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin) is a public research university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany. It was established by Frederick William III on the initiative of Wilhelm von Humboldt, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Ernst Daniel Schleiermacher as the University of Berlin (''Universität zu Berlin'') in 1809, and opened in 1810, making it the oldest of Berlin's four universities. From 1810 until its closure in 1945, it was named Friedrich Wilhelm University (german: Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität). During the Cold War the university found itself in East Berlin and was ''de facto'' split in two when the Free University of Berlin opened in West Berlin. The university received its current name in honour of Alexander and Wilhelm von Humboldt in 1949. The university is divided into nine faculties, including its medical school shared with the Free University of Berlin, has a student enrollment of a ...
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Vietnam War
{{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War{{native name, vi, Chiến tranh Việt Nam , partof = the Indochina Wars and the Cold War , image = File:VNWarMontage.png , image_size = 300px , caption = Clockwise, from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng, ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive, two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị, and burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre. , date = 1 November 1955 – {{End date, df=yes, 1975, 4, 30({{Age in years, months, weeks and days, month1=11, day1=1, year1=1955, month2=04, day2=30, year2=1975){{refn, Due to the early presence of U.S. troops in Vietnam the start date of the Vietnam War is a matter of debate. In 1998, after a high level review by the Department of Defense (DoD) and through the efforts of Richard B. ...
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Commonweal (magazine)
''Commonweal'' is a liberal American Catholic journal of opinion, edited and managed by lay Catholics, headquartered in the Interchurch Center in New York City. It is the oldest independent Roman Catholic journal of opinion in the United States. History Founded in 1924 by Michael Williams (1877–1950) and the Calvert Associates, ''Commonweal'' is the oldest independent Roman Catholic journal of opinion in the United States. The magazine was originally modeled on ''The New Republic'' and ''The Nation'' but “expressive of the Catholic note” in covering literature, the arts, religion, society, and politics. ''Commonweal'' has published the writing of François Mauriac, Georges Bernanos, Hannah Arendt, G. K. Chesterton, Hilaire Belloc, Jacques Maritain, Dorothy Day, Robert Bellah, Graham Greene, Emmanuel Mounier, Conor Cruise O'Brien, Thomas Merton, Wilfrid Sheed, Paul Ramsey, Joseph Bernardin, Abigail McCarthy, Christopher Lasch, Walter Kerr, Marilynne Robinson, Luke Timot ...
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Carl Oglesby
Carl Preston Oglesby (July 30, 1935 – September 13, 2011) was an American writer, academic, and political activist. He was the President of the leftist student organization Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) from 1965 to 1966.Kauffman, Bill (2008-05-19When the Left Was Right ''The American Conservative''. Early life His father was from South Carolina, and his mother was from Alabama. They met in Akron, Ohio, where the elder Oglesby worked in the rubber mills. Carl Oglesby graduated from Revere High School in suburban Akron, winning a prize in his final year for a speech in favor of America's Cold War stance.Segall, Grant“Carl Oglesby Rose from Akron to Lead the SDS”(Obituary). ''Cleveland Plain Dealer'', September 14, 2011. ''Cleveland.com'' He then enrolled at Kent State University for three years before dropping out to attempt to make his way as an actor and playwright in Greenwich Village, a traditionally Bohemian neighborhood in New York City. While at Kent State, ...
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2018 UN Human Development Report
Eighteen or 18 may refer to: * 18 (number), the natural number following 17 and preceding 19 * one of the years 18 BC, AD 18, 1918, 2018 Film, television and entertainment * ''18'' (film), a 1993 Taiwanese experimental film based on the short story ''God's Dice'' * ''Eighteen'' (film), a 2005 Canadian dramatic feature film * 18 (British Board of Film Classification), an age-restricted admission rating for films in the United Kingdom * 18 (''Dragon Ball''), a character in the ''Dragon Ball'' franchise * "Eighteen", a 2006 episode of the animated television series ''12 oz. Mouse'' Music Albums * ''18'' (Moby album), 2002 * ''18'' (Nana Kitade album), 2005 * ''18...'', 2009 debut album by G.E.M. Songs * "18" (5 Seconds of Summer song), from their 2014 eponymous debut album * "18" (One Direction song), from their 2014 studio album ''Four'' * "18", by Anarbor from their 2013 studio album ''Burnout'' * "I'm Eighteen", by Alice Cooper commonly referred to as simply "Eighteen", 1970 * " ...
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