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Forum (Roman)
A forum (Latin ''forum'' "public place outdoors", plural ''fora''; English plural either ''fora'' or ''forums'') was a public square in a Roman municipium, or any civitas, reserved primarily for the vending of goods; i.e., a marketplace, along with the buildings used for shops and the stoas used for open stalls. Many fora were constructed at remote locations along a road by the magistrate responsible for the road, in which case the forum was the only settlement at the site and had its own name, such as Forum Popili or Forum Livi. The functions of a forum In addition to its standard function as a marketplace, a forum was a gathering place of great social significance, and often the scene of diverse activities, including political discussions and debates, rendezvous, meetings, et cetera. In that case it supplemented the function of a ''conciliabulum''. Every municipium had a forum. Fora were the first of any civitas synoecized whether Latin, Italic, Etruscan, Greek, Celtic or so ...
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Forum Romanum 6k (5760x2097)
Forum (plural forums or fora) may refer to: Common uses *Forum (legal), designated space for public expression in the United States *Forum (Roman), open public space within a Roman city **Roman Forum, most famous example *Internet forum, discussion board on the Internet *Public forum debate, a type of high school debate Places Natural features * Forum Peak, on the border of Alberta and British Columbia, Canada *Piz Fora, a mountain in the Alps Populated places * Forum, Arkansas, United States *Blandford Forum, town in England *Forum Fulvii, Roman settlement in Italy Arts and entertainment *''Forum'' (album), a 2001 pop/soft rock album by Invertigo *The Forum (vocal group), organized by American musician Les Baxter *''A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum'', a 1962 musical **''A Funny thing Happened on the Way to the Forum'' (film), a 1966 farce musical comedy film based upon the musical Media Periodicals *''Forum'' (Bangladesh), a Bangladeshi current affairs magazi ...
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Jerash BW 12
Jerash ( ar|جرش; grc|Γέρασα) is a city in northern Jordan. The city is the administrative center of the Jerash Governorate, and has a population of 50,745 as of 2015. It is located north of the capital city Amman. The earliest evidence of settlement in Jerash is in a Neolithic site known as Tal Abu Sowan, where rare human remains dating to around 7500 BC were uncovered. Jerash flourished during the Greco and Roman periods until the mid-eighth century CE, when the 749 Galilee earthquake destroyed large parts of it, while subsequent earthquakes contributed to additional destruction. However, in the year 1120, Zahir ad-Din Toghtekin, atabeg of Damascus ordered a garrison of forty men to build up a fort in an unknown site of the ruins of the ancient city, likely the highest spot of the city walls in the north-eastern hills. It was captured in 1121 by Baldwin II, King of Jerusalem, and utterly destroyed. Then, the Crusaders immediately abandoned Jerash and withdrew to Sakib ...
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Roman Provincial Forum, Mérida
Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman or Romans may also refer to: Arts and entertainment Music *Romans (band), a Japanese pop group *''Roman'' (album), by Sound Horizon, 2006 *''Roman'' (EP), by Teen Top, 2011 *"Roman (My Dear Boy)", a 2004 single by Morning Musume Film and television *Film Roman, an American animation studio *''Roman'' (film), a 2006 American suspense-horror film *''Romans'' (2013 film), an Indian Malayalam comedy film *''Romans'' (2017 film), a British drama film *''The Romans'' (''Doctor Who''), a serial in British TV series People *Roman (given name), a given name, including a list of people and fictional characters *Roman (surname), including a list of people named Roman or Romans *Romans (Ῥωμαῖο ...
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Roman Forum (Mérida)
The Roman Forum is an archaeological area in Mérida, Spain. It was the main public area of the Roman city of ''Emerita Augusta'', founded in 25 BC by Emperor Augustus. The city had another forum, the Provincial Forum, built in 50 AD. Together with the other archaeological sites of the city, it was inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1993. Mérida, or ''Emerita Augusta'' in Latin, was once the capital of the ''Lusitania'' imperial province that included most of Portugal as well as the western central portion of Spain. It contains many common places found in a Roman city: buildings such as theaters, temples, forums, and arenas. Mérida’s ruins are mostly still intact, despite the passage of time of approximately 2,000 years. Mérida preserves more important ancient Roman monuments than any other city in Spain Edifices *Temple of Diana. Despite its name, wrongly assigned in its discovery, the building was dedicated to the Imperial cult. Erected during Augustus' reign with ...
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Lebanon
Lebanon (), officially known as the Lebanese Republic,''Republic of Lebanon'' is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies. The phrase ''Lebanese Republic'' is a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names, no longer in use. Lebanese Arabic is the most common language spoken by the citizens of Lebanon. is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus lies west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland has contributed to its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2 (4,036 mi2), it is one of the smallest recognized sovereign states in the Asian continent. The official language, Arabic, is the most common language spoken by the citizens of Lebanon.Also simply called either Lebanese or Arabic, it is the daily spoken language of the vast majo ...
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Beirut
Beirut ( ; ar|بيروت| ) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon. , Greater Beirut has a population of 2.2 million, which makes it the third-largest city in the Levant region. The city is situated on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coast. Beirut has been inhabited for more than 5,000 years as one of Phoenicia's most prominent city states , making it one of the oldest cities in the world. The first historical mention of Beirut is found in the Amarna letters from the New Kingdom of Egypt, which date to the 15th century BC. Beirut is Lebanon's seat of government and plays a central role in the Lebanese economy, with many banks and corporations based in the city. Beirut is an important seaport for the country and region, and rated a Beta + World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Beirut was severely damaged by the Lebanese Civil War, and its cultural landscape underwent major reconstruction. Names The English name Beiru ...
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Roman Forum, Beirut
Roman Forum is located in Beirut, Lebanon. Overview The façade of a Roman public building was revealed in 1994, during the construction of the parliamentary offices, which indicated the presence of a Roman forum. Next to it there was a theater with a huge Roman hippodrome (one of the biggest five in the eastern Mediterranean shores). In recent years there has been a confrontation on the preservation of these Roman archeological remnants, mainly for the Roman hippodrome and theatre located just on the north side of the Roman Forum. Construction Archaeological excavations undertaken during the construction of parliamentary offices in 1994, revealed the northern façade of a Roman public building. The colonnades and decorated façades of the Forum expressed the city’s power and prosperity. A temple precinct marked the southern limit of the Forum, while a large bath complex flanked its northern side. After the 551 Beirut earthquake, the Forum‘s public buildings were parti ...
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Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki (; el|Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica (), is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of the geographic region of Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace. It is also known in Greek as (), literally "the co-capital", a reference to its historical status as the () or "co-reigning" city of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, alongside Constantinople. Thessaloniki is located on the Thermaic Gulf, at the northwest corner of the Aegean Sea. It is bounded on the west by the delta of the Axios. The municipality of Thessaloniki, the historical center, had a population of 325,182 in 2011, while the Thessaloniki Urban Area had a population of 824,676 and the Thessaloniki metropolitan area had 1,030,338 inhabitants in 2011. It is Greece's second major economic, industrial, commercial a ...
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Roman Forum (Thessaloniki)
The Roman Forum of Thessaloniki is the ancient Roman-era forum of the city, located at the upper side of Aristotelous Square. It is a large two-terraced forum featuring two-storey stoas, dug up by accident in the 1960s. The forum complex also boasts two Roman baths, one of which has been excavated while the other is buried underneath the city, and a small theater which was also used for gladiatorial games. Although the initial complex was not built in Roman times, it was largely refurbished in the 2nd century. It is believed that the forum and the theater continued to be used until at least the 6th century. The area of the forum was planned to be the site of the Thessaloniki Municipal Courthouse (in Greek: Δικαστικό Μέγαρο), but after the ruins were discovered during the excavation, the project was scrapped. While the courthouse building was relocated, the intended name of the square ("Courthouse/Dikastirion Square") still survives in popular use. The official name o ...
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Philippi
Philippi (; grc-gre|Φίλιπποι, ''Philippoi'') was a major Greek city northwest of the nearby island, Thasos. Its original name was Crenides ( grc-gre|Κρηνῖδες, ''Krenides'' "Fountains") after its establishment by Thasian colonists in 360/359 BC. The city was renamed by Philip II of Macedon in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. The present municipality, Filippoi, is located near the ruins of the ancient city and is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Kavala, Greece. It was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016. History Foundation Thasian colonists established a settlement at Krenides (meaning "springs") in Thrace in 360/359 BC near the head of the Aegean Sea at the foot of Mt. Orbelos, now called Mt. Lekani, about north-west of Kavalla, on the northern border of the marsh that, in antiquity, covered the entire plain separating it from the Pangaion Hills to the south. In 356 BC, King Philip II of Macedo ...
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Roman Forum, Philippi
Philippi (; grc-gre|Φίλιπποι, ''Philippoi'') was a major Greek city northwest of the nearby island, Thasos. Its original name was Crenides ( grc-gre|Κρηνῖδες, ''Krenides'' "Fountains") after its establishment by Thasian colonists in 360/359 BC. The city was renamed by Philip II of Macedon in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. The present municipality, Filippoi, is located near the ruins of the ancient city and is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Kavala, Greece. It was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016. History Foundation Thasian colonists established a settlement at Krenides (meaning "springs") in Thrace in 360/359 BC near the head of the Aegean Sea at the foot of Mt. Orbelos, now called Mt. Lekani, about north-west of Kavalla, on the northern border of the marsh that, in antiquity, covered the entire plain separating it from the Pangaion Hills to the south. In 356 BC, King Philip II of Macedo ...
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Bulgaria
Bulgaria (; bg|България|Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg|Република България|links=no|Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The capital and largest city is Sofia; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas. With a territory of , Bulgaria is Europe's sixteenth-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for ancient Thracians, Persians, Celts and Macedonians; stability came when the Roman Empire conquered the region in AD 45. Around the 6th century, some of these territories were settled by the early Slavs. They were invaded by small number of warlike Bulgars in the late 7th century who subdued the Slavs and ...
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Plovdiv
Plovdiv ( bg|Пловдив, ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, standing on the banks of the Maritsa river in the historical region of Thrace. It has a population of 346,893 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area. Plovdiv is the cultural capital of Bulgaria and was the European Capital of Culture in 2019. It is an important economic, transport, cultural, and educational center. During most of its recorded history, Plovdiv was known by the name ''Philippopolis'' () after Philip II of Macedon. Plovdiv is situated in a fertile region of south-central Bulgaria on the two banks of the Maritsa River. The city has historically developed on seven syenite hills, some of which are high. Because of these hills, Plovdiv is often referred to in Bulgaria as "The City of the Seven Hills". There is evidence of habitation in Plovdiv dating back to the 6th millennium BCE, when the first Neolithic settlements were established. The city was subsequently a Thracian settlement and later r ...
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Roman Forum (Plovdiv)
The Roman forum of Philippopolis ( bg|Римски форум на Пловдив, ''Rimski forum na Plovdiv'') is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several ancient administrative buildings at the center of the ancient city of Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv). It was the center of public, administrative, commercial and religious life in the ancient city. Meetings, discussions, celebrations and state events were held there. The forum covers an area of , with excavated, which makes it the largest Roman forum in Bulgaria. The ancient city center was built in the 1st century AD during the reign of the emperor Vespasian, when ancient Philippopolis was laid out with a new urban plan and a forum according to the Roman model. The main streets of the city (the ''cardo'' and the ''decumanus maximus'') intersect outside the eastern entrance of the forum. A complex of public buildings was built to the north, including the odeon, the library, and the treasury building. The ...
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